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Geiger counter [keywords]
- Microwave radiometry: a new non-invasive method for the detection of vulnerable plaque. [REVIEW]
- Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2012 Dec; 2(4):290-297.
Atherosclerosis and its consequences are the most rapidly growing vascular pathology, with myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebrovascular accident to remain a major cause of premature morbidity and death. In order to detect the morphological and functional characteristics of the vulnerable plaques, new imaging modalities have been developed. Intravascular thermography (IVT) is an invasive method, which provides information on the identification of the high-risk atheromatic plaques in coronary arteries. However, the invasive character of IVT excludes the method from primary prevention. Microwave radiometry (MR) is a new non-invasive method, which detects with high accuracy relative changes of temperature in human tissues whereas this thermal heterogeneity is indicative of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Both experimental and clinical studies have proved the effectiveness of MR in detecting vulnerable plaque whereas recent studies have also revealed its association with plaque neoangiogenesis as assessed by contrast enhanced carotid ultrasound (CEUS).
- Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites. [Journal Article]
- Carbohydr Polym 2014 Jan.:84-90.
Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field.
- Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proc SPIE 2013 Feb 26.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry.A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm(3)) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation.The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism.Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm(3)) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.
- Stable Microwave Radiometry System for Long Term Monitoring of Deep Tissue Temperature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proc SPIE 2013 Feb 26.
There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body.We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain on-axis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the radiometry system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues.We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of ∓0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle.A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface tissues for clinical applications like the detection of vesicoureteral reflux, and long term monitoring of brown fat metabolism or brain core temperature during extended surgery.
- Atmospheric black carbon in PM2.5 in Indonesian cities. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2013 Sep; 63(9):1022-5.
Samples of airborne particulate matter were collected at several cities in Indonesia: Bandung, Jakarta, Palangka Raya, Serpong, and Yogyakarta, from January through December 2011. The samples were collected once a week using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler in two size fractions of 2.5 microm (fine, PM2.5) and 2.5 to 10 microm (coarse, PM2.5-10). Black carbon was measured using an EEL smoke stain reflectometer The average of PM2.5 during the sampling period for Bandung, Jakarta, Palangka Raya, Serpong, and Yogyakarta sites was 18.35, 16.50, 7.74, 16.68, and 8.78 microg/m3, respectively. The average of BC for Bandung, Jakarta, Palangka Raya, Serpong and Yogyakarta was 3.05, 3.37, 3.19, 2.51, and 2.20 microg/m3, respectively. The ratio of the 24-hr BC concentration compared to the PM2.5 concentrations showed that BC comprises about 17-45% of the fine particulate matter collected at all sites. The average percentage of BC in PM2.5 concentrations in Bandung, Jakarta, Palangka Raya, Serpong, and Yogyakarta was 18, 22, 45, 17, and 26%, respectively. Bandung and Jakarta compared with Yogyakarta showed higher concentrations of PM2.5 and BC, which indicated pollution occurring in Bandung and Jakarta is more intense than in Yogyakarta, while the maximum of BC concentration and the percentage of BC in PM2.5 in Palangka Raya were 6.04 microg/m3 and 75%, respectively This higher BC concentration than the other cities was due to the forest fires that occurred frequently during the sampling period. The contributions of BC source in these cities were also analyzed to ascertain the local sources of BC. Implications: BC in PM2.5 was monitored over the period of January-December 2011 in several big cities in Indonesia to provide quantitative information on BC concentrations and contributions to PM2.5 and for comparison among these cities and with other Asian countries. This study supports the national air quality monitoring projects. The results of black carbon concentrations in these areas indicate source contributions from local sources such as forest fire, biomass burning, and vehicle emissions.
- Response. [Comment, Letter]
- Radiology 2013 Sep; 268(3):928.
- Response. [Comment, Letter]
- Radiology 2013 Sep; 268(3):926.
- Selenoprotein P inhibits radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species accumulation and normal cell injury. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013 Nov 1; 87(3):619-25.
Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs).Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs.Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05).SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.
- Retrospective cohort study of bronchial doses and radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung tumors located close to the bronchial tree. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013 Nov 1; 87(3):590-5.
To evaluate the dose-response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose.Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm(3) up to 2.0 cm(3)]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models.Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm(3) (D(0.1cm3)) was used for further analysis. The median value of D(0.1cm3) (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD(2,LQ) = 147 Gy3 (range, 20-293 Gy3). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD(2,LQ) = 210 Gy3, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD(2,LQ) = 105 Gy3. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months).In this retrospective study a significant dose-response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.
- Basic research for development of pinhole camera using a geiger mueller counter. [Journal Article]
- Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2013; 69(9):944-51.
To visualize the scattered X-ray distribution in the diagnosis domain, we examined whether a Geiger Mueller (GM) counter could be applied to a pinhole camera as an X-ray detector. The GM counter detects radiation at certain detection points. To obtain two-dimensional images using the GM counter, the detector needs to be moved two-dimensionally. We constructed an apparatus using industrial actuators to move the detector. To investigate the usability of the developed apparatus, the scattered X-rays from the phantom were measured using the GM counter. The images obtained were then compared with those measured using the phosphor plate. Our results demonstrated that the GM counter can detect low count-rate radiation, but further research will be needed to obtain clear two-dimensional images. In this paper, we propose that the GM counter can be used as a complementary detector to a phosphor plate.