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Fleet Enema [keywords]
- Evaluation of necessity for mechanical bowel preparation before Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy: a randomized prospective clinical study. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Minerva Chir 2013 Aug; 68(4):393-9.
In this randomized prospective clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) before Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy on intraoperative procedures and postoperative complication rates to determine whether MBP is adventageous or not before elective anorectal surgeries.Forty patients who had internal grade III or IV hemorrhoidal disease and who would underwent open hemorrhoidectomy were randomized into two groups: non-MBP group (female:male, 11:9; mean age, 33.8±9.57 years) that would not receive MBP before the surgery, and MBP group (female:male, 12:8; mean age, 34.7±11.37 years) that would be given one Fleet enema on the morning of Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. Intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were compared between two groups.MPB had no effect on both intraoperative and postoperative variables, such as operating time, intraoperative bleeding, visual analogue scale (VAS) score for the comfort of the surgeon during operation, the presence of stool or enema remnants in anal canal, the presence of mucosal edema of the anal canal intraoperatively, the rates of postoperative bleeding and infection, VAS score for the pain on third day postoperatively, time to first stool after the operation, VAS score for the pain during first stool after the operation, and number of analgesics during one week postoperatively (P>0.05 for all).MBP performed before surgery does not provide introperative or postoperative benefit for Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy, thus MBP is not necessary before elective anorectal surgeries.
- Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013 Nov; 29(11):1487-95.
Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle.
- Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable. [Journal Article]
- Int J Gen Med 2013.:323-8.
Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy.We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase.There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate). There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001). Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4%) versus 0 (P = 0.0001) and 8 (3.9%) versus 2 (0.7%) (P = 0.0001), for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively.Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema), and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed.
- Are enemas given before cesarean section useful? A prospective randomized controlled study. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2012 Jul; 163(1):27-9.
To assess the effect of preoperative enemas on the postoperative recovery of bowel habits in women undergoing elective cesarean section.A prospective randomized controlled study with a standard two-group parallel design. The study was registered at the Protocol Registration System of the National Institute of Health (NCT00391599). With an α of 0.05, and a β of 0.1 (power of 90%) 65 participants were required in each group. The inclusion criteria were elective cesarean section and no history of previous abdominal operations except for cesarean delivery. Randomization was done by random number generator. The study group (n=65) was given a Fleet enema and the controls (n=65) had no preoperative intestinal preparation. The primary outcome measures were postoperative return of bowel sounds, gas passage and first spontaneous feces. Care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment.On postoperative day 1, among women who had a preoperative enema, 35.3% had bowel sounds, 47.2% had gas passage and 1.5% had spontaneous feces, compared to 47.2%, 52.8%, and 10.8%, respectively, among those who had no enema. The differences were not statistically significant.As we could not demonstrate any benefit for preoperative enema, we recommend against routine use of preoperative enema prior to elective cesarean delivery.
- Fatalities and severe metabolic disorders associated with the use of sodium phosphate enemas: a single center's experience. [Journal Article]
- Arch Intern Med 2012 Feb 13; 172(3):263-5.
We report our experience with severe complications of sodium phosphate enemas. Eleven elderly patients received Fleet enemas for constipation. Three patients received 500 to 798 mL, and 8 received a standard 250-mL dose. Most presented within 24 hours with hypotension and volume depletion, extreme hyperphosphatemia (phosphorus level, 5.3-45.0 mg/dL), and severe hypocalcemia (calcium level, 2.0-8.7 mg/dL). Hypernatremia and hypokalemia were seen in most patients. Acute renal failure was present in all patients. Two patients required urgent hemodialysis. Five patients died (45%). One patient was autopsied. Calcium-phosphate deposition within the renal tubular lumens was found. Following an educational campaign, the use of Fleet enemas was reduced in our hospital by 96%. Sodium phosphate enemas, even in standard doses, may lead to severe metabolic disorders associated with a high mortality and morbidity. Their use should be limited to low-risk patients only.
- Mechanical intestinal cleansing and antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing bacterial translocation during the Pringle maneuver in rabbits. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Surg Today 2011 Jun; 41(6):824-8.
We investigated the effectiveness of mechanical intestinal cleansing and antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing bacterial translocation (BT) during the Pringle maneuver in rabbits.Forty-eight rabbits were allocated to one of the following four groups: a control group (group 1); an antibiotic group, given 100 mg/kg intravenous ceftizoxime (group 2); a mechanical intestinal cleansing group, given a Fleet enema (group 3); and a mechanical intestinal cleansing plus antibiotic group (group 4). After performing laparotomy, we dissected the portal region and turned the portal triad, using tape. Pringle maneuver was applied for 30 min in all groups. Blood samples were collected from the portal vein for blood culture before the Pringle maneuver. All groups underwent relaparotomy 30 min after the Pringle maneuver, to obtain portal blood, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and splenic tissue for culture.All cultures from the portal vein specimens taken before the Pringle maneuver were negative. The rate of bacterial isolation in the portal vein (P < 0.001), MLNs (P < 0.01), and splenic (P < 0.001) cultures was significantly lower in group 4 than in the other groups. It was also lower in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.05 for all).The combination of mechanical intestinal cleansing and preoperative broad-spectrum antibiotics was most effective for preventing BT during the Pringle maneuver.
- Management of hypophosphatemia in nocturnal hemodialysis with phosphate-containing enema: a technical study. [Journal Article]
- Hemodial Int 2011 Apr; 15(2):219-25.
Hypophosphatemia is observed in patients undergoing nocturnal hemodialysis. Phosphate is commonly added to the dialysate acid bath, but systematic evaluation of the safety and reliability of this strategy is lacking. The objectives of this study were 4-fold. First, we determined whether predictable final dialysate phosphate concentrations could be achieved by adding varying amounts of Fleet® enema. Second, we assessed the stability of calcium (Ca) and phosphate dialysate levels under simulated nocturnal hemodialysis conditions. Third, we assessed for Ca-phosphate precipitate. Finally, we evaluated whether dialysate containing Fleet® enema met the current sterility standards. We added serial aliquots of enema to 4.5 L of dialysate acid concentrate and proportioned the solution on Gambro and Althin/Baxter dialysis machines for up to 8 hours. We measured dialysate phosphate, Ca, pH, and bicarbonate concentrations at baseline, and after simulated dialysis at 4 and 8 hours. We evaluated for precipitation visually and by assessing optical density at 620 nm. We used inoculation of agar to detect bacteria and Pyrotell reaction for endotoxin. For every 30 mL of Fleet® (1.38 mmol/mL of phosphate) enema added, the dialysate phosphate concentration increased by 0.2 mmol/L. There were no significant changes in dialysate phosphate, Ca, pH, and bicarbonate concentrations over 8 hours. No precipitate was observed in the dialysate by optical density measures at 620 nm for additions of up to 90 mL of enema. Bacterial and endotoxin testing met sterility standards. The addition of Fleet® enema to dialysate increases phosphate concentration in a predictable manner, and no safety problems were observed in our in vitro studies.
- Serum electrolyte shifts following administration of sodium phosphates enema. [Comparative Study, Controlled Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Gastroenterol Nurs 2010 May-Jun; 33(3):191-201.
The misuse of sodium phosphates enemas has resulted in reports of potentially severe metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances. Despite their long availability, these products have not been fully characterized pharmacokinetically. This trial sought to evaluate changes in the metabolic and hemodynamic parameters following the administration of one of two standard sodium phosphates enemas. Enema Casen (250 ml) is available only in Spain, and Fleet Enema (133 ml) is available in 66 countries in six continents of the world. These changes were correlated with scientific literature reports of hyperphosphatemia following phosphate enema use. Forty-five adult participants aged 50 years or older enrolled in the trial. Twenty-five participants were given one Enema Casen, whereas 20 participants received one Fleet Enema. Blood pressure, pulse, and serum chemistries were evaluated at screening; baseline; and 10, 60, and 120 minutes after receiving the enema. Each participant had a bowel movement within 10 minutes of receiving his enema. Asymptomatic, transient hyperphosphatemia was associated with increase in retention time but not with increase in volume of sodium phosphates enemas. Increased serum phosphate concentration and increased area under the curve of serum phosphate were associated with increased enema retention time. The Enema Casen induced a greater mean AUC of serum sodium concentration than did the Fleet Enema. There were no drug-related adverse events. Transient hyperphosphatemia following the use of sodium phosphates enemas correlates with retention time but not with dose. A scientific literature review of serious adverse events revealed that overdose, concomitant use of oral and rectal sodium phosphates products, and use in a contraindicated patient were associated with sodium phosphates enema and hyperphosphatemia.
- Flow-through peritoneal dialysis in neonatal enema-induced hyperphosphatemia. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Nephrol 2010 Oct; 25(10):2183-6.
Fleet enemas are hypertonic solutions with an osmotic action and a high concentration of phosphate. When retained in the human body they have a great toxic potential, causing severe hydro-electrolyte disorders in children, especially in newborns. We report the case of a previously healthy 8-day-old newborn who needed neonatal intensive care treatment after the inadvertent administration of an osmotically active hypertonic phosphate enema. Taking into account that phosphate removal by peritoneal dialysis (PD) strongly depends on total dialysate turnover, we chose continuous flow PD (CFPD) as the treatment option, with a successful outcome. Clinical experience with this dialytic modality is limited to a few case reports in pediatric and adult patients. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first description of CFPD in the setting of acute phosphate nephropathy in the neonatal period. The modality of PD described here has potential as an alternative management option as it is a highly efficient, methodologically simple, and low-cost method without any need for sophisticated equipment. Physicians and parents should be aware of the adverse effects of a hypertonic phosphate enema and should never use these medications in infants and newborns.
- A prospective randomized single blind trial of Fleet phosphate enema versus glycerin suppositories as preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Ir J Med Sci 2010 Mar; 179(1):113-8.
This study compared the efficacy and patient acceptability of two methods of bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy.Patients attending for outpatient flexible sigmoidoscopy were prospectively randomized to receive one Fleet ready-to-use enema or 2 x 4 g glycerin suppositories, 2 h preprocedure. Patient and endoscopist questionnaires were used to compare the outcomes.From November 2000 to August 2001, 203 (male = 95; female = 108) patients were randomized. Patient data available for 163 patients (enema = 93; suppository = 70) revealed: ease of use (enema = 52; suppository = 25; P < 0.02, Fisher's exact); assistance required (enema = 19; suppository = 3; P < 0.005, Fisher's exact); grade of effectiveness (enema = 83; suppository = 44; P < 0.0001, Fisher's exact), and whether patients wished to try another preparation in future (enema = 16; suppository = 24; P = 0.016, Fisher's exact). Endoscopist data available for 151 patients (enema = 76; suppository = 75) revealed: average depth of insertion (enema = 53.6 +/- 11.6 cm; suppository 46.3 +/- 13.7 cm; P < 0.001, Student's t test); acceptable (excellent + good) quality of preparation [enema = 60 (78.9%); suppository = 34 (45.3%); P < 0.0001, Fisher's exact].Bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy using a single Fleet enema is acceptable to patients and more effective than glycerin suppositories.