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- Gastrointestinal complications of diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- World J Diabetes 2013 Jun 15; 4(3):51-63.
Diabetes mellitus affects virtually every organ system in the body and the degree of organ involvement depends on the duration and severity of the disease, and other co-morbidities. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement can present with esophageal dysmotility, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, enteropathy, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and glycogenic hepatopathy. Severity of GERD is inversely related to glycemic control and management is with prokinetics and proton pump inhibitors. Diabetic gastroparesis manifests as early satiety, bloating, vomiting, abdominal pain and erratic glycemic control. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is considered the gold standard test for diagnosis. Management includes dietary modifications, maintaining euglycemia, prokinetics, endoscopic and surgical treatments. Diabetic enteropathy is also common and management involves glycemic control and symptomatic measures. NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and treatment is mainly lifestyle measures, with diabetes and dyslipidemia management when coexistent. Glycogenic hepatopathy is a manifestation of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and is managed by prompt insulin treatment. Though GI complications of diabetes are relatively common, awareness about its manifestations and treatment options are low among physicians. Optimal management of GI complications is important for appropriate metabolic control of diabetes and improvement in quality of life of the patient. This review is an update on the GI complications of diabetes, their pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation and management.
- Low prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with gastroparesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Jun 11.
BACKGROUND:The histopathology of the gastric mucosa in patients with gastroparesis, a condition characterized by gastric retention without obstruction, has not been described.
AIM:To test the hypothesis that reactive gastropathy is more common in patients with gastroparesis than in subjects with normal gastric motility.
METHODS:We compared the prevalence of reactive gastropathy, Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of gastroparesis extracted from a national database of subjects with gastric biopsies (1/2008-6/2012).
RESULTS:There were 3040 patients with gastroparesis (median age 58 years, 67.3% women) and 575,895 controls (median age 57 years, 62.0% women) with no evidence of gastroparesis. Reactive gastropathy was marginally more prevalent in patients with gastroparesis (18.9%) than in controls (17.0%). In contrast, H. pylori gastritis was present in 10.8% of controls, but only in 5.9% patients with gastroparesis (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.45-0.61). Intestinal metaplasia was also less common in patients with gastroparesis (2.8% versus 3.9%; OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.58-0.89).
CONCLUSIONS:The low prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastroparesis could be explained by higher rates of previous eradication, conditions unfavourable to the survival of H. pylori, or a protective effect of mucosal inflammation against the development of motility disorders.
- Electrogastrography in adults and children: the strength, pitfalls, and clinical significance of the cutaneous recording of the gastric electrical activity. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2013.:282757.
Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria). New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the (13)C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time-along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides-to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children.
- Decreased Relative Diagnostic Yield of Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Children With Gastroparesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Gastroenterol 2013 Jun 6.
BACKGROUND::Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) are commonly performed in the evaluation of children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. It has been presumed, but not clarified, that gastroparesis increases the likelihood of identifying abnormalities on EGD. We sought to determine whether the presence of gastroparesis influenced the diagnostic yield of EGD in children.
METHODS::We conducted a retrospective chart review of children who underwent both an EGD and GES within 3 months of each other for evaluation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms (eg, abdominal pain). Clinical history (symptoms, comorbidities, medications, and surgical procedures), GES results, and EGD histology reports were captured.
RESULTS::A total of 125 children (46% female) were included, of whom, 70 (56%) had gastroparesis. Thirty-three (26%) children had liquid meal GES (1.2±1.1 y of age, mean±SD) and 92 (64%) had solid meal GES (12.4±3.6 y of age). There was an overall trend toward a decreased frequency of biopsy abnormalities in those with gastroparesis (P=0.09). Those with gastroparesis identified through liquid meal GES were less likely to have reflux esophagitis on biopsy (P=0.002). Those with gastroparesis identified on solid meal GES were less likely to have gastritis (P=0.04). Symptoms, comorbidities, or medications were not predictive of GES or EGD results.
CONCLUSIONS::Children with gastroparesis may be less likely to have biopsy abnormalities identified on EGD in comparison to those without gastroparesis. Further prospective, larger, and multicenter studies are needed to validate our findings.
- A loss of social eating: the experience of individuals living with gastroparesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Nurs 2013 Jun 7.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To report the experience of patients living with gastroparesis.
BACKGROUND:The complex illness of gastroparesis is a condition of delayed gastric emptying associated with a range of different symptoms, including nausea, vomiting and depression, resulting in altered eating patterns. Patients are often over-investigated, treatments are not always successful, and quality of life is often impaired.
DESIGN:A descriptive phenomenology study was undertaken to examine the experience of living with gastroparesis. Nine gastroparesis patients gave in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed, and framework analysis methods applied.
METHODS:A descriptive phenomenology study was undertaken. Nine gastroparesis patients gave in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed, and framework analysis methods applied.
RESULTS:Four main themes emerged: the first described their experiences and opinions of medical professionals, the second their understanding of mental health and mental illness, the third how they managed social settings and the fourth their identity and security. Their behaviour around food and mealtimes was often associated with feelings of loss, isolation and rejection, which influenced their reported quality of life. These factors resulted in their personal struggle to understand how this chronic, stigmatising illness affects their identity and their need for security.
CONCLUSIONS:The complex illness of gastroparesis affects every aspect of patients' lives. As treatments for gastroparesis continue to evolve, therapies to help these patients address the psychological impact and the feelings of loss they report must not be overlooked. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A better understanding of these patients' sense of loss of normal eating behaviour and the associated psychological distress needs to inform gastroparesis service provision with a view to developing a more holistic service for this patient group.
- The metoclopramide black box warning for tardive dyskinesia: effect on clinical practice, adverse event reporting, and prescription drug lawsuits. [Journal Article]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2013 Jun; 108(6):866-72.
We examined the effects of the black box warning about the risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) with chronic use of metoclopramide on management of gastroparesis within a single clinical practice, and on reporting of adverse events.Medical records of gastroparesis patients were evaluated for physician management choices. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) was analyzed for event reports, and for lawyer-initiated reports, with metoclopramide from 2004 to 2010. Google Scholar was searched for court opinions against metoclopramide manufacturers.Before the black box warning, 69.8% of patients received metoclopramide for gastroparesis, compared with 23.7% after the warning. Gastroenterologists prescribed domperidone more often after than before the warning. Metoclopramide prescriptions decreased after 2008. Adverse event reporting increased after the warning. Only 3.6% of all FAERS reports but 70% of TD reports were filed by lawyers, suggesting a distortion in signal. Forty-seven legal opinions were identified, 33 from 2009-2010.The black box warning for metoclopramide has decreased its usage and increased its rate of adverse event reporting. Lawyer-initiated reports of TD hinder pharmacovigilance.
- Why triptan treatment can fail: focus on gastrointestinal manifestations of migraine. [Journal Article]
- Headache 2013 Jun.:11-6.
Results of randomized, double-blind, controlled studies establish the efficacy of triptans in the acute treatment of migraine, but triptan benefits demonstrated in clinical trials have not consistently been realized in clinical practice. This paper explores the contribution of gastrointestinal manifestations of migraine - namely nausea (with or without vomiting) and gastroparesis - to triptan treatment failure.Migraine-related nausea and vomiting and migraine-associated gastroparesis appear to be prevalent and highly impactful and have been characterized as being among the greatest challenges affecting migraine care today. These gastrointestinal signs and symptoms have not been satisfactorily taken into account in the management of migraine, which is dominated by the use of oral therapies. Oral triptans are not the optimal therapy in the presence of migraine-related nausea because nausea predicts poor response to oral triptans and because nausea can cause patients to delay oral treatment, which can further compromise therapeutic efficacy. Oral triptans are not the optimal therapy in the presence of migraine-associated gastroparesis because these agents rely on gastric motility and gastrointestinal absorption and may be ineffective or slowly or inconsistently effective in the presence of gastroparesis. Health care providers need to work with their patients to address the still-all-too-frequent problem of treatment failure in migraine. First, health care providers need to have greater appreciation of the importance of nausea, vomiting, and gastroparesis as factors affecting migraine prognosis and treatment success. Second, health care providers need to systematically assess migraine patients for gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Finally, patients and health care providers need to be willing to practice customized migraine care, in which patients tailor the treatment and formulation to the characteristics and context of the individual migraine episode.
- Migraine and Gastroparesis From a Gastroenterologist's Perspective. [Journal Article]
- Headache 2013 Jun.:4-10.
Gastroparesis is a chronic stomach disorder manifested by delayed emptying of solids and liquids without evidence of mechanical obstruction. Evidence from pharmacokinetic and gastric motor studies conducted over the past 40 years shows that delayed gastric emptying often occurs in migraine. This paper provides a general overview of gastroparesis for the headache specialist, discusses the research on the association of gastroparesis and migraine, and considers the clinical implications of that association. The nature, causes, correlates, and consequences of gastric stasis in migraine are just beginning to be elucidated; much further study is warranted. The data available to date show that gastric stasis in migraine appears to be clinically important. Evidence from both pharmacokinetic studies and studies measuring gastric motor function suggests that gastric stasis may delay absorption of an orally administered drug, delay its peak serum concentrations, and delay its effectiveness. These results suggest that oral migraine medications, which rely on absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, may be affected in the presence of migraine-associated gastric stasis. Several non-oral formulations that do not rely on gastrointestinal absorption are available or in development for the treatment of migraine and symptoms of gastroparesis.
- Risk factors of gastroparesis syndrome after abdominal non-gastroduodenal operation and its prevention. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013 Jun; 6(6):497-9.
To investigate risk factors of gastroparesis syndrome (PGS) after abdominal non-gastroduodenal operation and its prevention.Clinical data of 22 patients with PGS after abdominal non-gastroduodenal operation was analyzed retrospectively, and compared with the patients of non-PGS after abdominal non-gastroduodenal operation during the same time. The possible influencing factors of PGS were analyzed by single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis.All 13 selected factors related with PGS, including age, disease category (benign and malignant), operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative analgesic pump, postoperative enteral nutrition time, postoperative parenteral nutrition time, perioperative blood glucose level, perioperative nutrition status (anaemia or lower proteinemia), pylorus obstruction before surgery, intra-abdominal infection after surgery, and spiritual factor were related with PGS. The statistical analysis showed that the difference was statistical significant (P<0.05), and gender had no correlation with PGS (P>0.05); non-conditional multivariate analysis showed that malignant tumor, perioperative nutrition status, pylorus obstruction, operation time, blood loss, intra-abdominal infection after surgery, and mental factor were significant related with PGS as dependent variable and related risk factors in single factor analysis as independent variables (P <0.05).PGS is a result of multiple factors, and among these factors, malignant tumor, poor nutrition status, pylorus obstruction before surgery, longer operation-time, more blood loss, intra-abdominal infection after surgery, and mental factor are major risk factors of PGS.
- Identification of domperidone metabolites in plasma and urine of gastroparesis patients with LC-ESI-MS/MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Xenobiotica 2013 May 24.
Abstract 1. Domperidone is a prokinetic agent used to treat gastroparesis. Previous studies reported oxidative metabolites of domperidone, detected by radiometric high-performance liquid chromatography or single quadrupole mass spectrometric techniques. Our aim was to identify domperidone Phase I and Phase II metabolites using liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization-enabled tandem mass spectrometry. 2. Domperidone metabolites were identified in the plasma and urine of 11 gastroparesis patients currently being treated with domperidone. In addition, oxidative and conjugative metabolites of domperidone were characterized in human liver subcellular fractions. 3. Seven metabolites were detected in vivo. Domperidone was metabolized to two mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M1 and M2), a de-alkylated metabolite (M5) and a di-hydroxylated metabolite (M7). The mono-hydroxylated metabolites were further glucuronidated to M8, M9 and sulfated to M11. To the best of our knowledge, M7, M8, M9 and M11 have not been reported previously. Five additional metabolites were identified in vitro in human subcellular fractions which comprise two additional mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3 and M4), an alcohol metabolite (M6) possibly formed from an aldehyde intermediate, and other conjugative metabolites (M10 and M12). M6, M10 and M12 have not been characterized previously. 4. In total, 12 domperidone metabolites including 7 new metabolites were identified in the present study. These results allow a better understanding of domperidone disposition in humans.