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- The relationship between symptom improvement and gastric emptying in the treatment of gastroparesis: remember the pharmacology. [Journal Article]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Mar; 109(3):444-5.
- Xiangshaliujunzi Decoction for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis: A systematic review. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Jan 14; 20(2):561-568.
To assess the current clinical evidence of the effectiveness of Xiangshaliujunzi Decoction (XSLJZD) for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP).Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from seven major electronic databases including Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Databases, using search dates from the beginning of the databases to May 2013. No language limitations were applied. We included RCTs that used XSLJZD or a modified XSLJZD compared with a control group for the treatment of DGP. The control groups included conventional treatment (Western medicinal treatment), placebo, and no treatment (blank), but not acupuncture. The main outcome index was clinical effectiveness, which was based on the gastric emptying test and variations in the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms between the treatment and control groups after intervention. Data extraction, analysis, and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, Version 5.1.0.Ten RCTs involving 867 patients (441 in the experimental groups, and 426 in the control groups) were identified, and the overall methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. In the treatment groups, all 10 trials used herbs alone as the treatment, whereas all control groups used prokinetic medicine. The period of intervention ranged from 2 to 8 wk. Three classes were used to evaluate treatment efficacy: significant effective, effective, and ineffective, and all trials used the clinical effective rate (based on the gastric emptying test and changes in GI symptoms) to evaluate efficacy. The data showed that the effects of XSLJZD for the treatment of DGP were superior to the control group (n = 867, RR =1.33, 95%CI: 1.24-1.42, Z = 8.11, P < 0.00001). Two trials recorded adverse events, and one trial reported follow-up.XSLJZD could restore the gastric emptying rate and improve symptoms. However, the evidence remains weak due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies.
- Gender aspects suggestive of gastroparesis in patients with diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey. [Journal Article]
- BMC Gastroenterol 2014; 14(1):34.
It is suggested that symptoms related to gastroparesis are more common in female than in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The association between sex and prevalence of symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis among patients with T2DM in Israel has not been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the associations between sex, clinical characteristics, type, severity and prevalence of dyspeptic symptoms in a large population of patients with T2DM in Israel.All patients completed a demographic questionnaire and the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). Data regarding disease duration, medications, complications, recent blood glucose and HbA1c levels were also collected. In this nested case-control study, 173 female and 209 male patients were identified from within a cross-sectional survey of 382 patients with T2DM. Logistic and general linear modeling was used to assess associations between sex, clinical data, and the presence (type and number) of symptoms.Compared to males, female patients with T2DM had a higher body mass index (BMI) (31.9 vs. 29.2; P = 0.001) and HbA1c levels (7.9 vs. 7.5; P = 0.04). A larger proportion of males suffered from peripheral vascular disease (P = 0.02) and ischemic heart disease (P = 0.001). Other disease characteristics did not differ between the sexes. The prevalence of nausea (P = 0.001), early satiety (P = 0.005), loss of appetite (P = 0.002), or presence of any cardinal symptom (P = 0.001) was significantly higher among females. Severity of most cardinal symptoms was also higher in females. The presence of at least one cardinal symptom was more likely among obese females with longer disease duration and poor glycemic control.Prevalence and severity of symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis is particularly high among obese females with long standing and poorly controlled T2DM.
- Efficacy of Laparoscopic Pyloroplasty for the Treatment of Gastroparesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Coll Surg 2013 Dec 24.
The modest results of nonoperative modalities for the treatment of gastroparesis necessitate greater consideration of surgical therapies. However, the role of surgery is not well defined. The aim of this study is to present our experience with laparoscopic pyloroplasty as early treatment for gastroparesis.Fifty patients with refractory gastroparesis underwent laparoscopic pyloroplasty (hand-sewn Heineke-Mikulicz configuration) from 2006 to 2013 at our institution. Preoperative and postoperative symptom data, gastric emptying scintigraphy, and technical outcomes of the procedure were reviewed. A single-factor ANOVA was performed for the comparison of continuous variables. Results are reported as mean ± SD or median absolute deviation.Thirty-four of 50 (68%) patients had previous foregut procedures and/or cholecystectomy. Thirty-two of 50 (64%) patients underwent concomitant procedures (ie, paraesophageal hernia repair and gastrostomy takedown) along with the pyloroplasty. Operative time, including combined procedures, blood loss, and length of stay were 175 ± 56 minutes, 64 ± 50 mL, 2.5 ± 2.7 days, respectively. There were no conversions to open technique or intraoperative complications. There were no suture-line leaks. The readmission rate was 14%. All patients had symptom follow-up and 33 (66%) had postoperative gastric emptying scintigraphy. Postoperative symptom improvement was reported by 82% of the patients (p < 0.001). Median preoperative T1/2 was 180 ± 73 minutes and postoperative T1/2 was 60 ± 23 minutes (p < 0.001). Five patients (10%), who had normalized postoperative T1/2 times, required other gastric emptying procedures; distal gastrectomy (n = 2), duodenojejunostomy (n = 2), and gastric stimulator placement (n = 1).Laparoscopic pyloroplasty is an effective early-treatment modality for selected cases of gastroparesis, with substantial improvement in objective gastric emptying times and low morbidity. The laparoscopic approach does not preclude subsequent procedures when necessary.
- Myosin va plays a role in nitrergic smooth muscle relaxation in gastric fundus and corpora cavernosa of penis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e86778.
The intracellular motor protein myosin Va is involved in nitrergic neurotransmission possibly by trafficking of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) within the nerve terminals. In this study, we examined the role of myosin Va in the stomach and penis, proto-typical smooth muscle organs in which nitric oxide (NO) mediated relaxation is critical for function. We used confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation of tissue from the gastric fundus (GF) and penile corpus cavernosum (CCP) to localize myosin Va with nNOS and demonstrate their molecular interaction. We utilized in vitro mechanical studies to test whether smooth muscle relaxations during nitrergic neuromuscular neurotransmission is altered in DBA (dilute, brown, non-agouti) mice which lack functional myosin Va. Myosin Va was localized in nNOS-positive nerve terminals and was co-immunoprecipitated with nNOS in both GF and CCP. In comparison to C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice, electrical field stimulation (EFS) of precontracted smooth muscles of GF and CCP from DBA animals showed significant impairment of nitrergic relaxation. An NO donor, Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), caused comparable levels of relaxation in smooth muscles of WT and DBA mice. These normal postjunctional responses to SNP in DBA tissues suggest that impairment of smooth muscle relaxation resulted from inhibition of NO synthesis in prejunctional nerve terminals. Our results suggest that normal physiological processes of relaxation of gastric and cavernosal smooth muscles that facilitate food accommodation and penile erection, respectively, may be disrupted under conditions of myosin Va deficiency, resulting in complications like gastroparesis and erectile dysfunction.
- Malignancy-associated gastroparesis: an important and overlooked cause of chronic nausea and vomiting. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
A 69-year-old woman was referred to a gastroenterology clinic with a 1-year history of protracted nausea and postprandial vomiting. She had a background of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a significant smoking history. Her laboratory work-up including autoimmune screen, coeliac serology and synacthen test were unremarkable. Upper gastrointestinalendoscopy and CT imaging ruled out mucosal and obstructive causes. Gastric emptying studies demonstrated a delayed gastric emptying consistent with diagnosis of gastroparesis. Concurrently, she underwent a CT of the thorax for unresolved consolidation on her chest X-ray. This revealed a locally advanced primary lung carcinoma. In this context, with all other causes excluded, her gastroparesis was deemed to represent a paraneoplastic phenomenon. Gastroparesis is a frequent, under-recognised and important complication of cancer.
- Comparison of the exposure of mycophenolate mofetil and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in recipients of kidney-pancreas transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Ann Transplant 2014.:76-81.
Patients with a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (SPKT), especially those with gastroparesis, often have gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders that can modify immunosuppressant pharmacokinetics. We compared the MPA 12-hours area under the curve (AUC(0-12)) in SKPT patients with severe gastroparesis receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS).Fifteen SKPT patients having a severe gastroparesis were switched, at 182 (69-1523) days post-transplantation, from MMF to EC-MPS because of GI disorders. MPA AUC(0-12) values were obtained before and after the switch, ie, under MMF (500 mg b.i.d.) at 169 (51-1522) days post-transplantation and EC-MPS (360 mg b.i.d.) at 102 (26-355) days after the switch.Mean MPA AUC(0-12) h did not differ significantly under MMF and EC-MPS, ie, 40.13±14 and 38.24±15.5 mg*h/L, respectively. Trough and maximal MPA concentrations were similar with both MPA formulations. Although all patients had GI disorders under MMF (100%), only 3 had persistent GI disorders under EC-MPS (20%) (p<0.001).In SKPT patients with severe gastroparesis, exposure to MPA is similar under MMF and EC-MPS. However, the incidence of GI disorders is significantly lower when patients are given EC-MPS.
- Gastroparesis after living-donor lobar lung transplantation: report of five cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Today 2014 Jan 31.
Gastroparesis is a challenging gastrointestinal complication of deceased-donor lung transplantation and heart-lung transplantation, but it has not been reported after living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). To better understand this complication after LDLLT, we reviewed our institutional experiences. Among the 32 patients who survived for at least 3 months after LDLLT, five (16 %) developed symptomatic gastroparesis. All five patients had undergone bilateral LDLLT, and gastroparesis was diagnosed within 2 months after transplantation. Neither adult patients who received single lobar LDLLT nor pediatric patients who received either bilateral or single lobar LDLLT developed gastroparesis. Although gastroparesis-related symptoms improved after medical treatment in three patients, two patients died of complications related to gastroparesis. We conclude that gastroparesis can occur after LDLLT and may cause grave complications unless carefully managed.
- Clinical features and severity of gastric emptying delay in brazilian patients with gastroparesis. [Journal Article]
- Arq Gastroenterol 2013 Oct-Dec; 50(4):270-6.
Context Gastroparesis is defined by delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction of the gastroduodenal junction, which has been increasingly investigated. Nevertheless, knowledge on the relationships between etiology, symptoms and degree of delayed gastric emptying is limited. Objectives The demographic, clinical and etiological features of Brazilian patients with gastroparesis were studied and the relationships between these findings and the severity of gastric emptying were determined. Method This is a retrospective study of medical records of 41 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis admitted between 1998 and 2011, who had evidence of abnormally delayed gastric emptying on abdominal scintigraphy. Cases with idiopathic gastroparesis were compared with those of patients with neurologic disorders or diabetes mellitus, in whom autonomic neuropathy is likely to occur. Results The majority of the patients were women (75.6%) with a median age of 41 years and a long-term condition (median: 15 years). Twelve patients (29.3%) had a body mass index of less than 20 kg/m2. The most common presenting symptoms were dyspepsia (53.6%), nausea and vomiting (46.3%), weight loss (41.4%) and abdominal pain (24.3%). Regarding etiology, 16 patients had digestive disorders including idiopathic gastroparesis (n = 12), 12 had postoperative conditions, 11 had diseases of the nervous system, five had diabetes mellitus and in three cases gastroparesis was associated to a variety of conditions. In the majority of patients (65.8%) gastric emptying was severely delayed. There was no association between etiology of gastroparesis, type of presenting symptoms and the degree of delay in gastric emptying. Gastroparesis patients with proven (neurological conditions) or presumed (diabetes) nervous system involvements were significantly younger (P = 0.001), had more recent symptom onset (P = 0:03) and a trend towards more severe gastric empty (P = 0:06). There were no significant differences between this subgroup of patients and that comprising cases of idiopathic gastroparesis regarding any of the variables studied. Conclusions The demographic, clinical and etiological characteristics of Brazilian patients with gastroparesis are quite varied, but there is a predominance of women with long-standing symptoms and marked delay in gastric emptying. The type of presenting symptoms and the degree of delay in gastric emptying do not predict the etiology of gastroparesis. However, severely delayed gastric emptying in younger patients with recent symptom onset should raise the suspicion of impaired neural control of gastro-duodenal motility.
- Upregulation of β1-adrenoceptors is involved in the formation of gastric dysmotility in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transl Res 2014 Jan 7.
Gastrointestinal dysmotility is one of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gastroparesis and upregulated β-adrenoceptors (β-ARs) have been reported in rats with bilateral microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the substantia nigra, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of β-ARs in gastroparesis in 6-OHDA rats. Gastric motility was studied through strain gauge measurement. Immunofluorescence, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to examine the expression of β-ARs. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited gastric motility in a dose-dependent fashion in both control and 6-OHDA rats, but much stronger adrenergic reactivity was observed in the 6-OHDA rats. The inhibition of gastric motility by NE in both control and 6-OHDA rats was not affected by tetrodotoxin, a neural sodium channel blocker. Blocking β1-AR or β2-AR did not affect the inhibition of strip contraction by NE in control rats, but β1-AR blockage obviously enhanced the half maximal inhibitory concentration value of NE in 6-OHDA rats. Selective inhibition of β3-AR blocked the effect of NE significantly in both control and 6-OHDA rats. The protein expression of β1-AR, but not β2-AR and β3-AR in gastric muscularis externa was increased significantly in 6-OHDA rats. In conclusion, β3-AR involves the regulation of gastric motility in control rats, whereas the upregulation of β1-AR is responsible for enhanced NE reactivity in 6-OHDA rats and therefore is involved in the formation of gastroparesis. The effect of both β1-AR and β3-AR on gastric motility is independent of the enteric nervous system.