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- Non-invasive measurement of brain temperature with microwave radiometry: demonstration in a head phantom and clinical case. [Journal Article]
- Neuroradiol J 2014 Feb 28; 27(1):3-12.
This study characterizes the sensitivity and accuracy of a non-invasive microwave radiometric thermometer intended for monitoring body core temperature directly in brain to assist rapid recovery from hypothermia such as occurs during surgical procedures. To study this approach, a human head model was constructed with separate brain and scalp regions consisting of tissue equivalent liquids circulating at independent temperatures on either side of intact skull. This test setup provided differential surface/deep tissue temperatures for quantifying sensitivity to change in brain temperature independent of scalp and surrounding environment. A single band radiometer was calibrated and tested in a multilayer model of the human head with differential scalp and brain temperature. Following calibration of a 500MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer in the head model, feasibility of clinical monitoring was assessed in a pediatric patient during a 2-hour surgery. The results of phantom testing showed that calculated radiometric equivalent brain temperature agreed within 0.4°C of measured temperature when the brain phantom was lowered 10°C and returned to original temperature (37°C), while scalp was maintained constant over a 4.6-hour experiment. The intended clinical use of this system was demonstrated by monitoring brain temperature during surgery of a pediatric patient. Over the 2-hour surgery, the radiometrically measured brain temperature tracked within 1-2°C of rectal and nasopharynx temperatures, except during rapid cooldown and heatup periods when brain temperature deviated 2-4°C from slower responding core temperature surrogates. In summary, the radiometer demonstrated long term stability, accuracy and sensitivity sufficient for clinical monitoring of deep brain temperature during surgery.
- Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism. [Journal Article]
- Physiol Res 2014 Feb 24.:S133-40.
We newly elaborated and adapted several radiometric enzyme assays for the determination of activities of the key enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis (thyroid peroxidase, TPO) and metabolic transformations (conjugating enzymes and iodothyronine deiodinases, IDs) of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland and in peripheral tissues, especially in white adipose tissue (WAT). We also elaborated novel, reliable radiometric methods for extremely sensitive determination of enzyme activities of IDs of types 1, 2 and 3 in microsomal fractions of different rat and human tissues, as well as in homogenates of cultured mammalian cells. The use of optimized TLC separation of radioactive products from the unconsumed substrates and film-less autoradiography of radiochromatograms, taking advantage of storage phosphor screens, enabled us to determine IDs enzyme activities as low as 10(-18) katals. In studies of the interaction of fluoxetine (Fluox) with the metabolism of THs, we applied adapted radiometric enzyme assays for iodothyronine sulfotransferases (ST) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). Fluox is the most frequently used representative of a new group of non-tricyclic antidepressant drugs - selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. We used the elaborated assays for quantification the effects of Fluox and for the assessment of the degree of potential induction of rat liver ST and/or UDP-GT enzyme activities by Fluox alone or in combination with T(3). Furthermore, we studied possible changes in IDs activities in murine adipose tissue under the conditions that promoted either tissue hypertrophy (obesogenic treatment) or involution (caloric restriction), and in response to leptin, using our newly developed radiometric enzyme assays for IDs. Our results suggest that deiodinase D1 has a functional role in WAT, with D1 possibly being involved in the control of adipose tissue metabolism and/or accumulation of the tissue. Significant positive correlation between specific enzyme activity of D1 in WAT and plasma leptin levels was found. The newly developed and adapted radiometric enzyme assays proved to be very useful tools for studies of factors modulating THs metabolism, not only in model animals but also in clinical studies of human obesity.
- The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana. [Historical Article, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Nature 2014 Feb 13; 506(7487):225-9.
Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.
- Assessment effect of gamma radiation on the flight ability of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). [Journal Article]
- Pak J Biol Sci 2013 Dec 1; 16(23):1730-6.
The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt 60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively.
- Influence of gamma irradiation on productivity indices of the edible Emperor moth caterpillar, Cirina forda (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). [Journal Article]
- Pak J Biol Sci 2013 Aug 1; 16(15):735-8.
This study was aimed at generating baseline information for sustainable genetic improvement of Cirana forda larvae for entomophagy, through the use of gamma irradiation. Eggs of C. forda were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma rays from 0 to 200 Gy and raised through larval instal stages under laboratory conditions. The Body Weight (BW) and Head Capsule Width (HCW) of the larval instar stages were monitored as indices of productivity. Successful larval emergence was recorded for all irradiation doses tested and BW of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the control and treated groups (range = 0.021 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the 200 Gy treatment to 0.028 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the control group and 0.105 +/- 0.003 g/larva in 20 Gy treatment to 0.172 +/- 0.009 g/larva in the control group, respectively). On the other hand, BW during the 3rd and 4th larval instars were significantly (p < 0.05) lower among the irradiated treatments than control. Pattern of distribution of HCW was different from that of BW; as HCW increased with irradiation dose from 10-50 Gy during the 3rd and 4th larval instars. Also, HCW during the 5th instar larvae among the irradiated treatments (range = 5.256 +/- 0.012 to 5.662 +/- 0.026 mm) were not higher than that of the 6th instar in the control group (6.065 +/- 0.010 mm). These results suggest promising potentials of the use of gamma irradiation in sustainably improving the productivity of C. forda larvae for entomophagy.
- [Measurement and assessment of electromagnetic fields near radiophones in line with provisions of European Directive 2013/35/EU and Polish labour law]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Pr 2013; 64(5):671-80.
The activities of rescue and uniformed services require the use of wireless communication devices, such as portable radiophones. Assessment of workers' exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by radiophones is important in view of occupational safety and health (OSH), legislation requirements and reports on possible adverse health effects in users of devices emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field.In this study 50 portable radiophones of conventional and trunked communication systems were investigated. The assessment of electromagnetic hazards to users involved unperturbed electromagnetic field measurements near radiophones' antennas.The electric field strength corresponding to the occupational exposure level (fields of so-called safety zones established by OSH legislation in Poland) was measured at a distance of 45-65 cm from the portable radiophones antennas of conventional system and 75-95 cm from antennas of trunked system radiophones, depending on their type and mode of work. The assessment was based on the averaged results of series of measurements. The electric field strength exceeding action levels defined by Directive 2013/35/EU was found up to 15 cm from radiophone antennas of conventional system and up to 10 cm from the antennas of trunked system radiophones.Taking into account the range of safety zones and the use of portable radiophones near the body, their users should be classified into the group of workers occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic field measurement results and typical conditions of using portable radiophones justify the need for additional assessment of electromagnetic hazards--the analysis of compliance with relevant exposure limit values provided by Directive 2013/35/EU.
- [Measurement of personal dose equivalent of X and gamma radiation by ring dosimeter: results of intercomparison measurements]. [Comparative Study, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Pr 2013; 64(5):631-7.
The aim of the study was to present the results of the interlaboratory comparisons for ring dosimeters and to confirm that the applied method is suitable for measuring the personal dose equivalent H(p)(0.07). In addition, calibration procedures used in dosimetric measurements in persons occupationally exposed to ionizing photon radiation X and gamma were presented.Ring dosimeters made of flexible plastics with the diameter of approximately 20 mm, equipped with two thermoluminescence (TL) detectors type MTS-N, were the subject of interlaboratory comparisons. Irradiated detectors were red out using a new manual TLD's reader (FIMEL, France). All TLD exposures were done for validation of TLD readers and were performed using the reference X-ray and gamma beams with the ISO rod phantom. The methodology of performed exposures corresponded with the methods applied by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS), the European organizer ofinterlaboratory comparisons.The energy, dose and angular characteristics of the ring dosimeter allowed to elaborate the formula for estimating and verifying the personal dose equivalent H(p)(0.07). The test was performed to check and confirm the correctness of the estimated characteristics. The test results were satisfactory, and thus the readiness to implement TLD reader in the used method and to participate in interlaboratory comparisons was confirmed.According to the requirements of the Polish Centre for Accreditation, the laboratory was participating in the interlaboratory comparison organized by EURADOS in terms of the personal dose equivalent H(p)(0.07). The result of the comparison was satisfactory, therefore the correctness of the testing procedure was confirmed.
- Assessment of exposure of workers to ionizing radiation from radioiodine and technetium in nuclear medicine departmental facilities. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Pr 2013; 64(5):625-30.
Due to its use of ionising radiation, the field of nuclear medicine is a unique and significant part of medical diagnostics and patient treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the internal exposure of nuclear medicine employees to radioiodine 131I and technetium 99mTc as well as to assess the external exposure doses.The radioiodine 131I and technetium 99mTc contents in the thyroid of staff members (about 100 persons) dealing with these radionuclides have been measured in four departments of nuclear medicine. The measurements were conducted with a portable detection unit for in situ measurements of radioiodine and technetium. High sensitivity environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used to measure the external exposure dose.The average values and ranges of radioiodine 131I activity measured in the thyroids of all of the medical units' employees were: 83 Bq (range: 70-250 Bq), 280 Bq (range: 70-4000 Bq), 275 Bq (range: 70-1000 Bq) for technical staff, nuclear medicine staff and hospital services staff, respectively. The mean value of technetium 99mTc content in the thyroids of nuclear medicine staff was approximately 1500 Bq (range: 50--1800 Bq). External exposure dose rates were in the range of 0.5-10 microGy/h.The calculated average effective dose for particular person caused by the inhalation of radioiodine 131I is below 5% of 20 mSv/year (occupational exposure limit).
- [Evaluation of exposure to ionizing radiation among gamma camera operators]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Pr 2013; 64(4):503-6.
Protection of nuclear medicine unit employees from hazards of the ionizing radiation is a crucial issue of radiation protection services. We aimed to assess the severity of the occupational radiation exposure of technicians performing scintigraphic examinations at the Nuclear Medicine Department, Central Teaching Hospital of Medical University in Lódz, where thousands of different diagnostic procedures are performed yearly.In 2013 the studied diagnostic unit has employed 10 technicians, whose exposure is permanently monitored by individual dosimetry. We analyzed retrospective data of quarterly doses in terms of Hp(10) dose equivalents over the years 2001-2010. Also annual and five-year doses were determined to relate the results to current regulations. Moreover, for a selected period of one year, we collected data on the total activity of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics, to analyze potential relationship with doses recorded in technicians performing the examinations.In a 10-year period under study, the highest annual dose recorded in a technician was 2 mSv, which represented 10% of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. The highest total dose for a 5-year period was 7.1 mSv, less than 10% of a 5-year dose limit for occupational exposure. Positive linear correlation was observed between total activity of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics in the period of three months and respective quarterly doses received by technicians performing examinations.Doses received by nuclear medicine technicians performing diagnostic procedures in compliance with principles of radiation protection are low, which is confirmed by recognizing the technicians of this unit as B category employees.
- [Objectivized evaluation of surgeons exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields -- in the context of exposure duration and Polish and new international requirements regarding workers protection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Pr 2013; 64(4):487-501.
Use of electro surgery units (ESU) in surgeries is linked with electromagnetic field emission, which is assessed according to the requirements of occupational health and safety legislation.Surgeons' exposure characteristics was monitored during 11 surgeries (proctectomy, patency of artery, hepatectomy, cystectomy, tonsilectomy, laparoscopy) by real time of monopolar ESU activity recorder. Investigations of root-mean-square value of electric and magnetic field strength was also performed at various modes of ESU operations during cutting (output power, 55-150 W; frequency, 330-445 kHz) and coagulating (40-240 W, 335-770 kHz). Statistical parameters of distribution of ESU operation over any 6-min periods (according to international requirements regarding protection against adverse thermal effects of electromagnetic field) were assessed.Electric field strength, measured 10 cm from the cable supplying an active electrode was 147-675 V/m during cutting and 297-558 V/m during coagulating; magnetic field strength was less than 0.2 A/m in both modes. Monitoring of ESUs showed the following ranges of their operation during surgeries 5-66% of time over starting 3 min of surgery, 3-40% over starting 6 min, and the distribution of their use over any 6-min periods 0-12% (median) / 7-43% (maximum value).The real operation time of ESUs ing surgeries was significantly shorter than that declared by workers. The distance of at least 15 cm between cables, connecting electrodes with generator and workers meets the requirements of the Polish legislation on permissible exposure limits. The assessment of localized exposure of the hand needs a detailed analysis of the SAR ratio distribution and further studies are required.