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Halitosis bad breath [keywords]
- A long-term study on the clinical effects of mechanical widening of cheek teeth diastemata for treatment of periodontitis in 202 horses (2008-2011). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Equine Vet J 2013 Apr 9.
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Cheek teeth diastemata are a common cause of painful periodontal disease in horses, but there is limited objective information on their treatment.
OBJECTIVE:To assess the long-term response to diastema widening in clinically affected horses.
STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective study.
METHOD:Medical records from cases of cheek teeth diastemata treated by diastema widening referred to the University of Edinburgh Equine Hospital between 2008-2011 were analysed.
RESULTS:During this period, 302 horses were diagnosed with clinically significant cheek teeth diastemata of which 202 cases, median age 11 years, with severe associated periodontitis were treated by widening of 674 problematic diastemata; 89.8% between mandibular cheek teeth and 10.2% between maxillary cheek teeth, with a mean of 1.5 treatments performed per case. These 202 cases showed quidding in 76.2%; weight loss in 33.2%; bitting problems in 20.1% and halitosis in 10.9%, with 5.4% being asymptomatic. Follow-up information 92% of treated cases, a mean of 20.8 months after their initial treatment showed 72.6% of cases had complete remission of clinical signs that was permanent (for the duration of this study) in 50.5% and temporary in 22%. A partial response was obtained in 17.2%; no response was obtained in 4.3%, and owners were unsure of response in 5.9%. Clinical improvement was sometimes delayed, with 19% taking >4 weeks following treatment for improvement. Inappropriate sites were burred in individual teeth of 6 horses, causing iatrogenic pulpar exposure in 2 cases, but following treatment, none developed clinical signs of apical infection.
CONCLUSIONS:Diastemata widening is an effective but potentially invasive treatment for horses with cheek teeth diastemata with severe periodontitis. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Diastema widening by trained personnel is suitable for advanced cases of cheek teeth diastema but many cases require repeated treatments.
- [Self-perceived oral odour and social interaction]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2013 Apr; 120(4):194-8.
This study examined the influence of self-perceived oral odour on social interaction. A representative sample of 1,082 people from the Dutch population of 16 years and older, were surveyed. On average, the participants graded their oral odour as 66.8 on a scale 0-100; 4.2% judged their oral odour as 'not fresh' (score < or = 30). Approximately 65% indicated that they took into account the fact that, when meeting somebody for the first time, that person might smell their oral odour. Participants judging their oral odour to be not fresh were shown to keep significantly more distance when meeting somebody than participants judging their oral odour as fresh. Noteworthy was a subgroup of participants who judged their oral odour as fresh, but indicated that they always kept a certain distance to other people. The results suggest that self-perceived oral odour is a potential barrier in social interaction.
- Chronic Kidney Disease in Dogs in UK Veterinary Practices: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Survival. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2013 May 6.
BACKGROUND:The prevalence for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs varies widely (0.05-3.74%). Identified risk factors include advancing age, specific breeds, small body size, and periodontal disease. HYPOTHESIS/
OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with CKD diagnosis and survival in dogs. Purebred dogs were hypothesized to have higher CKD risk and poorer survival characteristics than crossbred dogs.
ANIMALS:A merged clinical database of 107,214 dogs attending 89 UK veterinary practices over a 2-year period (January 2010-December 2011).
METHODS:A longitudinal study design estimated the apparent prevalence (AP) whereas the true prevalence (TP) was estimated using Bayesian analysis. A nested case-control study design evaluated risk factors. Survival analysis used the Kaplan-Meier survival curve method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.
RESULTS:The CKD AP was 0.21% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24%) and TP was 0.37% (95% posterior credibility interval 0.02-1.44%). Significant risk factors included increasing age, being insured, and certain breeds (Cocker Spaniel, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel). Cardiac disease was a significant comorbid disorder. Significant clinical signs included halitosis, weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, urinary incontinence, vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. The median survival time from diagnosis was 226 days (95% CI 112-326 days). International Renal Interest Society stage and blood urea nitrogen concentration at diagnosis were significantly associated with hazard of death due to CKD.
CONCLUSIONSAND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Chronic kidney disease compromises dog welfare. Increased awareness of CKD risk factors and association of blood biochemistry results with survival time should facilitate diagnosis and optimize case management to improve animal survival and welfare.
- Knowledge of primary care doctors about laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. [Journal Article]
- B-ENT 2013; 9(1):53-6.
Many patients with reflux disease present with atypical symptoms (globus pharyngeus, constant throat clearing, chronic cough, hoarseness, catarrh, dysphagia, halitosis, choking episodes, or asthma-like symptoms) due to laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Because such patients can be easily misdiagnosed, doctors in primary care should be aware of LPR and its proper treatment. This study aimed to determine whether doctors working in the primary care setting are aware of the atypical manifestations of reflux and the differences in treatment between LPR and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).This study was conducted among primary care doctors referring to the Ear, Nose, and Throat department of Karditsa (Greece) General Hospital. A questionnaire regarding the clinical manifestation and treatment of GERD and LPR was supplied to 60 doctors working in the primary care setting of Karditsa prefecture.Fifty-one doctors returned the questionnaire. Twenty-three (45%) were acquainted with the entity of LPR and 8 (15.7%) were acquainted with the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The most common symptoms, for which proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were prescribed, were: heartburn (76.5%), heartburn combined with other symptoms (17.6%), halitosis (1.96%), hoarseness (1.96%), and choking episodes (1.96%). Most of the surveyed doctors prescribed PPIs for fewer than 12 weeks (92%), once daily (70.6%), and preferably in the morning (50%). Forty-seven (92%) provided advice regarding lifestyle modifications.The majority of surveyed doctors were unaware of LPR or the RSI. More awareness is required in the primary care setting to recognize LPR early and treat it properly.
- Palatal erosion and oronasal fistulation following covered nasopharyngeal stent placement in two dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ir Vet J 2013 May 1; 66(1):8.
Treatment options for dogs with nasopharyngeal stenosis include fluoroscopic placement of metallic stents. Reported complications include entrapment of hair and food, obstruction and persistent nasal discharge. Two toy breed dogs were examined for persistent nasal discharge and halitosis at 4 and 20 months after placement of permanent metallic stents for acquired nasopharyngeal stenosis. Full thickness defects were found in the palate of both dogs, with extensive communication between the mouth and the nasal passages. Portions of the metal stent were observed within the lesion in both patients. Additional treatment was declined by the owner of one dog; the stent was removed through the fistula in the other dog. Palatal erosion with secondary oronasal fistulation is a potential complication of nasopharyngeal stent placement in dogs.
- Halitosis: From diagnosis to management. [Journal Article]
- J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013 Jan; 4(1):14-23.
Halitosis is formed by volatile molecules which are caused because of pathological or nonpathological reasons and it originates from an oral or a non-oral source. It is very common in general population and nearly more than 50% of the general population have halitosis. Although halitosis has multifactorial origins, the source of 90% cases is oral cavity such as poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, tongue coat, food impaction, unclean dentures, faulty restorations, oral carcinomas, and throat infections. Halitosis affects a person's daily life negatively, most of people who complain about halitosis refer to the clinic for treatment but in some of the people who can suffer from halitosis, there is no measurable halitosis. There are several methods to determine halitosis. Halitosis can be treated if its etiology can be detected rightly. The most important issue for treatment of halitosis is detection etiology or determination its source by detailed clinical examination. Management may include simple measures such as scaling and root planning, instructions for oral hygiene, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing. The aim of this review was to describe the etiological factors, prevalence data, diagnosis, and the therapeutic mechanical and chemical approaches related to halitosis.
- Recurrent rhinolithiasis: a case report with review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- West Indian Med J 2012 Oct; 61(7):760-3.
Rhinolith is an uncommon nasal mass and a rare entity encountered in clinical practice. The typical symptoms of rhinolith are unilateral nasal obstruction, foul smelling purulent nasal discharge and epistaxis, crusting, swelling of nose or face, anosmia, epiphora and headache. In this report, we present a case of recurrent rhinolith manifesting as an incidental finding on dental radiographs. A 26-year old male patient with a history of long standing halitosis had an operation for rhinolith seven years previously. Rhinolith in the right nasal cavity was diagnosed on rigid endoscopic examination. Rhinolith was removed by using a rigid nasal endoscope under local anaesthesia. To our knowledge, recurrence of rhinolith has not been described previously in the literature.
- [Megaesophagus in the dog and cat]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2013 Apr 22; 41(2):123-31.
Megaesophagus is a disorder of the esophagus characterized by diffuse dilation and decreased peristalsis. It is classified into congenital and acquired forms. Gastrointestinal, endocrine, immune-mediated, neuromuscular, paraneoplastic, and toxic disorders have been associated with acquired megaesophagus. Common clinical signs of megaesophagus are regurgitation, weight loss, coughing, and halitosis. Most cases of megaesophagus can be diagnosed using thoracic radiography; however, diagnosing the underlying cause requires a thorough history and additional diagnostics. The treatment, management, and prognosis of megaesophagus vary greatly depending on the underlying cause.
- Laser tonsil cryptolysis: In-office 500 cases review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Otolaryngol 2013 Apr 10.
OBJECTIVES:Tonsilloliths, proven to be tonsillar biofilms cause symptoms of halitosis, foreign body sensation and recurrent sore throats. Laser Tonsil Cryptolysis (LTC) performed in the office may represent an alternative to tonsillectomy in selected cases of persistent tonsilloliths with cryptic infections.
STUDY DESIGN:A retrospective chart analysis using CPT codes.
SETTING:Office and hospital.
METHODS:A retrospective complications review consisting of bleeding, the need for an additional procedure, patient satisfaction and conversion rate to complete tonsillectomy was documented.
RESULTS:Five hundred consecutive LTCs performed in the office under local anesthesia with a CO2 or diode laser were identified. Energy delivery was in continuous mode with power settings of 18W and 10W respectively. Bleeding occurred in 6 patients requiring unscheduled return office visit for evaluation. Eighty patients required a second procedure, comprising total of 1.16 procedures per patient. Eighteen (3.6%) patients underwent complete tonsillectomy. Patient satisfaction was high with an overall incidence of 0-2 days of work absence. Follow-up was 1-8 years.
CONCLUSIONS:With a small tonsil size, controllable gag reflex and cooperative adult patient LTC allows several advantages compared to conventional tonsillectomy. Benefits of LTC include avoidance of general anesthesia and limited ablation of cryptic pockets, resulting in reduced post-operative pain, bleeding, shorter recovery time and the convenience and cost advantage of an office procedure. With 1.16 sessions required per patient, low conversion rate to standard tonsillectomy and minimal complication rate LTC can be considered an alternative option to a patient suffering from recurrent cryptic tonsillitis with or without tonsilloliths.
- Dimethylsulphidemia: the significance of dimethyl sulphide in extra-oral, blood borne halitosis. [Journal Article]
- Br Dent J 2013 Apr 12; 214(7):E20.
Halitosis is a symptom and not a diagnosis. Rather, the topic represents a spectrum of disorders, including intra-oral, otorhinolaryngological, metabolic, systemic, pulmonary, psychological and neurological conditions. Halitosis may be the third most common trigger for patients to seek dental care and can cause significant impact on patient quality of life. About 10% of all genuine halitosis cases are attributed to extra-oral processes. Some authorities have reported that the nasal cavity and the oropharynx are the most common sites of origin of extra-oral halitosis. However, recent evidence appears to suggest that blood borne halitosis may be the most common subtype of extra-oral halitosis. Tangerman and Winkel report that dimethyl sulphide was the main volatile implicated in extra-oral blood borne halitosis. They proposed a hitherto unknown metabolic condition by way of explanation for this finding, resulting in systemic presence of dimethyl sulphide in blood and alveolar breath. This paper reviews the knowledge base regarding the behaviour of dimethyl sulphide in physiological systems and those disorders in which blood borne halitosis secondary to dimethylsulphidemia is thought to have an aetiopathological role.