Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Gastroenterology AND Ascites, chylous [keywords]
- Abdominal distension in an infant. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Gastroenterology 2012 Nov; 143(5):e4-5.
- Idiopathic chylous ascites treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. A case report and review of the literature. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011 Oct; 23(10):961-3.
Chylous ascites is the accumulation of lipid-rich lymph in the peritoneal cavity. The usual cause in adults is lymphatic obstruction or leakage caused by malignancy. Non-malignant causes include postoperative trauma, cirrhosis, tuberculosis, pancreatitis and filariasis. A variety of treatment options have been proposed for the management of chylous ascites; however, their effectiveness in idiopathic or primary form is unknown. Here we report a case of chylous acid rapidly resolved with the treatment of fasting, total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin analogue.
- Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastrointest Oncol 2011 Feb 15; 3(2):19-23.
Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited.
- A rare cause of chylous ascites. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Liver Int 2011 Mar; 31(3):329.
- A case of malignant abdominal pain. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Onkologie 2009 Nov; 32(11):666-8.
Testicular cancer is a common neoplasm in young and middle-aged men. Although the most common presentation is a palpable testicular mass, it can present with atypical symptoms. There is a lack of awareness among primary-care physicians about the less common presentations of testicular tumors. Early detection is a key prognostic variable. This case demonstrates an unusual first presentation of testicular cancer with chylous ascites and abdominal pain.We report a case of a 19-year-old man who presented with severe atypical abdominal pain, which was initially diagnosed as acute appendicitis. He underwent laparoscopic appendectomy and was found to have chylous ascites and a normal-appearing appendix. As part of his work-up for chylous ascites, he was found to have mesenteric lymphadenopathy. These nodes were sampled and revealed a mixed germ cell tumor. The primary tumor was later traced to his right testis.The differential diagnosis of atypical abdominal pain in young men should include testicular tumors. A thorough testicular exam should be part of the routine physical exam in such situations.
- Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2009 Oct 14; 15(38):4849-52.
We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature.
- The utility of evaluating low serum albumin gradient ascites in patients with cirrhosis. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2009 Jun; 104(6):1401-5.
Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been used extensively in the diagnostic workup of patients with ascites. A SAAG level of <1.1 g/dl is usually thought of as a result of nonportal hypertension etiologies, including malignancies, tuberculous peritonitis, and nephrotic syndrome. However, the predictive value of a low SAAG in patients with existing cirrhosis in whom the pretest probability of portal hypertension is high is not clear.We identified all patients with a SAAG of <1.1 g/dl during a 5-year period at a single large veterans affairs medical center. Cirrhosis was defined by clinical, histological, and radiological features. Nonportal hypertension causes of low SAAG were identified, including bacterial peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, nephrogenous ascites, tuberculous peritonitis, chylous ascites, and pancreatic ascites.We identified 92 patients (76 with cirrhosis and 16 with no cirrhosis) with ascites and a SAAG of <1.1 g/dl. Of the 76 patients with cirrhosis, only 29 (38%) had an identifiable cause, most commonly primary bacterial peritonitis (11, 38%), followed by peritoneal carcinomatosis or malignant ascites (8, 28%) and nephrotic syndrome (5, 17%). There were 47 patients with cirrhosis and a low SAAG for whom no etiology was identified. Thirty-three patients underwent a repeat paracentesis, 24 (73%) of whom changed to a high SAAG. On the other hand, the 16 patients with no cirrhosis had significantly lower SAAG (0.66 vs. 0.81), and most (12, 75%) had an identifiable cause of ascites.Evaluation of a SAAG <1.1 g/dl in patients with known cirrhosis has low yield and is less likely to be helpful than that in patients without cirrhosis. A repeat paracentesis as part of the workup is recommended. Further studies of low SAAG cutoffs are needed.
- Histiocytic sarcoma presenting with chylous ascites in a 7-month-old infant: a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2009 Jan; 31(1):65-8.
We describe in this report what we believe to be the first report of a rare presentation of a very rare tumor, especially in this age group. We highlight the importance of early consideration of malignancy as a cause of chylous ascites in infancy and we discuss different causes of chylous ascites.
- Successful living-related liver transplantation in a child with familial yellow nail syndrome and fulminant hepatic failure: report of a case. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Pediatr Transplant 2008 Dec; 12(8):906-9.
An 11-yr-old boy with familial YNS and FHF and who underwent LRLT is presented. LRLT was performed from his father with YNS. The findings of hepatic failure resolved immediately after LRLT, but severe respiratory complications and chylous ascites were observed during the follow-up. At 12 months after successful LT, the patient has good graft function, but findings of YNS including chronic cough, lymphedema and yellow nails are still present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of YNS who underwent LRLT for FHF.
- Chylous ascites after living related liver transplantation treated with somatostatin analog and parenteral nutrition. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Transplant Proc 2008 Jan-Feb; 40(1):320-1.
Chylous ascites are the accumulation of chylomicron-rich lymphatic fluid within the peritoneal cavity, resulting from obstruction or disruption of abdominal lymphatic channels. This rare condition may be associated with neoplastic or infectious infiltration of lymphatics, with pancreatitis, and with abdominal surgery. It may occur spontaneously in 0.5% of patients with cirrhosis; but only among a few liver transplantation cases. The management of chylous ascites is controversial; the variety of described treatments include repeated paracentesis, dietary control, peritoneovenous shunting, and surgical ligation of the disrupted lymphatic channels. In this article, we report 2 cases of rapid resolution of chylous ascites after liver transplantation following 5 days of treatment using a somatostatin analog and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). A 3.5-year-old girl and a 5-year-old girl underwent living related liver transplantation for biliary atresia and hepatoblastoma, respectively. Chylous ascites, diagnosed by ascitic fluid examination, developed within the 2 weeks after transplantation in the 2 cases. Treatment by fasting, TPN, and somatostatin analog resulted in rapid resolution of the ascites within 1 week. The prevalence of chylous ascites was noted in 1.6% of children (2/119) after liver transplantation. These cases highlight the use of somatostatin analog and parenteral nutrition in chylous ascites after liver transplantation.