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Genital ulcer [keywords]
- Lipschütz ulcer in a 17-month-old girl: a rare manifestation of Epstein-Barr primoinfection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pediatr 2013 May 1.
Lipschütz ulcer is an uncommon entity that is clinically characterised by a flu-like syndrome accompanied by an acute painful necrotic vulvar ulcer. It typically occurs in young women with no sexual contact history, and it is very rare among children. The aetiology is unknown, although recently several reports have related Epstein-Barr virus primary infection with this entity. We report a 17-month-old girl with fever and an acute genital ulcer. All the complementary tests for the most frequent causes of vulvar ulcers yielded negative results, whereas viral serology and polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the presence of an acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. When main causes of genital ulcer have been excluded, and there is no history of sexual contact, Lipschütz ulcer should be included in the differential diagnosis. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome by polymerase chain reaction can lead to an earlier diagnosis.
- Alteration in sample preparation to increase the yield of multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction assay for diagnosis of genital ulcer disease. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Indian J Med Microbiol 2013 Jan-Mar; 31(1):15-8.
Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) is common sexually transmitted infection (STI). Multiple studies have shown that GUDs are strongly associated with the transmission and the acquisition of HIV infection. An accurate diagnosis of common etiology of GUD namely Herpes, syphilis and Chancroid is possible using Multiplex PCR (M-PCR). However, frequent presence of Polymerase Chain Reaction inhibitors in the ulcer swab specimen limits the performance of the assay. In order to overcome this problem, alternative specimen preparation method was used.To determine the common etiology, GUD specimens obtained under an STI operations research study were tested with M-PCR after the samples were prepared using Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit. PCR inhibiting samples were identified from that, which showed negative results. These samples were subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation before the conduct of M-PCR on them.Of the 237 GUD specimens tested, in 145 etiologies could be detected, whereas 92 samples were found negative. Further spiking with one of the target DNA, 128 of the negative samples were found to contain the inhibitors. These 126 samples were then subjected to phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation followed by M-PCR. Using this method for sample preparation, etiology could be determined in 46 (23%) additional samples. This success rate of altered sample preparation method has been lower than that has reported.The results indicate that sample preparation using phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation, prior to M-PCR helps to eliminate the inhibitors and increase the yield of the assay. However, being a laborious procedure, it may be used for samples giving negative results after the screening by Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit.
- Anorectal and inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: trends over time, symptomatology and concurrent infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sex Transm Infect 2013 Feb 20.
OBJECTIVES:To examine lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) trends over time among men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic; to investigate anal LGV symptomatology; and to examine the positivity and characteristics of anorectal and inguinal LGV.
METHODS:We included MSM consultations from whom a swab (from anorectum, bubo or an genital ulcer) was taken for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) screening. Anorectal swabs were taken from all MSM who reported receptive anorectal intercourse in the preceding 6 months. Ct positive samples were further tested with a pmpH PCR to identify L-genovars. Patient symptoms, clinical and anoscopic inflammatory signs, and STI co-infections were noted; Gram-stained anorectal mucosal smears were examined.
RESULTS:Between January 2005 and June 2012, 48 570 consultations among MSM were conducted. In 3628/35 650 visits, anorectal Ct infections were diagnosed, including 411 anal LGV (1.2%). Moreover, 65/1649 genital ulcer swabs were Ct positive; 10 were inguinal LGV (0.6%) Since January 2011 a significant increase in the positivity of LGV occurred (p<0.0001). 89 (27.2%) anorectal LGV cases were asymptomatic. HIV prevalence among anorectal LGV cases was significantly higher (p=0.008) than among inguinal LGV cases. STI co-morbidity in anorectal LGV cases remained invariably high during the study period.
CONCLUSIONS:Since January 2011, LGV positivity in MSM consultations in Amsterdam has risen significantly. The great majority comprise anal LGV; inguinal LGV is rare. Anal LGV is asymptomatic in a quarter of cases. In all MSM with anal Ct infections LGV should be excluded, irrespective of symptoms or inflammatory signs.
- HIV sero-prevalence among pregnant women in a resource constrained setting, South East Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- Niger J Med 2012 Jul-Sep; 21(3):338-42.
HIV infection and AIDS is a public health problem worldwide, particularly affecting the populace in resource constrained settings like in sub-Saharan Africa. Women of reproductive age are most affected and infected with the disease.A descriptive study of pregnant women presenting for the first time at the obstetrics booking clinic of ESUTTH, Parklane from 1st April, 2009 to 31st March, 2010. Socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, pregnancy history and STI related symptoms were obtained using already prepared proforma. HIV Screening test was conducted in a serial two step approach using Determine HIV test kits and Stat- Pak HIV kits after obtaining an informed consent. Discordant results were subjected to Western blot for confirmation. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-info statistical software. P Value < 0.05 were assessed as statistically significant at 95% confidence interval.A total of 1306 women were recruited, 66 women were HIV positive, giving a prevalence rate of 5.1%. Their mean age was 28.79 +/- 5.06 years. Majority of them were married (9%). The mean gestational age at booking was 26.2 +/- 6.8 weeks. Alcohol intake, history of 3 or more sexual partner in the last 5 years, abnormal vaginal discharge in the last 12 months, history of genital ulcer in last 12 month, had a statistically significant association with prevalence of HIV infection (p value < 0.005).HIV infection prevalence rate in among antenatal attendants in Enugu is still high. A multi-sectoral approach is required for effective prevention and control of the disease to ensure achievement of Millennium development Goals 5&6.
- Edema-associated genital ulcer and erosion: a common but underrecognized skin complication. [Letter]
- J Dermatol 2013 Mar; 40(3):230-1.
- [Wounds in the genital and oral region]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2012 Oct.:109-17.
Wounds mean disruption of normal continuity of structures. Ulcers are excavations of the skin that reach at least to the depth of the dermis. More superficial defects are called erosions. Erosions and ulcerations are seen in a wide variety of conditions. Although many urogenital wounds have similar clinical appearances, their etiologies encompass many disorders. General categories of the causes of wounds are different types of trauma, viral, bacterial and fungal infections, neoplasms, autoimmune blistering diseases, immune and systemic diseases, and neoplasms. Many drugs are capable of causing erosions of the mucosal surfaces, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sulfonamides, penicillins, tetracyclines, antiepileptics and antimalarials. To determine the cause of erosions and ulcerations, it is essential to take careful history and perform full examination of the mucosal surfaces and skin. Swabs for bacterial and fungal culture are often necessary. Biopsies of lesional mucosal surfaces for light microscopy and perilesional mucosal surfaces for direct immunofluorescence are indicated if an autoimmune blistering disorder is suspected. Although orogenital region is an accessible site for examination, unfortunately, many health care providers are not aggressive in clinical examination. This, coupled with the fact that orogenital cancers are usually asymptomatic, often delays diagnosis.
- Multifocal venous thrombosis in Behcet's disease. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012 Nov; 22(11):730-2.
Behcet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory vascular disorder with a chronic course characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, eye lesion, arthritis and skin lesions. It has a typically waxing and waning course. The cause and pathogenesis of the disease are unclear and specific treatment is not available. A 39 years old man presented with rash, ocular manifestation and left leg swelling. He was found to have deep venous thrombosis of left leg along with recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis. He was a known case of Behcet's disease since 3 years and had been on anticoagulants since then.
- Laparoscopic approach in abdominal emergencies: a 5-year experience at a single center. [Journal Article]
- G Chir 2012 Nov-Dec; 33(11-12):400-3.
Laparoscopy is ever more common in both elective and emergency surgery. In fact, in abdominal emergencies it enables the resolution of preoperative diagnostic doubts as well as treatment of the underlying disease. We present a retrospective study of the results of a 5-year experience at a single center.Between September 2006 and August 2011, 961 patients were treated via laparoscopy, including 486 emergency cases (15 gastroduodenal perforation; 165 acute cholecystitis; 255 acute appendicitis; 15 pelvic inflammatory disease and non-specific abdominal pain [NSAP]; 36 small bowel obstruction). All procedures were conducted by a team trained in laparoscopic surgery.The conversion rate was 22/486 patients (4.53%). A definitive laparoscopic diagnosis was possible in over 96% of cases, and definitive treatment via laparoscopy was possible in most of these.Our own experience confirms the literature evidence that laparoscopy is a valid option in the surgical treatment of abdominal emergencies. In any case, it must be performed by a dedicated and highly experienced team. Correct patient selection is also important, to enable the most suitable approach for each given situation.
- Risk factors for HIV-1 infection in India: evidence from the National Family Health Survey. [Journal Article]
- Int J STD AIDS 2012 Oct; 23(10):729-35.
To study demographic, social, behavioural and biological variables as risk factors for HIV infection among men and women in India, we used data from the cross-sectional, population-based National Family Health Survery (NFHS)-3 2005-06. During the survey, 52,853 women aged 15-49 years and 50,093 men aged 15-54 years gave consent to anonymous HIV testing. HIV serostatus data for men and women were analysed for their relationships to key characteristics using bivariate and multivariate techniques. In the analysis of the study sample, in both men and women the ages of highest risk for HIV were between 25 and 34 years. Married, widowed, divorced women and men had higher odds of being HIV-positive; employed individuals also had a higher risk of being HIV-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89 and 2.89, respectively). Muslim women had a lower risk (OR 0.23). Wealth was not found to be associated with HIV serostatus among men in our study sample. In women, a history of genital ulcer or sore significantly increased their risk. Circumcised men were found to be at a lower risk for HIV infection. HIV is a multi-dimensional epidemic, with demographic, residential, social, biological and behavioural factors exerting influence on individual probability of becoming infected with HIV.
- Genital ulcer disease in India: etiologies and performance of current syndrome guidelines. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sex Transm Dis 2012 Nov; 39(11):906-10.
In India, genital ulcer disease (GUD) syndrome is clinically classified as herpetic or nonherpetic and managed accordingly; laboratory support is unavailable at most health facilities. We undertook a study to determine the etiology of GUDs in men presenting to sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and assess the performance of the national algorithm for syndromic management of herpetic and nonherpetic GUDs in India.A cross-sectional study was conducted among men with complaints of genital ulcers attending 8 STI clinics in 4 states. Ulcer swabs were collected and tested by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to determine the etiology of GUD.Of the 194 men recruited, etiology was confirmed in 121 GUD cases (62%). Herpes simplex virus (48%) was the most common etiological agent identified, followed by Treponema pallidum (23%) and mixed infections (9%). One case of Haemophilus ducreyi was confirmed in this series. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the national syndromic management algorithm for GUD were 68% and 52%, respectively. Using the national algorithm, 52 (42%) cases clinically misclassified as either herpetic (18 cases) or nonherpetic (34 cases) GUD resulting in incorrect treatment.Our findings suggest a revision of existing national STI treatment guidelines in India to include treatment of syphilis infections of all GUD patients. Periodic studies are required to monitor changing spectrum of GUD etiologies in India.