Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Geiger counter [keywords]
- Photosymbiotic giant clams are transformers of solar flux. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J R Soc Interface 2014 Dec 6; 11(101):20140678.
'Giant' tridacnid clams have evolved a three-dimensional, spatially efficient, photodamage-preventing system for photosymbiosis. We discovered that the mantle tissue of giant clams, which harbours symbiotic nutrition-providing microalgae, contains a layer of iridescent cells called iridocytes that serve to distribute photosynthetically productive wavelengths by lateral and forward-scattering of light into the tissue while back-reflecting non-productive wavelengths with a Bragg mirror. The wavelength- and angle-dependent scattering from the iridocytes is geometrically coupled to the vertically pillared microalgae, resulting in an even re-distribution of the incoming light along the sides of the pillars, thus enabling photosynthesis deep in the tissue. There is a physical analogy between the evolved function of the clam system and an electric transformer, which changes energy flux per area in a system while conserving total energy. At incident light levels found on shallow coral reefs, this arrangement may allow algae within the clam system to both efficiently use all incident solar energy and avoid the photodamage and efficiency losses due to non-photochemical quenching that occur in the reef-building coral photosymbiosis. Both intra-tissue radiometry and multiscale optical modelling support our interpretation of the system's photophysics. This highly evolved 'three-dimensional' biophotonic system suggests a strategy for more efficient, damage-resistant photovoltaic materials and more spatially efficient solar production of algal biofuels, foods and chemicals.
- Reducing radiation exposure in spinal surgery. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosurg Sci 2014 Jun; 58(2 Suppl 1):7-13.
- Incremental Predictive Value of Carotid Inflammation in Acute Ischemic Stroke. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stroke 2014 Nov 4.
Microwave Radiometry (MWR) allows in vivo noninvasive assessment of internal temperature of tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in patients with ischemic stroke and bilateral carotid plaques (1) whether ipsilateral carotid arteries exhibit higher temperature differences (ΔT), as assessed by MWR; (2) the predictive accuracy of MWR in symptomatic carotid artery identification.Consecutive patients with recent acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke because of large artery atherosclerosis were included in the study. Carotid arteries of all patients were evaluated by carotid ultrasound and MWR.In total, 50 patients were included in the study. Culprit carotid arteries had higher ΔT compared with nonculprit (0.93±0.58 versus 0.58±0.35°C; P<0.001). The addition of ΔT to a risk prediction model based only on ultrasound plaque characteristics increased its predictive accuracy significantly (c-statistic: 0.691 versus 0.768; Pdif=0.05).Culprit carotid arteries show higher thermal heterogeneity compared with nonculprit carotid arteries in patients with acute ischemic stroke and bilateral carotid plaques. MWR has incremental value in culprit carotid artery discrimination.
- The effective dose of different scanning protocols using the Sirona GALILEOS(®) comfort CBCT scanner. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2014 Nov 24.:20140287.
Objectives: To determine the effective dose and CT dose index (CTDI) for a range of imaging protocols using the Sirona GALILEOS(®) Comfort CBCT scanner (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany). Methods: Calibrated optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters were placed at 26 sites in the head and neck of a modified RANDO(®) phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Greenwich, NY). Effective dose was calculated for 12 different scanning protocols. CTDI measurements were also performed to determine the dose-length product (DLP) and the ratio of effective dose to DLP for each scanning protocol. Results: The effective dose for a full maxillomandibular scan at 42 mAs was 102 ± 1 μSv and remained unchanged with varying contrast and resolution settings. This compares with 71 μSv for a maxillary scan and 76 μSv for a mandibular scan with identical milliampere-seconds (mAs) at high contrast and resolution settings. Conclusions: Changes to mAs and beam collimation have a significant influence on effective dose. Effective dose and DLP vary linearly with mAs. A collimated maxillary or mandibular scan decreases effective dose by approximately 29% and 24%, respectively, as compared with a full maxillomandibular scan. Changes to contrast and resolution settings have little influence on effective dose. This study provides data for setting individualized patient exposure protocols to minimize patient dose from ionizing radiation used for diagnostic or treatment planning tasks in dentistry.
- 3D global estimation and augmented reality visualization of intra-operative X-ray dose. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2014; 17(Pt 1):415-22.
The growing use of image-guided minimally-invasive surgical procedures is confronting clinicians and surgical staff with new radiation exposure risks from X-ray imaging devices. The accurate estimation of intra-operative radiation exposure can increase staff awareness of radiation exposure risks and enable the implementation of well-adapted safety measures. The current surgical practice of wearing a single dosimeter at chest level to measure radiation exposure does not provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of radiation absorption throughout the body. In this paper, we propose an approach that combines data from wireless dosimeters with the simulation of radiation propagation in order to provide a global radiation risk map in the area near the X-ray device. We use a multi-camera RGBD system to obtain a 3D point cloud reconstruction of the room. The positions of the table, C-arm and clinician are then used 1) to simulate the propagation of radiation in a real-world setup and 2) to overlay the resulting 3D risk-map onto the scene in an augmented reality manner. By using real-time wireless dosimeters in our system, we can both calibrate the simulation and validate its accuracy at specific locations in real-time. We demonstrate our system in an operating room equipped with a robotised X-ray imaging device and validate the radiation simulation on several X-ray acquisition setups.
- Reduced-dose patient to baseline CT rigid registration in 3D Radon space. [Journal Article]
- Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2014; 17(Pt 1):291-8.
We present a new method for rigid registration of CT scans in Radon space. The inputs are the two 3D Radon transforms of the CT scans, one densely sampled and the other sparsely sampled. The output s the rigid transformation that best matches them. The algorithm starts by finding the best matching between each direction vector in the sparse transform and the corresponding direction vector in the dense transform. It then solves the system of linear equations derived from the direction vector pairs. Our method can be used to register two CT scans and to register a baseline scan to the patient with reduced-dose scanning without compromising registration accuracy. Our preliminary simulation results on the Shepp-Logan head phantom dataset and a pair of clinical head CT scans indicates that our 3D Radon space rigid registration method performs significantly better than image-based registration for very few scan angles and comparably for densely-sampled scans.
- Tensor total-variation regularized deconvolution kegularlzea ueconvolution for efficient low-dose CT perfusion. [Journal Article]
- Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2014; 17(Pt 1):154-61.
Acute brain diseases such as acute stroke and transit ischemic attacks are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, responsible for 9% of total death every year. 'Time is brain' is a widely accepted concept in acute cerebrovascular disease treatment. Efficient and accurate computational framework for hemodynamic parameters estimation can save critical time for thrombolytic therapy. Meanwhile the high level of accumulated radiation dosage due to continuous image acquisition in CT perfusion (CTP) raised concerns on patient safety and public health. However, low-radiation will lead to increased noise and artifacts which require more sophisticated and time-consuming algorithms for robust estimation. We propose a novel efficient framework using tensor total-variation (TTV) regularization to achieve both high efficiency and accuracy in deconvolution for low-dose CTP. The method reduces the necessary radiation dose to only 8% of the original level and outperforms the state-of-art algorithms with estimation error reduced by 40%. It also corrects over-estimation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and under-estimation of mean transit time (MTT), at both normal and reduced sampling rate. An efficient computational algorithm is proposed to find the solution with fast convergence.
- Implanted medical devices in the radiation environment of commercial spaceflight. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Review]
- Aviat Space Environ Med 2014 Nov; 85(11):1106-13.
Some commercial spaceflight participants (SFPs) may have medical conditions that require implanted medical devices (IMDs), such as cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, insulin pumps, or similar electronic devices. The effect of space radiation on the function of IMDs is unknown. This review will identify known effects of terrestrial and aviation electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radiation on IMDs in order to provide insight into the potential effects of radiation exposures in the space environment.A systematic literature review was conducted on available literature on human studies involving the effects of EMI as well as diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on IMDs.The literature review identified potential transient effects from EMI and diagnostic radiation levels as low as 10 mGy on IMDs. High-energy, therapeutic, ionizing radiation can cause more permanent device malfunctions at doses as low as 40 mGy. Radiation doses from suborbital flight altitudes and durations are anticipated to be less than those experienced during an average round-trip, cross-country airline flight and are unlikely to result in significant detriment, though longer, orbital flights may expose SFPs to doses potentially harmful to IMD function.Individuals with IMDs should experience few, if any, radiation-related device malfunctions during suborbital flight, but could have problems with radiation exposures associated with longer, orbital flights.
- [Effects of differences in head holder on image quality and radiation dose in head CT]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2014 Oct; 70(10):1166-72.
For emergency or pediatric head CT scans, a simplified pillow made of hard sponge instead of a dedicated head holder may be used if it is difficult to immobilize the head. However, the radiation dose when using a simplified head holder may be increased due to radiation absorption by the patient couch if the automatic exposure control (AEC) system is used. In this phantom study, we compared the radiation dose delivered when using a dedicated and a simplified head holder.We used a dedicated-type and a pillow-type head holder made of hard sponge (simplified head holder). We placed a 20 cm-diameter cylindrical phantom made of water-equivalent material and an anthropomorphic head phantom in the head holders and then scanned them five times with a 64-detector CT scanner (VCT, GE Healthcare). We performed step-and-shoot and helical scanning with AEC; the noise index was set to 2.8. We measured the radiation dose using fluorescent glass dosimeters in the head phantom and the image noise at five sites in the cylindrical phantom. All values were averaged.With step-and-shoot scans, the mean image noise with the dedicated and the simplified head holder was 3.30 ± 0.05 [SD] and 3.20 ± 0.05, respectively. With helical scans they were 3.00 ± 0.09 and 2.88 ± 0.03, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.02 and 0.04, Student's t-test). The radiation doses with the dedicated and the simplified head holder were 58.6 and 70.4 mGy, respectively, for step-and-shoot scanning and 41.8 and 49.0 mGy, respectively, for helical scanning. The doses were thus significantly higher with the simplified head holder for both step-and-shoot and helical scanning (p < 0.01 and < 0.01).We recommend the use of a dedicated head holder for head scanning with AEC since the radiation dose was lower than with the simplified head holder.
- [The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2014 Oct; 70(10):1160-5.
A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances.