Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Flexor volar tenosynovitis [keywords]
- Volar plate fixation for the treatment of distal radius fractures: analysis of adverse events. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Orthop Trauma 2013 Mar 19.
OBJECTIVES:: Determining the rate of specific adverse events following volar plating performed for distal radius fractures.
SETTING:: University level I trauma center.
PATIENTS:: We searched the electronic database of all surgical procedures performed in our department using the following keywords: distal radius fracture, wrist fracture, plate fixation. We identified 315 patients, 12 of whom were lost at follow-up.
INTERVENTION:: Volar plate fixation for the treatment of distal radius fractures. MAIN OUTCOME
MEASUREMENTS:: At an average follow-up of 5 years, 303 patients were evaluated through medical records and clinical and radiographical assessment for specific adverse events following volar plate fixation.
RESULTS::Adverse events were observed in 18 patients (5.9%). Implant related adverse events, including tendon impairments, intra-articular screws and screw loosening, were observed in 15 patients (5.0%). Extensor tendon impairments were represented by 5 cases of extensor tenosynovitis and 3 cases of rupture of the extensor pollicis longus due to screws protruding dorsally. Flexor impairments were represented by 2 cases of tenosynovitis and 2 cases of flexor pollicis longus rupture. Screw penetration into the radioulnar joint was observed in 1 case. Loss of reduction was identified in 3 cases. One patient had a deep post-operative infection treated with operative debridement. One patient experienced injury to the median nerve during routine implant removal unrelated to tendon issues.
CONCLUSIONS::The majority of adverse events after volar plate fixation were due to technical errors in implant placement. In our cohort, tendon impairments were the most frequently observed; among these, extensor tendon impairments were the most represented (50% of all adverse events). All 12 tendon-related adverse events were due to technical shortcomings with implant placement.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
- Essential hand surgery procedures for mastery by graduating orthopedic surgery residents: a survey of program directors. [Journal Article]
- J Hand Surg Am 2013 Apr; 38(4):760-5.
To establish the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents. This framework can then be used as a guideline for developing an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach and document technical skill in hand surgery.A select group of 10 expert hand surgeons was surveyed regarding the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents. The top 10 procedures from this survey were then used to survey all 155 American Council of Graduate Medical Education-approved orthopedic surgery program directors regarding the essential procedures that should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents.We had a 39% response rate to the program director survey. The top 8 hand surgery procedures as determined by the orthopedic surgery program directors included open carpal tunnel release, open A1 pulley release, open reduction internal fixation of distal radius fracture, flexor tendon sheath steroid injection, excision of dorsal or volar ganglion, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of metacarpal fracture, open cubital tunnel release, and incision and drainage of flexor tendon sheath for flexor tenosynovitis.Surgical educators need to develop objective methods to teach and document technical skill. The Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill is a valid method to accomplish this task. However, there has been no consensus regarding which hand surgery procedures should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents. We have identified 8 procedures that were overwhelmingly supported by orthopedic surgery program directors. These 8 procedures can be used as a guideline for developing an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach and document technical skill in hand surgery.This study addresses the future of orthopedic surgery education as it pertains to hand surgery.
- Severe laceration of flexor tendons after locking palmar plate fixation of distal radius fracture: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Kobe J Med Sci 2012; 58(3):E82-5.
We report a case of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus(II) laceration as a result of the severe tenosynovitis after volar locking plate fixation of distal radius fracture.
- Sonographic appearance of the flexor tendon, volar plate, and A1 pulley with respect to the severity of trigger finger. [Journal Article]
- J Hand Surg Am 2012 Oct; 37(10):2012-20.
To evaluate trigger digits with sonography to determine morphological changes in the A1 pulley, flexor tendon, and volar plate in relation to the severity of triggering.We evaluated 67 trigger digits and graded them into 1 of 4 groups. We compared the groups according to severity and to contralateral fingers, which served as controls.The thickness of the flexor tendons under the A1 pulley was proportional to the severity of triggering. The anteroposterior thickness of the flexor tendon increased significantly among the grades exhibiting triggering regardless of the affected digit. However, in digits other than the thumb, tendon thickness increased even in the absence of active triggering. Thickening tended to be greater with finger flexion. The A1 pulley exhibited the greatest thickness and the volar plate exhibited significant thickening in the group that exhibited continuous triggering that was easily reduced with active extension (grade III).The flexor tendon thickened significantly before patients experienced triggering except in the thumb. In the thumb, the flexor tendon and A1 pulley thickened significantly only after patients exhibited triggering. Thickening of the volar plate appears to have an important role in continuous triggering. Although most clinicians can easily determine the severity of a trigger digit by clinical examination, ultrasound might be helpful for objectively understanding the severity and response to treatment, by examining the thickness of the flexor tendon and A1 pulley. In particular, sonographic measurement of the A1 pulley might be useful in judging the progression of trigger finger severity. In cases where a Doppler signal is detected inside the A1 pulley, more conservative therapies might be worth considering before surgery.Diagnostic ΙΙΙ.
- Results of volar locking plating for unstable distal radius fractures. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2012; 46(1):22-5.
The aim of this study was to analyze the complications and functional and radiographic results of volar locking plating in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures.Forty-six patients (mean age: 48.7 years) with Type C distal radius fractures were treated with volar locking plates and evaluated over a mean follow-up period of 19 months. Range of motion, strength, DASH questionnaire and MAYO wrist score were assessed. Shortening, inclination and palmar tilt were recorded on standard radiographs and tenosynovitis and tendon ruptures were assessed using ultrasound. The uninjured wrists were examined as controls. Statistical analysis was made using t-tests.All fractures achieved union. Postoperative MAYO scores revealed 14 excellent results, 11 good, 20 satisfactory and one poor result. The mean postoperative DASH score was 15.9 (range: 0 to 72). Active wrist motion averaged 52.3 degrees of flexion, 57.7 degrees of extension, 79.2 degrees of supination and 79.3 degrees of pronation. Mean grip strength was 82% of the uninjured side and mean loss of radial inclination was 0.6 degrees and palmar tilt was 6.6 degrees as compared to normal side. Carpal tunnel syndrome was observed in one patient, flexor tenosynovitis in one patient, extensor tendon rupture in one patient and extensor tenosynovitis in eleven patients. Functional and clinical limitations were most evident in the patients with tendon tear or tenosynovitis.Fixation of unstable distal radius fractures with volar locking plates provides sufficient stability, and satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, these systems have complication potential that may limit better outcomes.
- Volar plating for unstable proximal interphalangeal joint dorsal fracture-dislocations. [Journal Article]
- J Hand Surg Am 2012 Jan; 37(1):28-33.
To report our results of open reduction internal fixation with volar mini plate and screw fixation for unstable dorsal fracture dislocations (DFDs) of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint.We performed a retrospective review of 13 consecutive DFDs of the PIP joint treated with volar mini plate and screw fixation, measuring both clinical and radiological outcomes.The age range of our patients was 15 to 56 years (average, 33 y). Six injuries were related to work, 5 to sports, and 2 to motor vehicle accidents. Of the 13 DFDs, 6 were comminuted. Articular involvement ranged from 30% to 70% (average, 44%). The average time to surgery was 7 days (range, 0-23 d). Patients had follow-up of 12 to 60 months (average, 25 mo). Four patients had a postoperative course complicated by plate and screw removal at an average of 4 months later, either as part of a secondary procedure to improve range of motion or owing to patient request. All patients returned to their original occupation. Of the 13 patients, 11 were satisfied with the result, and 12 of 13 had either no or mild pain. All 13 DFDs united in good alignment but 3 showed degenerative changes. Average grip strength was 85% of the unaffected side, and average active PIP joint and distal interphalangeal joint motion arcs were 75° and 65°, respectively. Average Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 4 (range, 0-9). All patients had non-tender swelling of the proximal interphalangeal joints but no signs of flexor tenosynovitis or infection.Fixation of unstable PIP joint DFDs via a volar approach is technically feasible with mini plates and screws. This treatment allows early active range of motion and provides good objective and subjective outcomes; however, noteworthy complications occurred in 39% of patients.Therapeutic IV.
- Recurrent fluctuant mass of the wrist and forearm associated with chronic tenosynovitis by Mycobacterium kansasii. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Orthopedics 2011 May; 34(5):400.
This article presents a case of a painless fluctuant mass on the volar aspect of the wrist and forearm of an immunocompetent 45-year-old man with no history of significant underlying disease. This mass proved to be a chronic tenosynovitis associated with Mycobacterium kansasii infection. The patient, who had a history of multiple minor cuts and abrasions plus exposure to an aquatic environment, had a wide resection of the lesion and elective tenosynovectomy. Operative findings revealed a marked tenosynovitis of flexor tendons. Several rice bodies lesions were also observed along the course of the involved flexor tendons.Biopsy showed a granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Specimens of affected tissue were sent to a laboratory for solid (at 30°C and at 37°C) and liquid (at 37°C) mycobacterial culture. The initial Ziehl-Neelsen stain for acid-fast bacilli was positive. After 8 days of incubation, acid-fast bacilli were recovered. In accordance with the diagnosis of M kansasii tenosynovitis and the results of antibiotic susceptibility testing, triple therapy with rifampicin, isoniazid and clarithromycin was initiated. After 3 months of therapy, the patient experienced improvement in the swelling and is due to receive 12 months of antibiotic therapy. Despite awareness of atypical mycobacterial infections, diagnosis is frequently delayed, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with exposure to these atypical pathogens require a broadened differential to include appropriate testing and culture of specimens to obtain an accurate diagnosis.
- Percutaneous intrasheath ultrasonographically guided first annular pulley release: anatomic study of a new technique. [Journal Article]
- J Ultrasound Med 2010 Nov; 29(11):1517-29.
The purpose of this study was to define in volunteers a safe area for performing a percutaneous intrasheath first annular (A1) pulley release under ultrasonographic guidance in cadavers for the treatment of trigger fingers.First, in 100 fingers of 10 volunteers, we used Doppler ultrasonography to determine the limits of the sectors enclosing structures at risk (arteries and tendons). From the synovial sheath's most volar point, we determined the relative position of the arterial walls and the distance to the flexor tendons. A scatterplot overlay of the arterial positions was digitally analyzed for determining the limits of the safe area. Second, we released the A1 pulley in 46 fingers from 5 cadavers, directing the edge of the cutting device toward our safe area from an intrasheath instrument position. The precision, safety, and efficacy of the release were evaluated by surgical exposure of the A1 and A2 pulleys and the neurovascular bundles.In our volunteers, we observed a volar safe area from +6.1° to +180°. Surgical precision was good in the cadavers, with no injuries to adjacent structures, a complete release in 44 fingers (95.7%), and an incomplete release of less than 1.6 mm in 2 fingers.This study determined a safe volar area for aiming surgical instruments from an intrasheath position for percutaneous ultrasonographically guided A1 pulley release. The technique can be performed safely in all fingers, but we suggest being cautious in the thumb and converting the surgery to an open procedure if ultrasonographic visualization is not optimal.
- [Pronator quadratus preservation for distal radius fractures with locking palmar plate osteosynthesis. Surgical technique]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Chir Main 2009 Sep; 28(4):224-9.
A surgical technique is described to preserve the pronator quadratus muscle when fixing distal radius fractures with volar locking palmar plates.Using a classic volar Henry approach to the wrist, the fibrous distal attachments of the pronator quadratus muscle are released. The locking palmar plate is passed under the pronator quadratus muscle and its correct placement is checked by fluoroscopy. Locking screws are inserted through mini-incisions in pronator quadratus.The pronator quadratus muscle plays an important role in wrist function, both in forearm pronation and as a stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint. Mechanical impingement between the volar plate and the flexor tendons can cause adherences, ruptures and tenosynovitis. These should be reduced if pronator quadratus were intact.Preservation of the pronator quadratus muscle is possible for the majority of the fractures of the distal radius treated with locking volar plate osteosynthesis.
- Ultrasound-guided first annular pulley injection for trigger finger. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- J Ultrasound Med 2009 Jun; 28(6):737-43.
The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound-guided first annular (A1) pulley injection technique for trigger finger with documentation of outcomes at 1 year.We performed a short-axis injection into a triangle bordered by the A1 pulley, the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons and volar plate, and the distal metacarpal bone with a 10-mg median dose of triamcinolone acetonide and 2% lidocaine. This was a prospective study of 50 of 52 consecutive trigger fingers from 24 patients recruited from a physical medicine and rehabilitation private practice.All patients were available for follow-up, with 94% (47 of 50) of fingers having complete resolution of symptoms at 6 months, 90% (37 of 41) at 1 year, 65% (17 of 26) at 18 months, and 71% (12 of 17) at 3 years after a single injection.Our ultrasound-guided A1 pulley injection technique is a highly effective and minimally invasive treatment option for trigger finger with a 90% success rate at 1 year for complete resolution of symptoms after a single injection. Assuming similar patient populations, our results were statistically significant (P < .01) compared with the 56% to 57% success rates recently reported for blind injections.