(Geiger counter) articles in PubMed
- Comparison of The Canary System and DIAGNOdent for the in vitro detection of caries under opaque dental sealants. [Journal Article]
- J Investig Clin Dent 2016 Sep 26JI
- CONCLUSIONS: The Canary System can serve as a clinical tool to aid dental professionals to detect and monitor the status of caries lesions and tooth structure underneath sealant. The increased likelihood of false-positive diagnoses with DIAGNOdent due to intrinsic auto-fluorescence of sealant filler and opacifying agents might limit its usefulness as an aid to detect caries underneath opaque sealants.
- Advantages of day-before lymphoscintigraphy and undiluted methylene blue dye injections for sentinel lymph node biopsies for melanoma. [Journal Article]
- J Surg Oncol 2016 Sep 16JS
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to compare the use of DB LM with SD LM and the efficacy of uMB versus dMB. DB LM and uMB offer advantageous alternatives for patients and their surgeons without loss of accuracy or increased morbidity. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- First step to investigate nature of electronic states and transport in flower-like MoS2: Combining experimental studies with computational calculations. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016; 6:32690SR
- In the present paper, the nature of electronic states and transport properties of nanostructured flower-like molybdenum disulphide grown by hydrothermal route has been studied. The band structure, el...
In the present paper, the nature of electronic states and transport properties of nanostructured flower-like molybdenum disulphide grown by hydrothermal route has been studied. The band structure, electronic nature of charge, thermodynamics and the limit of phonon scattering through density functional theory (DFT) has also been studied. The band tail states, dynamics of trap states and transport of carriers was investigated through intensive impedance spectroscopy analysis. The direct fingerprint of density and band tail state is analyzed from the capacitance plot as capacitance reflects the capability of a semiconductor to accept or release the charge carriers with a corresponding change in its Fermi potential levels. A recently introduced infrared photo-carrier radiometry and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) techniques have been used to determine the temperature dependence of carrier mobility in flower type-MoS2. The present study illustrates that a large amount of trapped charges leads to an underestimation of the measured effective mobility and the potential of the material. Thus, a continuous engineering effort is required to improve the quality of fabricated nanostructures for its potential applications.
- Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights. [Journal Article]
- Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Dec 1; 69:1036-42MS
- Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences betwee...
Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p<0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p<0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs.
- Expeditious method to determine uranium in the process control samples of chemical plant separating (233)U from thoria irradiated in power reactors. [Journal Article]
- Talanta 2016 Nov 1; 160:347-53T
- Analysis of U in the samples containing a significant proportion of (232)U and high concentration of Th is of great concern. Transmutation of Th in the nuclear power reactor produces a notable quanti...
Analysis of U in the samples containing a significant proportion of (232)U and high concentration of Th is of great concern. Transmutation of Th in the nuclear power reactor produces a notable quantity of (232)U (half life 68.9 years) along with fissile isotope (233)U. The decay series of (232)U is initiated with (228)Th (half life 1.9 year) and it is followed by several short lived α emitting progenies, (224)Ra, (220)Rn, (216)Po, (212)Bi and (212)Po. Even at the smallest contamination of (228)Th in the sample, a very high pulse rate of α emission is obtained, which is to be counted for the radiometric determination of [U]. A commercially available anionic type of extractant Alamine®336 is used to obtain the selective extraction of U from other alpha active elements and fission products present in the sample. Experimental conditions of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are optimized for obtaining maximum decontamination and recovery of U in the organic phase. The effect of some interfering ionic impurities in the sample on the process of separation is investigated. Depending on the level of the concentration of U in the samples, spectrophotometry or radiometry methods are adopted for its determination after separation by LLE. Under optimized experimental conditions, i.e. 5.5M HCl in the aqueous phase and 0.27M Alamin®336 in the organic phase, the recovery of U is about 100%, the decontamination factor with respect to Th is >2000 and the extraction of fission products like (90)Sr, (144)Ce and (134,137)Cs is negligible. The detection limit for [U] using α radiometry is 10mg/L, even in presence of >100g/L of Th in the sample. Accuracy and precision for the determination of U is also assessed. Reproducibility of results is within 5%. This method shows very good agreement with the results obtained by mass spectrometry.
- Implications of atmospheric conditions for analysis of surface temperature variability derived from landscape-scale thermography. [Journal Article]
- Int J Biometeorol 2016 Aug 25IJ
- Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras perfectly bridge the gap between (i) on-site measurements of land surface temperature (LST) providing high temporal resolution at the cost of low spatial coverage and (...
Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras perfectly bridge the gap between (i) on-site measurements of land surface temperature (LST) providing high temporal resolution at the cost of low spatial coverage and (ii) remotely sensed data from satellites that provide high spatial coverage at relatively low spatio-temporal resolution. While LST data from satellite (LSTsat) and airborne platforms are routinely corrected for atmospheric effects, such corrections are barely applied for LST from ground-based TIR imagery (using TIR cameras; LSTcam). We show the consequences of neglecting atmospheric effects on LSTcam of different vegetated surfaces at landscape scale. We compare LST measured from different platforms, focusing on the comparison of LST data from on-site radiometry (LSTosr) and LSTcam using a commercially available TIR camera in the region of Bozen/Bolzano (Italy). Given a digital elevation model and measured vertical air temperature profiles, we developed a multiple linear regression model to correct LSTcam data for atmospheric influences. We could show the distinct effect of atmospheric conditions and related radiative processes along the measurement path on LSTcam, proving the necessity to correct LSTcam data on landscape scale, despite their relatively low measurement distances compared to remotely sensed data. Corrected LSTcam data revealed the dampening effect of the atmosphere, especially at high temperature differences between the atmosphere and the vegetated surface. Not correcting for these effects leads to erroneous LST estimates, in particular to an underestimation of the heterogeneity in LST, both in time and space. In the most pronounced case, we found a temperature range extension of almost 10 K.
- Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse. [Journal Article]
- Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2016 Sep 28; 374(2077)PT
- Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Tran...
Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.
- The MAYAK WORKER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM (MWDS-2013): ESTIMATION OF PLUTONIUM SKELETAL BURDEN FROM LIMITED AUTOPSY BONE SAMPLES FROM MAYAK PA WORKERS. [Journal Article]
- Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2016 Aug 19RP
- The method to estimate total skeleton plutonium burden of former Mayak Production Association (MPA) workers from limited bone samples obtained at autopsy is described. From two to nine bone samples w...
The method to estimate total skeleton plutonium burden of former Mayak Production Association (MPA) workers from limited bone samples obtained at autopsy is described. From two to nine bone samples were obtained at autopsies conducted from the mid-1950s to 2013. Plutonium was measured using alpha-radiometry up to 2000 and later by alpha-spectrometry. The method was validated using data from whole-body donations from the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). The developed algorithm overestimated the USTUR values from 20 to 40%, that is quite acceptable for conservative estimation. Late-in-life liver diseases known to redistribute plutonium between liver and skeleton were not associated with significant differences in plutonium deposition among sampled bones, except for the pelvis. Sources of uncertainties are discussed and future studies will address the reduction of these uncertainties. This algorithm can be used to obtain data in support of the development of biokinetic, dosimetric and risk models for humans exposed to plutonium.
- [Assessment of Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Underground Waters from the Far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site]. [Journal Article]
- Radiats Biol Radioecol 2016 Mar-Apr; 56(2):208-19RB
- This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay)...
This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly. The integral pollution index is over 1 in all the samples and could amount up to 165. The Allium-test application allows the detection of the sample points where underground waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. Dependencies between biological effects and pollution levels are analyzed. The findings obtained could be used for the monitoring optimized and decision making on rehabilitation measures to decrease negative influence of the enterprise on the environment.
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- [Modeling of Processes of Migration and Accumulation of Radionuclides in Freshwater Ecosystems by the Example of the Samson, Lev, Vandras Rivers Related to the Ob-Irtysh River Basin]. [Journal Article]
- Radiats Biol Radioecol 2016 Mar-Apr; 56(2):197-207RB
- Mathematical models of horizontal distribution and migration of radionuclides are presented in water and floodplain soils of the Samson-Lev-Vandras river system related to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. ...
Mathematical models of horizontal distribution and migration of radionuclides are presented in water and floodplain soils of the Samson-Lev-Vandras river system related to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. Integral inventory of radionuclides in the main components of the river ecosystems is calculated. The estimated annual discharge of radionuclides from the Vandras river to the Great Salym river is given. The effect of the removal of man-made radionuclides in the Samson, Lev, Vandras rivers on radioactive contamination of the Ob-Irtysh river system is shown in comparison with the Techa river, that also belongs to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. Despite the presence of an additional radioactive contamination of the Samson floodplain, the transfer of radioactive substances in the Samson, Lev, Vandras rivers has a much smaller impact on the contamination of the Ob-Irtysh river system, compared to the Techa river, prone to a large-scale radioactive contamination.