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- Frostbite injury: a paragliding accident at 5500 meters. [Journal Article]
- Acta Chir Belg 2013 Mar-Apr; 113(2):143-5.
Frostbite as a result of mountaineering or arctic expeditions is a well-known problem. In this article a rare case of frostbite injury following a paragliding accident at high altitude is described. A cumulonimbus cloud formation drifted the patient up with a high velocity to approximately 5500 m. He acquired frostbite injuries of the neck, wrists, hands and left leg, affecting 5% of the total body surface area. The frostbite was initially treated by rewarming, with later debridement and local application of silver sulfadiazine and povidone-iodine dressings. Within three months all the injuries were healed.
- The role of scurvy in Scott's return from the South Pole. [Journal Article]
- J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2013 Jun; 43(4):175-81.
Scurvy, caused by lack of vitamin C, was a major problem for polar explorers. It may have contributed to the general ill-health of the members of Scott's polar party in 1912 but their deaths are more likely to have been caused by a combination of frostbite, malnutrition and hypothermia. Some have argued that Oates's war wound in particular suffered dehiscence caused by a lack of vitamin C, but there is little evidence to support this. At the time, many doctors in Britain overlooked the results of the experiments by Axel Holst and Theodor Frølich which showed the effects of nutritional deficiencies and continued to accept the view, championed by Sir Almroth Wright, that polar scurvy was due to ptomaine poisoning from tainted pemmican. Because of this, any advice given to Scott during his preparations would probably not have helped him minimise the effect of scurvy on the members of his party.
- Incidence and care of environmental dermatoses in the high-altitude region of ladakh, India. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Dermatol 2013 Mar; 58(2):107-12.
Low humidity, high-velocity wind, excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and extreme cold temperature are the main causes of various types of environmental dermatoses in high altitudes.A retrospective study was carried out in patients visiting the lone dermatology department in Ladakh between July 2009 and June 2010. The aim was to identify the common environmental dermatoses in high altitudes so that they can be treated easily or prevented. The patients were divided into three demographic groups, namely, lowlanders, Ladakhis (native highlanders), and tourists. Data was analyzed in a tabulated fashion.A total of 1,567 patients with skin ailments were seen, of whom 965 were lowlanders, 512 native Ladakhis, and 90 were tourists. The skin disorders due to UV rays, dry skin, and papular urticaria were common among all groups. The frequency of melasma (n = 42; 49.4%), chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) (n = 18; 81.81% of total CAD cases), and actinic cheilitis (n = 3; 100%) was much higher among the native Ladakhis. The frequency of cold-related injuries was much lesser among Ladakhis (n = 1; 1.19%) than lowlanders (n = 70; 83.33%) and tourists (n = 13; 15.47%) (P < 0.05).Dryness of skin, tanning, acute or chronic sunburn, polymorphic light reaction, CAD, insect bite reactions, chilblain, and frostbite are common environmental dermatoses of high altitudes. Avoidance of frequent application of soap, application of adequate and suitable emollient, use of effective sunscreen, and wearing of protective clothing are important guidelines for skin care in this region.
- Preventable frostbite due to cold pack. [LETTER]
- Int Wound J 2013 May 28.
- [Fegelers syndrome, acquired port-wine stain or acquired capillary malformation: Three cases and a literature review]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ann Dermatol Venereol 2013 May; 140(5):341-6.
Port-wine stains or capillary malformations are generally congenital. Very few cases of acquired port-wine stains in adults have been described, and these occur particularly after trauma.We report three cases of acquired port-wine stains and we performed a review of the literature using the keywords "port-wine stain", "capillary malformation", "angioma" and "acquired" in the Medline database PubMed. All relevant articles were included.Two male patients and one female patient consulted for one or more angiomatous lesions, located respectively on the upper rear part of the right thigh (case 1), the left leg (case 2) and the right side of the face, skull and chest (case 3). Each patient's skin biopsy was consistent with port-wine stain. The three patients asserted the acquired nature of the lesions: the male patients were respectively 17 and 38 years old, and the female patient was 11 years old. No causative factors were evident preceding the lesion, and there was no family history of port-wine stain. The topography was systematic in patients 2 and 3. The lesions were light red in patient 1, dark red in patient 2 and pale pink in patient 3. The remainder of the physical examination was unremarkable, except for benign angiokeratoma of the scrotum in case 1 and pigmented leucoderma-type macules in case 3. LITERATURE RESULTS: Sixty-six cases of acquired port-wine stains were reported in the literature. The average age was 25 years (3-69) with a sex-ratio of 0.88. Generally, no causative factor was given. However, trauma (30.5%), estrogenic impregnation (16.5%), and more rarely, medication, solar damage, frostbite, cluster headache, herpes zoster and acoustic neuroma were reported as causatives factors.Acquired port-wine stain is rare. Although often idiopathic, it can result from spinal trauma, which must be explored if suggested by the history. In our series, the clinical presentation suggested a latent congenital vascular malformation of late onset, in particular in patients 2 and 3, because of the segmental distribution.
- Frostbite developing secondary to cryotherapy for viral warts. [Journal Article]
- Br J Gen Pract 2013 May; 63(610):239-40.
- Bupivacaine digital blocks: how long is the pain relief and temperature elevation? [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 May; 131(5):1098-104.
: The goals of this study are threefold: (1) to determine what effect epinephrine has on the duration of bupivacaine finger block anesthesia; (2) to see whether the duration of action of bupivacaine on digital pain relief is the same duration as numbness to touch/pressure; and (3) to assess the fingertip temperature changes that result from bupivacaine digital blocks.: The ring fingers of both hands of 44 volunteers were randomized to injection of bupivacaine with or without 1:200,000 epinephrine. The durations of time for digits to return to normal pain, touch, pressure sensation, and fingertip temperature were measured and recorded.: There were three main findings: (1) the pain block of bupivacaine lasts only half as long (15 hours) as the return to normal sensation (30 hours); (2) the effect of adding epinephrine to bupivacaine prolongs the duration of pain relief in a finger block for only an additional 1.5 hours; (3) in addition to pain relief, bupivacaine finger blocks cause fingertip hyperemia with consistent significant fingertip temperature elevation that lasts 15 hours.: The duration of bupivacaine pain relief is the clinically important factor that needs to be reported in bupivacaine trials. Patients should be informed that the return of pain will occur much sooner than the return of normal sensation. Adding epinephrine to bupivacaine does not add a clinically significant length of time to pain relief. Bupivacaine finger blocks provide prolonged hyperemia and pain block to fingertips, which may be useful in the treatment of acute frostbite.: Therapeutic, I.
- Allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for stabilizing and repairing of atherosclerotic ruptured plaque. [Journal Article]
- Thromb Res 2013 Jun; 131(6):e253-7.
There have been no satisfactory therapies on stabilizing and repairing ruptured plagues nowadays, which are the fundamental causes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in stabilizing and repairing ruptured plaques.28 male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups after establishment of atherosclerotic disrupted plaque model by liquid nitrogen frostbite: MSCs transplantation group and control group. MSCs were isolated, cultured in vitro, and labeled with BrdU. BrdU-incorporated MSCs (MSCs transplantation group) or an equal amount of IMDM medium without MSCs (control group) were transplanted into vessels with ruptured plaque. PAI-1, MMP-9 and hs-CRP were determined by ELISA of blood 3days and 4weeks after transplantation. Rabbits were sacrificed 4weeks after transplantation and plaque repair was assessed by HE and Masson's trichrome staining. Transplanted BrdU-positive cells were identified by immunohistochemistry.Four weeks after MSCs transplantation, PAI-1, MMP-9 and hs-CRP were reduced significantly in all experimental animals (p<0.001). The reduction was more evident in the transplantation group than in the control group (p<0.01). In addition, the transplantation group showed dramatically higher numbers of newly formed endothelial cells, collagen fibers, and proliferative BrdU-positive cells at plaque areas.This study demonstrates that allogeneic MSCs transplantation can stabilize and repair ruptured plaques, which represents a novel approach for ACS and stroke.
- Cloning and expression of the sorbitol dehydrogenase gene during embryonic development and temperature stress in Artemia sinica. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Gene 2013 Jun 1; 521(2):296-302.
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the interconversion of polyols and ketoses, using zinc and NAD(+) as cofactors. SDH converts sorbitol into fructose and plays an important role in the sorbitol metabolic pathway and in the early embryonic development of many invertebrates. Sorbitol usually accumulates in diapause embryos of insects to protect the embryos from frostbite, which indicates the vital function of SDH in the diapause and diapause-termination stages of embryo development. In this study, a 1311-bp full-length cDNA of As-sdh, including a 28-bp 5' UTR and a 59-bp 3' UTR, was cloned from Artemia sinica. This gene encodes 348 amino-acid proteins. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that this gene is highly conserved in arthropods. The expression patterns of As-sdh were investigated during different stages of embryonic development using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. As-sdh was expressed at relatively high levels during the 0h embryonic stage, and transcript levels were quite high in 5- and 7-day-old embryos. In situ hybridization analysis showed that As-sdh is expressed in a widely dispersed pattern before incubation but is mainly concentrated on the body surface and the inner wall of the alimentary tract after the nauplius stage. Our results suggest that As-sdh is integral to the process of diapause and diapause termination in A. sinica.
- Frostbite: prevention and initial management. [Journal Article]
- High Alt Med Biol 2013 Mar; 14(1):9-12.
Frostbite is a local freezing injury that can cause tissue loss. Historically, it has been a disease of wars, but it is a hazard for anyone who ventures outdoors in cold weather. Frozen tissue is damaged both during freezing and rewarming. Frozen tissue is numb. Rewarming causes hyperemia and is often painful. Blisters and edema develop after rewarming. Hard eschar may form with healthy tissue deep to the eschar. Frostbite can be classified as superficial, without permanent tissue loss, or deep, with varying degrees of permanent tissue loss, often less than appearances suggest. It can be difficult to predict the amount of tissue loss at the time of presentation and early in the subsequent course. Prevention is better than treatment. It may be advisable not to rewarm frozen extremities in the field, but spontaneous thawing is often unavoidable. Extremities that have thawed should be protected from refreezing at all costs. Once in a protected environment, extremities that are still frozen should be rapidly thawed in warm water. Therapy with aspirin or ibuprofen may be helpful, but evidence is limited. Thrombolytic treatment within the first 24 hours after rewarming seems to be beneficial in some cases of severe frostbite. Prostacyclin therapy is very promising.