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- Measures of Thyroid Function among Belarusian Children and Adolescents Exposed to Iodine-131 from the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Health Perspect 2013 May 7.
BACKGROUND:Thyroid dysfunction following exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive Iodine-131 ((131)I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning (131)I-related risk of these common diseases.
OBJECTIVE:To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with (131)I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident.
METHODS:Cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based (131)I dose estimates was conducted in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases.
RESULTS:Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated (131)I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range 0.001 - 26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of (131)I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/ rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO.
CONCLUSIONS:The association between (131)I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental (131)I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes.
- Transareola Single-Site Endoscopic Thyroidectomy: Clinical Study of 28 Cases with Thyroid Nodules. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2013 May 7.
Objectives:To investigate the feasibility and safety of transareola single-site endoscopic thyroidectomy. Subjects and
Methods:Twenty-eight patients with thyroid nodules were involved in this study. An incision was cut on a single areola, and a laparoendoscope apparatus and an operating apparatus were implanted. The thyroid gland was exposed using the neck suture suspension technique, and the damaged thyroid gland was removed with an ultrasonic scalpel. The operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative pain score, and cosmetic satisfaction score were calculated.
Results:Unilateral subtotal thyroidectomy was performed in 12 cases, unilateral partial thyroidectomy in 14 cases, and bilateral partial thyroidectomy in 2 cases. For the former 14 cases, the operation time was 145-205 minutes, with a mean duration of 170 minutes; the operation time ranged from 125 to 150 minutes, with a mean of 135 minutes, for the latter 14 cases. The intraoperative bleeding volume was 15-40 mL, with a mean of 25 mL. The total postoperative wound drainage was 80-135 mL, with a mean of 110 mL. The drainage tube was removed 3-4 days after surgery. The visual analog scale score was 1-5 at 24 hours postoperatively, with a mean score of 3.10. Postoperative pathological examination diagnosed thyroid adenoma in 11 cases and nodular goiter in 17 cases.
Conclusions:Transareola single-site endoscopic thyroidectomy is feasible and safe and has the advantages of a covert incision, small subcutaneous separation area, and high cosmetic satisfaction. The operation time shortens with the increasing number of patients undergoing operations.
- [Giant goiter with associated with dyspnea]. [Journal Article]
- Pan Afr Med J 2013.:82.
- Annual increase in the frequency of papillary thyroid carcinoma as diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration at a cytology unit in Sicily. [Journal Article]
- Hormones (Athens) 2013 Jan; 12(1):46-57.
Objective:An increased frequency of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been reported in the literature, including studies based on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
Design:To substantiate our own ascertainment of such an increase, we retrieved all the diagnoses of ultrasound-guided FNAC which was performed on 11,389 patients referred for cytological evaluation of a single or dominant thyroid nodule from 1988 to 2010. FNAC yielded 11,258 adequate specimens.
Results:The number of patients with PTC was 200 (age 10-83 yrs) and increased significantly from 1988 to 2010 (r= 0.916, P<0.001). Expressing data as percent of FNAC in any given year, PTC and colloid goiter increased, while adenomatous goiter, follicular lesions and anaplastic or medullary thyroid cancer decreased. PTC accounted for 0% of all FNAC diagnoses in 1988 but for 2% in 2010, with a peak of 2.6% in 2006. Of interest, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) also increased, preceding the increase of PTC by 5-6 years.
Conclusion:We conclude that in the regions on either side of the Strait of Messina (Italy), PTC has become progressively more frequent during the 23-year period between 1988 and 2010 and that this increase lagged behind the increase of CLT.
- [Goiter: A rare cause of childhood dyspnea.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Pediatr 2013 Apr 30.
We report the case of a patient who presented dyspnea due to a large intrathoracic goiter. This patient had congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid enzyme deficiency. He came to a pediatric emergency department for dyspnea. At home, he had inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea with a stridor. No signs of respiratory distress were observed. The neck was deformed by a large goiter. The patient indicated that he did not follow the recommended l-thyroxine treatment. Chest and neck radiography showed tracheal compression. A cervical CT scan showed a 60% reduction of the tracheal caliber. To our knowledge, only one case report of goiter with tracheal compression due to congenital hypothyroidism has been reported in the literature. In the case of retrosternal goiter, dyspnea is more common than respiratory distress. Absence of tachypnea or use of accessory muscles does not exclude an anatomic compression. In the case of dyspnea, the search for a goiter is recommended.
- Iodine nutrition and toxicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. [Journal Article]
- Peerj 2013.:e20.
Copepods as feed promote better growth and development in marine fish larvae than rotifers. However, unlike rotifers, copepods contain several minerals such as iodine (I), at potentially toxic levels. Iodine is an essential trace element and both under and over supply of I can inhibit the production of the I containing thyroid hormones. It is unknown whether marine fish larvae require copepod levels of I or if mechanisms are present that prevent I toxicity. In this study, larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed rotifers enriched to intermediate (26 mg I kg(-1) dry weight; MI group) or copepod (129 mg I kg(-1) DW; HI group) I levels and compared to cod larvae fed control rotifers (0.6 mg I kg(-1) DW). Larval I concentrations were increased by 3 (MI) and 7 (HI) fold compared to controls during the rotifer feeding period. No differences in growth were observed, but the HI diet increased thyroid follicle colloid to epithelium ratios, and affected the essential element concentrations of larvae compared to the other groups. The thyroid follicle morphology in the HI larvae is typical of colloid goitre, a condition resulting from excessive I intake, even though whole body I levels were below those found previously in copepod fed cod larvae. This is the first observation of dietary induced I toxicity in fish, and suggests I toxicity may be determined to a greater extent by bioavailability and nutrient interactions than by total body I concentrations in fish larvae. Rotifers with 0.6 mg I kg(-1) DW appeared sufficient to prevent gross signs of I deficiency in cod larvae reared with continuous water exchange, while modelling of cod larvae versus rotifer I levels suggests that optimum I levels in rotifers for cod larvae is 3.5 mg I kg(-1) DW.
- Ultrasonic scissors-assisted 'open-book' thyroidectomy in massive goiter compressing airway and causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis. [Journal Article]
- Med J Malaysia 2013 Apr; 68(2):183-5.
A massive goiter may constrict the trachea resulting in shortness of breath. Recurrent laryngeal nerve compression may cause vocal cord paralysis. We highlight a case of a 62- year-old female with a 30 year history of an anterior neck swelling gradually increasing in size. She presented with acute symptoms of upper airway obstruction and voice changes. Emergency thyroidectomy was performed by dividing the middle part of the gland using ultrasonic scissors. The recovery was uneventful and the patient regained normal vocal cord function post operatively.
- VEGF and GM-CSF levels in nodular thyroid diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrine 2013 Apr 28.
VEGF is a specific mitogen for endothelial cells. GM-CSF is a key player in the regulation of steady-state functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate VEGF and GM-CSF levels in thyroid nodules >1 cm, which are negative for malignancy with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Age, serum VEGF, GM-CSF, TSH, fT3, fT4, anti-TG, anti-TPO, thyroid size, and thyroid volume were compared between 41 female patients and 20 healthy female volunteers. This study was performed with 41 female patients who were euthyroid and whose nodules were benign. Twenty healthy female volunteers were enrolled as the control group. VEGF and GM-CSF were assayed by ELISA; TSH, fT3, and fT4 were detected by electrochemiluminescence method and anti-TPO and anti-TG were detected by competitive immunoassay method. Only thyroid volume and anti-TG levels were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.007 and p < 0.026, respectively). Other parameters including VEGF and GM-CSF were not significantly different. VEGF has a weak positive correlation only with anti-TPO levels in the patient group (r = 0.325, p = 0.036). There was a weak positive correlation between anti-TPO and anti-TG (r = 0.388, p = 0.007). There was a positive correlation between nodule size and thyroid volume (r = 0.464, p = 0.015). GM-CSF was not correlated with any parameters. VEGF and GM-CSF were not found to be increased in euthyroid patients with benign nodules and they do not seem to play a role in development of simple nodular goiter.
- Long-term outcome after radioiodine therapy with adjuvant rhTSH treatment: comparison between patients with non-toxic and pre-toxic large multinodular goitre. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrine 2013 Apr 26.
In multinodular goitre (MNG), low radioiodine (RAI) activity after recombinant human (rh) TSH is able to reduce thyroid volume (TV) and improve symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term outcome of RAI after rhTSH treatment in patients who were divided according to their baseline TSH levels. Eighteen patients (69.2 ± 6.1 year) presented non-toxic (TSH >0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 61.0 ± 3.8 ml; group 1), while 13 patients (74.1 ± 7.9 year) had non-autoimmune pre-toxic (TSH <0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 82.6 ± 14.4 ml; group 2). TSH, thyroid hormones, TV (by ultrasonography), body mass index (BMI), symptoms and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated. Treatment induced short-term thyrotoxicosis in both groups, but this was slightly more marked in group 2 than in group 1. The number and severity of adverse events were similar. The follow-up period was 55.3 ± 4.1 months in group 1 and 57.2 ± 5.1 months in group 2. The final TV reduction was similar in groups 1 (63.4 ± 3.6 %) and 2 (57.2 ± 4.6 %) and TV reduction positively correlated only with initial TV. At the last examination, 14 group-1 subjects were on L-T4 therapy, while 2 group-2 subjects were on methimazole. An increase in BMI was noted only in group 2. MNG-related symptoms were significantly reduced in both groups. Symptoms related to sub-clinical hyperthyroidism improved in group 2, while no significant changes in QoL were noted in either group. This study confirms the effectiveness of rhTSH adjuvant treatment in reducing TV after low RAI activities, irrespective of baseline thyroid status. TSH levels <0.3 mIU/l proved to be predictive of a more severe thyrotoxic phase after rhTSH and RAI, while initial TSH levels >0.3 mIU/l were more frequently followed by a need for L-T4 therapy. Compressive symptoms improved in the majority of subjects.
- Pathology and the surgical management of goitre in an endemic area initiating supplementary iodine nutrition. [Journal Article]
- West Afr J Med 2013 Jan-Mar; 32(1):45-51.
Goitre in the West African sub-region is caused by iodine deficiency and goitrogens in the diet. Supplementary iodine nutrition on a mass scale was started in Ghana in 1996. In areas where iodine deficiency have been corrected the histological pattern of goitre changes and this influences surgical decision making. Data on the histological types of goitre in our institution is lacking.To define the histopathological types of goitre in this initial period of iodine supplementation and relate this to the types of thyroid surgeries that were performed.It was a prospective study of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy from January 2003-December 2007. Descriptive statistics was employed in analyzing the dataFive hundred and twenty eight cases were studied made up of 470 (89%) females and 58 (11%) males with mean age of 41.98yrs, SD ±12.90yrs. The excised mean thyroid tissue weight was 161.4g, SD ±116.3yrs. Hyperplastic goitres were 373 (70.7%), toxic goitre 70 (13.3%), adenoma 37 (7.0%), carcinoma 25 (4.7%) and thyroiditis 23 (4.4%). Papillary carcinoma accounted for 56% (14) cancers. Subtotal thyroidectomy was performed in 278 (52.7%) of patients, near total thyroidectomy 107 (20.3%), lobectomy 98 (18.6%),total thyroidectomy 24 (4.5%), excision or completion thyroidectomy 20 (3.8%) and de-bulking 1 patient. Overall, complications occurred in 32 patients (6.1%) and were made up mostly of haemorrhage in 10 (1.9%), Hypocalcaemia 10 (1.9%), unilateralRecurrent Laryngeal Nerve(RLN) injury 3 (0.57%), Tracheal collapse 3 (0.57%) and Bilateral RLN injury 2 (0.4%).The introduction of iodine supplementationon a mass scale in Ghana is yet to have its fullest impact on thyroid diseases. Goitres are still large and cause pressure effects. Toxic, inflammatory and malignant goitres are gaining prominence, and surgery for malignant goitre was oncologically inadequate.Near total thyroidectomy is recommended as the minimum surgery to avert the need for completion thyroidectomies in view of the lack of preoperative pathological diagnosis of thyroid lesions.