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Fleet Enema [keywords]
- Membrane damages under high pressure of human erythrocytes agglutinated by concanavalin A. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013 Nov 15.
Human erythrocytes are agglutinated by lectins such as concanavalin A (Con A). The behaviors of agglutinated erythrocytes under pressure are less well understood. Here, we report the effects of erythrocyte agglutination on pressure-induced membrane damages. Small clumps of intact erythrocytes by Con A were dissociated by a pressure of 200MPa. Further, the observation by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the generation of vesicles, fragmented particles, and membrane hole. On the other hand, large clumps of trypsin-digested erythrocytes by Con A seemed to be stable against 200MPa. However, the erythrocytes dissociated from such pressure-treated clumps by methyl α-mannopyranoside also showed the existence of vesicles and fragmented particles except for the membrane hole. Pressure-induced hemolysis was greatly suppressed in such large clumps. Similar suppressive effects were observed in erythrocytes packed by centrifugation. However, the hemolysis occurred when the erythrocytes dissociated from 200MPa-treated large clumps by methyl α-mannopyranoside were incubated at 0°C and atmospheric pressure. Pyrene excimer fluorescence due to spectrin denaturation was observed in Con A-agglutinated ghosts that were exposed to a pressure of 200MPa. These results suggest that upon pressure treatment of tightly agglutinated erythrocytes, the hemolysis is greatly suppressed, but membrane damages occur such as spectrin denaturation and vesiculation.
- Multi-arm PEG/Silica Hydrogel for Sustained Ocular Drug Delivery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharm Sci 2013 Nov 27.
In the present study, a series of sustained drug delivery multiarm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/silica hydrogels were prepared and characterized. The hydrogels were formed by hydrolysis and condensation of poly(4-arm PEG silicate) using the sol-gel method. The relationships between water content in the PEG/silica hydrogel and stability as well as rheological properties were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the PEG/silica hydrogels revealed water content-dependent changes in microstructure. An increase in water content resulted in larger pores within the hydrogel, longer gelation time and higher viscosity. The PEG/silica hydrogels were loaded with dexamethasone (DMS) or dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DMSP), drugs that are hydrophobic and hydrophilic in nature, respectively. Evaluation of in vitro release revealed a zero-order release profile for DMS over the first 6 days, suggesting that degradation of the silica hydrogel matrix was the primary mechanism of drug release. It was also found that the drug-release profile could be tailored by varying the water content used during hydrogel preparation. In contrast, more than 90% of DMSP was released within 1 h, suggesting that DMSP release was only controlled by diffusion. Overall, results from this study indicate that PEG/silica hydrogels may be promising drug-eluting depot materials for the sustained delivery of hydrophobic, ophthalmic drugs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
- A compound heterozygous mutation in SLC34A3 causes hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria in a Chinese patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bone 2013 Nov 16.
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and characterized by hypophosphatemia, short stature, rickets and/or osteomalacia, and secondary absorptive hypercalciuria. HHRH was recently mapped to chromosome 9q34, which contains the gene SLC34A3 which encodes the renal proximal tubular sodium-phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIc. Here we describe a 29-year-old man with a history of childhood rickets who presented with increased renal phosphate clearance leading to hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and recurrent nephrolithiasis. We performed a mutation analysis of SLC34A3 (exons and adjacent introns) of the proband and his parents to determine if there was a genetic contribution. The proband proved to be compound heterozygous for two missense mutations in SLC34A3: one novel mutation in exon 7 c.571G>C (p.G191R) and one previously identified mutation in exon 13 c.1402C>T (p.R468W). His parents were both asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of one of these two mutations. We also performed an oral phosphate loading test and compared serum phosphate, intact PTH, and intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23) in this patient versus patients with other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets, the results of which further revealed that the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in HHRH is independent of FGF23. This is the first report of HHRH in the Chinese population. Our findings of the novel mutation in exon 7 add to the list of more than 20 reported mutations of SLC34A3.
- Should bowel preparation, antifoaming agents, or prokinetics be used before video capsule endoscopy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Nov 11.
The ideal bowel preparation regime before small bowel video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is not known. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the effect of purgatives, antifoaming agents, and prokinetics on the outcomes associated with VCE.We performed literature searches in MEDLINE and Cochrane Library and included randomized-controlled trials studying the effect of purgatives, antifoaming agents, and prokinetics in patients undergoing VCE. Our outcomes of interest were visualization quality, diagnostic yield, and completion rate. Meta-analyses were carried out using the RevMan software and heterogeneity was assessed using the I statistic.Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. As compared with no bowel preparation, bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) led to adequate visualization in a significantly higher number of patients undergoing VCE [odds ratio (OR) 3.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70-5.75]. Both PEG and sodium phosphate significantly improved the diagnostic yield (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.16-2.42 and OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.18-2.64, respectively) but did not affect the completion rate. All studies with simethicone showed significantly improved visualization quality with its use as compared with overnight fasting or purgatives alone. Prokinetics did not significantly improve the completion rate of VCE.On the basis of the data available, a combination of PEG and simethicone appears to be the best approach for small bowel preparation before VCE. However, large multicenter randomized-controlled trials are needed to validate this recommendation and to evaluate the ideal dose of PEG and timing of bowel preparation before VCE. Prokinetics administered before VCE do not improve the completion rate and should not be used.
- Rapid and sensitive controlled release monitoring method of biomedical combined products with IDM for pain management and cancer treatment. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biomed Mater Eng 2014; 24(1):757-62.
New designed combined products and its determination for pain management and cancer treatment were studied. A rapid and sensitive stability indicating HPLC method had been developed and validated for the determination of Indomethacin(IDM) in a transdermal patch. This analytical method was successfully applied to the determination of Indomethacin in a transdermal patch and can be used for routine quality control analysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on an Inertsil® C8-3 column utilizing a mobile phase of acetonitrile / 0.01 M monobasic sodium phosphate and 0.01 M dibasic sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3) (65:35, v/v) at the flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at the wavelength of 210 nm. The system suitability was performed, and the result showed that Indomethacin(IDM) and its impurity were separated. The calibration curve of Indomethacin(IDM) was linear in the range of 0.1~15 ppm (r = 0.9989, n = 3).
- Effect of both local and systemically administered dexamethasone on long-term hearing and tissue response in a Guinea pig model of cochlear implantation. [Journal Article]
- Audiol Neurootol 2013; 18(6):392-405.
Dexamethasone administered prior to cochlear implantation has been shown to reduce the loss of residual hearing in experimental settings. However, its effect on the tissue response around the implant has not been extensively studied. In this study dexamethasone sodium phosphate was administered to guinea pigs via local delivery to the round window (2% dexamethasone for 120 min prior to surgery, 'local 2/120', or 20% dexamethasone for 30 min prior to surgery) or intravenously (2 mg/kg dexamethasone for 60 min) prior to implantation. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were monitored for 3 months, after which the cochleae were embedded in Spurr's resin and sectioned. The extent of the tissue response and the survival of the neurosensory structures were analysed. Both local 2/120 and systemically delivered dexamethasone improved ABR thresholds when compared with control animals. Systemic dexamethasone also reduced the tissue response around the electrode. This suggests that whilst both locally and systemically administered dexamethasone can protect residual hearing after cochlear implantation, their effects upon the tissue response to implantation may differ. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Interaction of red blood cells adjacent to and within a thrombus in experimental cerebral ischaemia. [Journal Article]
- Thromb Res 2013 Dec; 132(6):718-23.
Cerebral ischaemia is associated with altered platelet and fibrin network ultrastructure indicating increased coagulation activity and resistance to fibrinolysis; which may lead to the occlusion of blood vessels. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of red blood cells to plasma has a significant effect on the structural and mechanical properties of fibrin clots and is associated with lytic resistance of thrombi.Whole blood was collected from pre-ischaemic control Sprague Dawley rats and those in which experimental cerebral ischaemia was induced by hyperglycaemic two-vessel occlusion, for the ultrastructural investigation of whole blood thrombi by scanning electron microscopy. Post-ischaemic groups were terminated at 2h, 24h and 48h subsequent to reperfusion; which were time points selected for the demonstration of initial inflammation upon neural injury, maximal neural injury and onset of regeneration.Subsequent to ischaemic insult, red blood cells transformed from normal discoid shape to form projections which allowed them to interact both with each other and with fibrin fibres in various manners. Researches have in recent years shown that inclusion of red blood cells in experimental coagula results in delayed fibrinolysis and lytic resistance. This paper shows the morphological alterations at cellular level which may elucidate the structural and mechanical strength of these clots.Through the extension of projections, red blood cells become intertwined within a thrombus to stabilise and strengthen its structure. The tighter these mechanical bonds, the more resistant thrombi are to lysis, an established characteristic of thrombi in cerebral ischaemia.
- Determination of thioglycolic acid in cosmetics by capillary electrophoresis. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Biomed Anal 2014 Jan.:509-12.
A new and simple method for the accurate determination of thioglycolic acid (TGA) in cosmetics was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection at 236nm. The CE separation was performed on an uncoated fused silica capillary with a separation buffer solution containing 300mmolL(-1) tri-sodium phosphate and 0.5mmolL(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at a voltage of -5kV. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were 1.4%. The calibration curve between the corrected peak areas and the concentrations of the TGA was linear within the concentration range of 0.006-1.0mgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.002mgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and 0.006mgmL(-1) (S/N=10), respectively. The average recoveries at the spiked levels of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500mgmL(-1) were 96.9%, 102.3% and 94.0% with the relative standard derivations of 2.1%, 3.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The method was cross-validated by both high performance liquid chromatographic and ion chromatographic method. Eighty-five commercial depilatory creams and hair-treatment products were analyzed with satisfactory results.
- Intronic deletions in the SLC34A3 gene: A cautionary tale for mutation analysis of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bone 2013 Oct 29.:53-56.
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder, characterized by hypophosphatemia, variable degrees of rickets/osteomalacia, and hypercalciuria secondary to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels. HHRH is caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which encodes sodium-phosphate co-transporter type IIc. A 6-1/2-year-old female presented with a history of nephrolithiasis. Her metabolic evaluation revealed increased 24-hour urine calcium excretion with high serum calcium, low intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), and elevated 1,25(OH)2D. In addition, the patient had low to low-normal serum phosphorus with high urine phosphorus. The patient had normal stature; without rachitic or boney deformities or a history of fractures. Genetic analysis of SLC34A3 revealed the patient to be a compound heterozygote for a novel single base pair deletion in exon 12 (c.1304delG) and 30-base pair deletion in intron 6 (g.1440-1469del). The single-base pair mutation causes a frameshift, which results in premature stop codon. The intronic deletion is likely caused by misalignment of the 4-basepair homologous repeats and results in the truncation of an already small intron to 63bp, which would impair proper RNA splicing of the intron. This is the fourth unique intronic deletion identified in patients with HHRH, suggesting the frequent occurrence of sequence misalignments in SLC34A3 and the importance of screening introns in patients with HHRH.
- Effect of submucosal injection of dexamethasone on postoperative discomfort after third molar surgery: a prospective study. [Journal Article]
- J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14(3):401-4.