- Is there a role for ghrelin in central dopaminergic systems? Focus on nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways. [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2016 Nov 30
- The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotect...
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders. Dopamine regulates motivated behaviors, modulating reward processes, emotions and motor functions to enable the survival of individuals and species. Numerous dopamine-related disorders including Parkinson's disease or eating disorders like anorexia nervosa involve altered ghrelin levels. However, despite the growing interest for ghrelin in these pathological conditions, global integrative studies investigating its role in brain dopaminergic structures are still lacking. In this review, we discuss the role of ghrelin on dopaminergic neurons and its relevance in the search for new therapeutics for Parkinson's disease- and anorexia nervosa-related dopamine deficits.
- The Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Pyloroplasty Combined with Gastric Electrical Stimulation Therapy in Gastroparesis. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastrointest Surg 2016 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: Combination of gastric electrical stimulator and pyloroplasty significantly accelerated gastric emptying and improved gastroparesis symptoms. Combining these two surgical therapies improves both subjective and objective endpoints in drug refractory gastroparesis.
- Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. [Journal Article]
- GHGastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 39 Suppl 1:3-13
- This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important cont...
This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive. From the physiopathological point of view, several studies have shown that the aggregation of physiopathological alterations increases symptom severity in distinct functional disorders. From the therapeutic point of view, more data were presented on the efficacy of acotiamide and its mechanisms of action in functional dyspepsia, the safety and efficacy of domperidone in patients with gastroparesis, and the efficacy of linaclotide both in irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. In irritable bowel syndrome, more data have come to light on the favourable results of a low FODMAP diet, with emphasis on its role in modifying the microbiota. Finally, long-term efficacy data were presented on the distinct treatment options in achalasia.
- Paraneoplastic rhombencephalitis and cerebellitis preceded by isolated intractable vomiting. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neurol Belg 2016 Nov 25
- A qualitative assessment of West Virginia pharmacist activities and attitude in diabetes management. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Eval Clin Pract 2016 Nov 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite the mounting evidence that pharmacists can improve diabetic patient outcomes while significantly reducing overall costs, WV pharmacists are less involved in providing education or counseling in a variety of areas related to disease state management. In addition, identifying pharmacist challenges provides significant information for future planning toward improving diabetic patient care.
- Gastrointestinal comorbidities which complicate the treatment of anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- EDEat Disord 2016 Nov 21; :1-12
- Patients with anorexia nervosa often voice a multitude of symptoms in regards to their gastrointestinal tract. These complaints can complicate the treatment of their eating disorder as they distract ...
Patients with anorexia nervosa often voice a multitude of symptoms in regards to their gastrointestinal tract. These complaints can complicate the treatment of their eating disorder as they distract attention from the important goal of weight restoration. Moreover, the restricting of certain food groups also makes the task of weight restoration substantially more difficult, or may result in binging. Therefore a working knowledge of common gastrointestinal comorbidities, such as celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastroparesis, is useful when treating a patient who has anorexia nervosa.
- The Association Between Fasting C-peptide and Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Gastroparesis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurogastroenterol Motil 2016 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: GI symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis affect approximately 20% of type 2 diabetes patients and are associated with lower fasting C-peptide levels independent of depression and anxiety status.
- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Invading the Duodenum and Presenting as Idiopathic Gastroparesis with Nausea and Vomiting. [Journal Article]
- ACACG Case Rep J 2016; 3(4):e109
- A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed to...
A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed tomography was normal. The working diagnosis was idiopathic gastroparesis. Subsequently, an electrogastrogram test showed normal 3-cycle-per-minute activity, although it was suggestive of obstructive gastroparesis. Repeat esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed obstruction at the postbulbar duodenum. Repeat abdominal computed tomography revealed a 2.2 x 1.6-cm mass in the pancreaticoduodenal groove narrowing the descending duodenum and aspiration of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma.
- Gastric motility and emptying assessment by magnetic resonance imaging after lung transplantation: correlation with gastric emptying scintigraphy. [Journal Article]
- ARAbdom Radiol (NY) 2016 Oct 31
- CONCLUSIONS: MRI-based determinations of gastric motility and gastric emptying correlate with GES-based gastric emptying in lung transplant recipients, suggesting that MRI is useful for evaluating patients with gastroparesis.
New Search Next
- Interleukin 10 Restores Gastric Emptying, Electrical Activity, and Interstitial Cells of Cajal Networks in Diabetic Mice. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 2(4):454-467
- CONCLUSIONS: IL10 increases gastric emptying in diabetic mice and has therapeutic potential for patients with diabetic gastroparesis. This response is associated with up-regulation of HO1 and repair of connectivity of ICC networks.