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Filaria bancrofti [keywords]
- [Updated inventory of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the island of La Réunion, Indian Ocean.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2013 May 17.
A literature analysis coupled with new entomological surveys conducted between 2009 and 2012 led to changes in the list of mosquito species present on the island of La Réunion. Using morphological criteria, Orthopodomyia arboricollis is replaced by Or. reunionensis. On the basis of morphometrical and genetic criteria, Culex univittatus is replaced by Cx. neavei. Cx. poicilipes, which was already reported missing 40 years ago, has not been found again. Anopheles arabiensis is confirmed as the only species of the Gambiae complex present on the island. Thus, twelve species are currently known. For each of them, elements of taxonomic, biological and medical interest are listed. An. arabiensis is a major vector of human Plasmodium (last case of indigenous malaria in 1967). In the Indian Ocean, Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti both are competent for transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. In Africa, Cx. quinquefasciatus transmits Wuchereria bancrofti and Cx. neavei transmits the Sindbis virus; both species also transmit the West Nile virus. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus is the major vector of Japanese Encephalitis virus in Asia. Two species are endemic (Ae. dufouri and Or. reunionensis), the ten other ones are also found in Madagascar and on the African continent (An. coustani, An. arabiensis, Ae. fowleri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. neavei, Cx. insignis, Lutzia tigripes), with three of them having also a cosmopolitan distribution (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus). Among the twelve recorded taxa, eight species are anthropophilic, three are supposedly zoophilic and one is a predatory species. No new invasive anthropophilic species did settle on the island. Updated identification keys of larval and adult stages are proposed.
- Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Helminthol 2013 May 16.:1-9.
Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P < 0.001) when the antigens were immunized together, showing a synergistic effect in multiple-mode vaccination. Hence, the study suggests WbTRX and WbTPX to be attractive vaccine candidates when immunized together and provides a tandem block for parasite elimination in the control of lymphatic filariasis.
- Diethylcarbamazine and non-diethylcarbamazine related bancroftian granuloma: an immunohistochemical study of eosinophil toxic proteins. [Journal Article]
- Int J Biomed Sci 2010 Jun; 6(2):111-9.
It has been suggested, mostly using in vitro experiments, that defenses against parasites involve mainly activated eosinophils and their toxic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil degranulation has been described around degenerating onchocercal microfilariae in patients treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). In bancroftian filariasis, traditional histopathologic studies have shown remarkable numbers of eosinophils in granulomatous lesions associated with both DEC-induced and spontaneous death of adult Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. No immunohistochemical study targeting eosinophil degranulation has been previously performed in these granulomas, which are found mainly within intrascrotal lymphatic vessels. This investigation was undertaken in 22 (12 DEC-treated and 10 untreated) male patients in order to determine the immunohistochemical expressions of MBP, EPO and ECP in bancofitian granulomas, using the indirect method. Stained intact esosinophils, as well as granular, extra-cellular material positive for all three proteins, were found in all granulomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were similar in both DEC-treated and untreated cases, irrespective of microfilaremia, blood eosinophilia, and granuloma age. Positive intact cells were observed mostly at the periphery of the granulomas, whereas granular material predominated in central areas around dead or degenerating parasites. These results indicate that eosinophils accumulate in the granulomas and degranulate preferentially in close proximity to degenerating or dead adult parasites. In bancroftian granulomas, influx and degranulation of eosinophils are considered a consequence of parasite death, rather than its cause.
- A TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Biochem Parasitol 2013 May 10.
With the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis continuing to make strides towards disease eradication, many locations endemic for the causative parasites of lymphatic filariasis are realizing a substantial decrease in levels of infection and rates of disease transmission. However, with measures of disease continuing to decline, the need for time-saving and economical molecular diagnostic assays capable of detecting low levels of parasite presence is increasing. This need is greatest in locations co-endemic for both Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia parasites because testing for both causative agents individually results in significant increases in labor and reagent costs. Here we describe a multiplex, TaqMan-based, real-time PCR assay capable of simultaneously detecting W. bancrofti and B. malayi DNA extracted from human bloodspots or vector mosquito pools. With comparable sensitivity to established singleplex assays, this assay provides significant cost and labor savings for disease monitoring efforts in co-endemic locations.
- Evaluation of PCR-ELISA as a tool for monitoring transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 May; 3(5):381-7.
To compare Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti) infection rates of Culex quinquefasciatus, using dissection and PCR-ELISA in two consecutive time periods (from 2007 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2009).Mosquitoes were collected in 30 sentinel and 15 non-sentinel sites in 15 Medical Officer of Health areas of Gampaha District known for the presence of W. bancrofti transmission in two consecutive time period of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009. Captured mosquitoes were dissected to determine the W. bancrofti larvae (L1, L2, L3). PCR was carried out using DNA extracted from mosquito pools (15 body parts/pool) utilizing the primers specific for Wb-SspI repeat. PCR products were analyzed by hybridization ELISA using fluorescein-labeled wild type specific probes. The prevalence of infected/infective mosquitoes in PCR pools (3 pools/site) was estimated using the PoolScreen™ algorithm and a novel probability-based method.Of 45 batches of mosquitoes dissected, W. bancrofti infected mosquitoes were found in 19 and 13 batches, with an infection rate of 13.29% and 3.10% with mean larval density of 8.7 and 1.0 larvae per mosquito for two study periods in the Gampaha District. Total of 405 pools of head, thorax and abdomen were processed by PCR-ELISA for each year. Of these, 51 and 31 pools were positive for W. bancrofti in the two study periods respectively. The association of dissection based prevalence rates with PCR based rates as determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient were 0.176 and 0.890 respectively for the two periods.Data indicate that PCR-ELISA is more sensitive than the traditional dissection techniques for monitoring transmission intensity.
- Monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis interventions: an improved PCR-based pool screening method for high throughput Wuchereria bancrofti detection using dried blood spots. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasit Vectors 2013 Apr 18; 6(1):110.
BACKGROUND:Effective diagnostic tools are necessary to monitor and evaluate interruption of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) transmission. Accurate detection of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) microfilaria (mf) is essential to measure the impact of community treatment programmes. PCR-based assays are specific, highly sensitive tools allowing the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood samples. However, current protocols describing the pool screening approach, use samples of less than 60 mul of blood, which limits the sensitivity of the pool-screen PCR assay. The purpose of this study was to improve the pool-screen PCR protocol to enhance its sensitivity and usefulness for population scale studies.
FINDINGS:DNA extractions were performed with the DNeasy kit, the PCR with the Wb LDR primers and the SYBR-Green dye. Improvements of our pool-screen real-time PCR (qPCR) assay allowed the detection of as little as one Wb microfilaria diluted in a pool of at least 12 blood samples of 60 mul each. Using this assay, mf burdens can be predicted using a standard curve derived from mf spiked dried blood samples. The sensitivity achieved is equivalent to the detection of a single LF positive individual carrying a mf burden as low as 18 mf/ml, in a pool of blood samples from at least 12 individuals.
CONCLUSIONS:Due to its sensitivity, rapidity and cost-effectiveness, we suggest this qPCR pool-screening assay could be used as a diagnostic tool for population- scale filariasis elimination monitoring and evaluation.
- Susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to the chemical insecticide temephos in Pernambuco, Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pest Manag Sci 2013 Apr 10.
BACKGROUND:Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of many agents of human diseases, including Wuchereria bancrofti, the parasite that causes bancroftian filariasis, an endemic disease in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Although temephos is not currently used to control C. quinquefasciatus, the species might be under a selection process from incidental exposure to this compound. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility status of C. quinquefasciatus to temephos, using bioassays, and to investigate its putative resistance mechanisms through biochemical assays and screening of the G119S mutation in the acetylcholinesterase gene, which is associated with organophosphate resistance, carried out by PCR and sequencing.
RESULTS:The results showed that only mosquitoes from Santa Cruz do Capibaribe (SC) had an alteration in their susceptibility status (RR = 7.2-fold), while the other populations were all susceptible to the insecticide. Biochemical assays showed increased activity for all esterases in SC, as well as evidence of acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. The G119S mutation was detected in this population with a frequency of 0.11, but it was not found in the remaining populations.
CONCLUSION:These data show that mechanisms of temephos resistance have been selected in natural C. quinquefasciatus populations from Pernambuco, which could undermine future control actions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
- Whole-cell patch-clamp recording of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in adult Brugia malayi muscle. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasitol Int 2013 Apr 3.
Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by clade III parasites like Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. Current recommended treatment regimen for this disease relies on albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, none of which targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in these parasitic nematodes. Our aim therefore has been to develop adult B. malayi for electrophysiological recordings to aid in characterizing the ion channels in this parasite as anthelmintic target sites. In that regard, we recently demonstrated the amenability of adult B. malayi to patch-clamp recordings and presented results on the single-channel properties of nAChR in this nematode. We have built on this by recording whole-cell nAChR currents from adult B. malayi muscle. Acetylcholine, levamisole, pyrantel, bephenium and tribendimidine activated the receptors on B. malayi muscle, producing robust currents ranging from >200pA to ~1.5nA. Levamisole completely inhibited motility of the adult B. malayi within 10min and after 60min, motility had recovered back to control values.
- Lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: drug coverage and compliance post eight rounds of MDA. [Journal Article]
- Trop Doct 2013 Jan; 43(1):30-2.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, including the lone foci for a diurnally sub-periodic form of Wuchereria bancrofti in the Nancowry group of islands. A programme to eliminate LF was launched in 2004 by the Directorate of Health Services, Andaman and Nicobar Administration which involved a single annual mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with albendazole. So far, eight rounds of MDA have been implemented through the Public Health Care network. The pattern of antifilarial drug distribution and compliance achieved in the on-going LF elimination programme in these islands has been assessed. This is the first systematic effort undertaken in these remote islands to assess the coverage and compliance with the LF elimination programme. This study covered 900 households in each of the 3 districts. There were a largest number of side effects in the Nicobar district (6.4%). Non-consumption of drugs ranged from 18.6% (Nicobar) to 42% (North and Middle Andaman). A survey revealed that almost 95.3% of the respondents had heard about MDA from the drug distributors. Therefore, the distributors should be involved in programmes designed to educate the community at risk of acquiring filarial infection and the possible side effects of the drugs.
- Filariasis in an infant with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a rare enigma. [Journal Article]
- J Parasit Dis 2012 Apr; 36(1):122-4.
Filariasis, a tropical parasitic infection, is a common public health problem in the Indian sub-continent. Occurrence of filariasis with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unusual, particularly in infants, since filariasis has a long incubation period of about 1 year. Though, there are case reports of leishmaniasis, malaria and other vector borne diseases seen in association with leukemias, filariasis co-existing with ALL has not been documented to the best of our knowledge. We report an incidental finding of Bancroftian filariasis in an 11 month old female already diagnosed as B-cell ALL.