Fleet Enema [keywords]
- Ileus and Intra-Abdominal Hypertension due to Phosphate- Containing Enema. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Indian J Pediatr 2016 Jun 4.
The most well known complications of fleet enema solution are cardiac insufficiency, renal failure, water-electrolyte imbalance, and ileus. A 7-y-old girl with phenylketonuria and long-term constipation was admitted to the emergency department with symptoms of seizure, vomiting and abdominal distention. Laboratory results revealed hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. ECG findings showed normal sinus rhythm and prolonged QT interval. At the follow-up, the patient's abdominal distention was markedly increased. She was evaluated for a surgical pathology and, this was considered unlikely. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was 19.5 mmHg. Gastric and colonic decompression, intravenous 10 % calcium gluconate were applied. After 2 d of treatment, the patient's condition became stable, and serum calcium and phosporus normalized to 8.8 mg/dl and 4.0 mg/dl, respectively. Abdominal distention regressed and the last IAP measurement was 3.5 mmHg. Thus, IAP measurements are a useful adjunct in clinical follow-up of patients with progressive abdominal distention due to phosphate enema use.
- More Is Not Always Better: A Randomized Trial Of Low Volume Oral Laxative, Enemas, And Combination Of Both Demonstrate That Enemas Alone Are Most Efficacious For Preparation For Flexible Sigmoidoscopy. [Journal Article]
- Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2016.:e156.
Colon cleansing for flexible sigmoidoscopy using a standard fleet enema does not provide adequate cleansing in a significant number of patients. We tested whether the addition of a low-volume oral cleansing agent could mitigate this challenge without significantly compromising patient tolerance.Oral picosulfate with magnesium citrate (P/MC) would enhance the colon cleansing of patients undergoing sigmoidoscopy, as assessed by the modified Ottawa Bowel Preparation Score.A randomized single blinded trial comparing (1) a single dose (i.e., one sachet) of oral sodium picosulfate plus magnesium citrate (P/MC) administered the night before, (2) a single dose oral P/MC the night before plus sodium phosphate enema 1 h before leaving home, and (3) sodium phosphate enema alone 1 h before leaving home for flexible sigmoidoscopy was conducted on outpatients referred for sigmoidoscopy for symptom assessment.A total 120 patients were randomized to the study groups. The main indication for sigmoidoscopy was investigation of rectal bleeding (n=80). There was no significant difference in bowel cleansing quality, measured by the endoscopist blinded to preparation, between P/MC, P/MC plus enema, and enema alone as measured by the modified Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (P=0.34) or the Aronchick Scale (P=0.13). Both oral P/MC regimens were associated with higher incidence of nausea, abdominal pain, bloating, and interrupted sleep than enema alone (P<0.05).A single dose of oral P/MC administered the night before did not result in better colon cleansing for sigmoidoscopy when used alone or with an enema and was associated with more side effects (NCT 01554111).
- Colonic transit: what is the impact of a diverting loop ileostomy? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ANZ J Surg 2015 Nov 17.
Diverting loop ileostomy (DLI) is used following low anterior resections (LAR) or ultra-low anterior resections (ULAR) to reduce anastomotic leak (AL). Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is traditionally used with DLI. However, clearance of the left colon can be achieved with a fleet enema without the physiological compromise of MBP. We aimed to assess colonic transit following DLI in this context.A prospective, observational study was performed with patients with rectal cancer undergoing LAR or ULAR in a tertiary colorectal unit with preoperative fleet enema. Radiopaque markers were inserted into the caecum following rectal resection and formation of a DLI with placement confirmed by image intensifier and endoscopy. X-rays were performed at days 1, 3, 5 and 14 post-operation with data collected prospectively.Ten patients (mean age 57, nine males) were enrolled. Mean time to functioning stoma was 1.9 days (range 1-3). There was no movement in the majority of markers in all patients at Day 5 post-operation. In all seven patients with Day 14 X-rays, the majority of markers remained in the right colon. Two patients had delayed AL, with markers found within the pelvis in both of these patients.This is the first study to assess colonic transit following DLI using fleet enema only, with results suggesting colonic motility is abolished in this setting. The use of a fleet enema without MBP may be sufficient prior to rectal resection surgery when DLI is employed. AL may actually increase colonic transit. Further research is warranted.
- Severe colic mimicking intussusception: a new phenomenon. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2015; 2(1):e000023.
To highlight a new phenomenon that we have encountered in children during the past 5 years. Children in this group have a pathognomonic clinical picture of sudden acute severe abdominal colic during which the child is continuously screaming for 1-2 min. All these patients were initially diagnosed on clinical and ultrasonographic grounds as acute intussusception. Careful interpretation of the radiological findings revealed faecal impaction of the terminal ileum and caecum.This is a retrospective study looking at children presenting between 2009 and 2014 with acute severe abdominal colic pain. These were 11 patients aged 9 months to 5 years. We reviewed our experience in the management and diagnosis of these patients.All patients were diagnosed initially as intussusception, which was confirmed by ultrasonography (US). US revealed an appearance mimicking intussusception, 3 cases of which were intermittent. This US appearance proved to be a hard stool filling the terminal ileum. In all patients, abdominal X-ray revealed stool at the right side of the colon filling the caecum. Diagnostic gastrografin enemas that were performed in four patients excluded intussusception and confirmed stool at the caecum and ascending colon. In none of those patients had contrast passed into the terminal ileum. There was dramatic response to fleet and/or gastrografin enemas. Five patients required a second dose of enema and two patients required three doses.We highlight a new phenomenon of severe abdominal pain caused by faecal impaction of the terminal ileum and caecum. Increased awareness of this condition helps to avoid unnecessary investigations and/or surgical exploration.
- Regarding Near-Fatal Sodium Phosphate Toxicity in a Child Receiving Sodium Phosphate Enemas. [Comment, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pediatr Emerg Care 2015 Aug; 31(8):e7.
- Fiducial marker implantation in prostate radiation therapy: complication rates and technique. [Journal Article]
- Cancer Radiother 2014 Dec; 18(8):736-9.
This study aims to report the complication rate from the transrectal ultrasound-guided implantation of gold seed markers in prostate radiotherapy, as well as describing the technique used.Between May 2010 and December 2012, 169 patients with localized prostate cancer had an intraprostatic fiducial marker implantation under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The procedure included prophylactic antibiotic therapy, fleet enema, implantation performed by trained radiation oncologists at our center prior to image-guided radiotherapy. Toxicity occurring between implantation and subsequent radiotherapy start date was assessed. The following parameters were analyzed via medical chart review: antibiotic therapy, anticoagulant interruption, bleeding, pain, prostate volume, number of markers implanted, post-implantation complications and delay before starting radiotherapy.Of the 169 men, 119 (70.4%) underwent insertion of 4 fiducial markers and the other 50 (29.6%) had 3. The procedure was well-tolerated. There was no interruption of the implantation with regards to pain or hemorrhage. No grade 3 or 4 complications were observed. Seed migration rate was 0.32%, for the migration of 2 markers on 626 implanted. Mean prostate volume was 38 cm(3) (range: 10-150 cm(3)). Two patients (1.18%) developed a urinary tract infection following the procedure: prostate volume of 25 and 65 cm(3), four gold seed markers implanted, urinary tract infection resistant to prophylactic antibiotherapy, and treated with antibiotics specific to their infection as determined on urine culture.Transrectal fiducial marker implantation for image-guided radiotherapy in prostate cancer is a well-tolerated procedure without major associated complications.
- Use of mineral oil Fleet enema for the removal of a large tar burn: a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Burns 2015 Mar; 41(2):e11-4.
Extensive hot tar burns are relatively uncommon. Management of these burns provides a significant clinical challenge especially with respect to tar removal involving a large total body surface area (TBSA), without causing further tissue injury.We report a case of an over 40-year old male construction worker who was removing a malfunctioning cap from broken valve. This resulted in tar spraying over the anterior surface of his body including legs, feet, chest, abdomen, arms, face and oral cavity (80% TBSA covered in tar resulting in a 50% TBSA burn injury).Initially, petrolatum-based, double antibiotic ointment was used to remove the tar, based on our previous experience with small tar burns. However, this was time-consuming and ineffective. The tar was easily removed with mineral oil without irritation. In order to meet the demand for quantity of mineral oil, the pharmacy suggested using mineral oil Fleet enema (C.B. Fleet Company, Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia, USA). The squeezable bottle and catheter tip facilitated administration of oil into the patient's construction boots and under clothing that was adhered to the patient's skin.Tar removal requires an effective, non-toxic and non-irritating agent. Mineral oil is such an agent. For patients that may present with a large surface area tar burn, using mineral oil Fleet enema is a viable option that facilitates application into difficult areas. Grant Support: The Firefighters' Burn Fund (Manitoba) supported this project.
- Evaluation of necessity for mechanical bowel preparation before Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy: a randomized prospective clinical study. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Minerva Chir 2013 Aug; 68(4):393-9.
In this randomized prospective clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) before Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy on intraoperative procedures and postoperative complication rates to determine whether MBP is adventageous or not before elective anorectal surgeries.Forty patients who had internal grade III or IV hemorrhoidal disease and who would underwent open hemorrhoidectomy were randomized into two groups: non-MBP group (female:male, 11:9; mean age, 33.8±9.57 years) that would not receive MBP before the surgery, and MBP group (female:male, 12:8; mean age, 34.7±11.37 years) that would be given one Fleet enema on the morning of Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. Intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were compared between two groups.MPB had no effect on both intraoperative and postoperative variables, such as operating time, intraoperative bleeding, visual analogue scale (VAS) score for the comfort of the surgeon during operation, the presence of stool or enema remnants in anal canal, the presence of mucosal edema of the anal canal intraoperatively, the rates of postoperative bleeding and infection, VAS score for the pain on third day postoperatively, time to first stool after the operation, VAS score for the pain during first stool after the operation, and number of analgesics during one week postoperatively (P>0.05 for all).MBP performed before surgery does not provide introperative or postoperative benefit for Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy, thus MBP is not necessary before elective anorectal surgeries.
- Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013 Nov; 29(11):1487-95.
Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle.
- Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable. [Journal Article]
- Int J Gen Med 2013.:323-8.
Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy.We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase.There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate). There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001). Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4%) versus 0 (P = 0.0001) and 8 (3.9%) versus 2 (0.7%) (P = 0.0001), for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively.Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema), and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed.