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Hematology AND Anemia, aplastic [keywords]
- Pathophysiology and management of thrombocytopenia in bone marrow failure: possible clinical applications of TPO receptor agonists in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Hematol 2013 May 21.
Aplastic anemia is a bone marrow failure syndrome that causes pancytopenia and can lead to life-threatening complications. Bone marrow transplantation remains the standard of care for younger patients and those with a good performance status but many patients may not have a suitable donor. Immunosuppressive therapy is able to resolve cytopenias in a majority of patients with aplastic anemia but relapses are not uncommon and some patients remain refractory to this approach. Patients may require frequent blood and platelet transfusion support which is expensive and inconvenient. Life-threatening bleeding complications still occur despite prophylactic platelet transfusion. Thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics, such as romiplostim and eltrombopag, were developed to treat patients with refractory immune thrombocytopenia but are now being investigated for the treatment of bone marrow failure syndromes. TPO is the main regulator for platelet production and its receptor (c-Mpl) is present on megakaryocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. Trilineage hematopoietic responses were observed in a recent clinical trial using eltrombopag in patients with severe aplastic anemia refractory to immunosuppression suggesting that these agents can provide a new therapeutic option for enhancing blood production. In this review, we discuss these recent results and ongoing investigation of TPO mimetics for aplastic anemia and other bone marrow failure states like myelodysplastic syndromes. Clonal evolution or progression to acute myeloid leukemia remains a concern when using these drugs in bone marrow failure and patients should only be treated in the setting of a clinical trial.
- Twenty years of experience on stem cell transplantation in iran. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):93-100.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a new window to therapy of many diseases. From March 1991 through April 2011, a total of 3237 HSCT were performed in the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Here we report 20 years experience of HSCT.Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Cord Blood Bank (ICBB) and development of the first Iranian Stem Cell Donor Program (ISCDP), and improvement the researches in new therapeutic fields.Totally, 3237 patients were undergone HSCT. Of these transplants, 2205 were allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 1016 autologous and 16 syngeneic. Among 2205 patients who were undergone allogenic-HSCT, 34 received cord blood stem cells as stem cell source for transplantation. It is important to point out that cord blood bank at our center provides reliable storage of cord blood stem cells for our patients. Stem cell transplantation was performed for treatment of various diseases such as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, beta-thalassemia major, sickle- cell thalassemia, sickle- cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. Also, we had 220 cellular therapies for post-myocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, Diabetes Mellitus and GvHD treatment. 45 patients were undergone retransplantation in this center.About 78.2% of the patients (2530 of 3237) remained alive between one to 211 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly, 21.8% (707) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The main causes of death were relapse, infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft-versus- host disease and etc.In Iran, HSCT has been successfully adapted in routine clinical care. Recently, new methods such as double cord blood and haploidentical transplantation have been used to treat many life-threatening diseases.
- Relationship between red blood cell transfusion volume and posttransfusional iron overload in hematological diseases. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Ketsueki 2013 Apr; 54(4):365-9.
We retrospectively investigated the status of transfusional iron overload at Kinki University Hospital. One hundred and sixty three patients received more than 10 red blood cell (RBC) units per year in 2009 and 2010. Myelodysplastic syndrome (37.4%) and aplastic anemia (11.0%) accounted for about 50% of the underlying diseases. At the time of receiving a total of 20 RBC units, 90.8% and 66.2% of the 65 patients evaluated had more than 500 and 1,000 ng/ml of serum ferritin, respectively. The frequency of organ dysfunction associated with iron overload was 56.9% of all the patients assessed, 37.8% of patients with serum ferritin levels of 500∼999 ng/ml, and 67.4% of patients with serum ferritin levels >1,000 ng/ml. Although the Japanese guidelines propose 40 units of RBC transfusion and/or a serum ferritin level of 1,000 ng/ml as a good point to start iron chelation therapy, our results suggest that iron overload and consequent organ dysfunction may occur earlier than this. Therefore, it may be necessary to start iron chelation therapy earlier than that suggested by the Japanese guidelines.
- Prognostic value of telomere attrition in patients with aplastic anemia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Hematol 2013 May; 97(5):553-7.
The decision to pursue hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or immunosuppression as first therapy in severe aplastic anemia is currently based on age and availability of a histocompatible donor. The ability to predict hematologic response, relapse and clonal evolution could improve treatment allocation. In the past 15 years, telomeres have been implicated in clinical diseases such as aplastic anemia, pulmonary fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer development. The clinical relevance of varying telomere lengths (TL) and/or mutations in genes of the telomerase complex (TERC, TERT) is evolving in aplastic anemia. A large retrospective analysis suggests that baseline TL associate with late events of hematologic relapse and clonal evolution in aplastic anemia patients treated initially with anti-thymocyte globulin-based therapy. Further laboratory experiments propose possible mechanistic insight into genomic instability of bone marrow cells derived from patients with critically short telomeres and/or mutation in telomerase genes. The possibility of modulating telomere attrition rate with sex hormones could positively affect clonal evolution rates in humans. This review will summarize studies in marrow failure that explore the association between telomeres and aplastic anemia outcomes.
- Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Treatment in Childhood Acquired Severe Aplastic Anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2013 Apr 30.
Acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life threatening bone marrow failure characterized by pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Matched sibling donor is not available for majority of the patients and many children receive immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Although horse antithymocyte globuline (ATG) is the preferred option, our patients received rabbit ATG; since horse ATG is not available in Turkey. We reviewed the medical records of children with SAA who were treated with rabbit ATG, cyclosporine, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) between 2006 and 2012. Fifteen children with SAA aged between 1.5 and 17 years received rabbit ATG as first line treatment. Only two of them showed partial response and the others did not give any response at 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after the first course of IST. The second course of ATG was given to 8 of the patients; Rabbit ATG at the same dosage was used for 3 of them, and others were given horse ATG. None of the patients responded to the second course of ATG. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) which was seen in 80% of the patients was the most significant problem. Overall survival rate was 60%. The median time between the diagnosis and initiation of IST was 57 (range; 29-144) days. This delay might be significantly contributed to unresponsiveness. In our series, the use of rabbit ATG was not effective for these patients as first line treatment modality. Response rate was very low and the incidence of fungal infections was very high in the SAA patients who received rabbit ATG.
- A promising immunosuppressive strategy of cyclosporine alternately combined with levamisole is highly effective for moderate aplastic anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Hematol 2013 Apr 26.
The appropriate management of patients with moderate aplastic anemia (mAA) remains to be unclear and controversial. A cohort of 118 patients with mAA received a novel immunosuppressive strategy of cyclosporine alternately combined with levamisole (CSA and LMS regimen), which included 42 newly diagnosed and 76 chronic (disease duration >6 months) cases. CSA and LMS regimen was orally administrated with the initial dose of CSA 3 mg/kg per day in adults or 5 mg/kg per day in children, and LMS 150 mg per day in adults or 2.5 mg/kg per day in children, continued for 12 more months after achieving maximal hematologic response, followed by a slow tapering. The overall response rates were of 100 and 86.8 % for newly diagnosed and chronic group, respectively. The 24-month progression-free survival were 95.2 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 85.9-100 %) and 93.6 % (95 % CI, 86.9-100 %) for newly diagnosed and chronic group, respectively (P = 0.50). The 2-year event-free survival for the patients in newly diagnosed group (86.6 %; 95 % CI, 70.4-100 %) was superior to that in chronic group (57.0 %; 95 % CI, 43.5-70.4 %, P = 0.001). To date, 11 patients relapsed and no patients evolved to clonal disorders. Thus, CSA and LMS regimen represents a promising immunosuppressive strategy for mAA.
- [Aplastic anemia with macrocytic anemia: a study based on long-term follow-up]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2013 Feb; 34(2):117-21.
To elucidate the clinical features, response rate, prognosis and clonal evolution of aplastic anemia (AA) with macrocytic anemia (mAA).The clinical features at initial diagnosis and datas in follow up of mAA hospitalized from January 2000 to October 2011 were analyzed retrospectively.(1) Of 153/568 (26.9%) cases of mAA at initial diagnosis, 114(74.5%)were non-severe AA (NSAA), 39(25.5%)severe AA (SAA) and 0 very severe AA (VSAA), while the proportion was 16.2%, 45.2%, and 38.6% in 376 normocytic anemia AA (nAA), and the difference is statistically significant(χ(2) = 181.390; P = 0.000). The median age of mAA was significantly higher than that of nAA \[30(4 - 70)years vs 19 (3 - 68) years, P = 0.001\]. (2) There were no statistical difference in hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PLT), response rate after 6 months treatment and overall survival (OS) between mAA and nAA grouped in SAA and NSAA respectively. In SAA, the reticulocyte count (Ret) of mAA was significantly higher than that of nAA \[23.90(2.99 - 61.00)×10(9)/L vs 13.1(0 - 70.60)×10(9)/L, P = 0.000\] and the proportion of erythroid cells in bone marrow of mAA was also higher \[23.5 (0 - 58) vs 14.5 (0 - 65), P = 0.043\], while they did not differ significantly in NSAA. (3) The proportion of AA with PNH clones or abnormal cytogenetics did not differ significantly in mAA and nAA groups before treatment. The incidences of AA evolved to PNH in mAA and nAA was not statistically significant (7/153 vs 9/376, χ(2) = 1.099, P = 0.294) and so was the incidence of evolution to MDS/AML(3/153 vs 13/376, χ(2) = 0.399, P = 0.528).In presented with macrocytic anemia at initial diagnosis of AA, higher proportion of NSAA, elderly age, higher Ret and proportion of erythroid cells are features, but being no statistical difference in the response rate, OS, and proportion of clonal evolution.
- The optimal immunosuppressive therapy for aplastic anemia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Hematol 2013 May; 97(5):564-72.
Immunosuppressive treatment (IST) has been the most effective therapeutic modality for patients with aplastic anemia (AA) who are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched siblings because of donor unavailability, old age, or comorbidities. The combination of horse anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with cyclosporine A (CsA) has shown satisfactory results for these patients, and so it has been regarded as the standard IST regimen. However, treatment failure including unresponsiveness, relapse, and occurrence of clonal evolution remains a major problem, although the results of IST have been improved in the past two decades. Many studies have been conducted to overcome these problems; however, they have yet to show any satisfactory results. This review will discuss immune-mediated pathophysiology of AA, which is associated with therapeutic targets of immunosuppressive agents and clinical outcomes of most commonly used IST regimens. Several trials to improve IST including the addition of other immunosuppressive agents or growth factors to standard IST regimen, comparison between horse ATG/CsA and rabbit ATG/CsA as first-line treatment, and promising alternative agents including alemtuzumab and eltrombopag will also be discussed, focusing on recently published literatures.
- Numerous granulocyte transfusions to a patient with severe aplastic anemia without severe complication. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transfus Apher Sci 2013 Apr 18.
One of the most important morbidity causes of aplastic anemia is invasive fungal infections. It could not be possible to take control of infection without neutrophils despite the recent developments in the antifungals. In this presented case, a patient with severe aplastic anemia, granulocyte transfusion were administered as 46 times because of the presence of widely invasive aspergillosis and resistance. Only fever reaction was observed as a complication of transfusion amongst the other complications such as acute lung damage, alloimmunisation, and graft-versus-host disease. Granulosit transfusions should not be avoided in patients who had an indication for.
- [A long-term follow up study on 345 severe aplastic anemia patients treated with antithymocyte globulin/lymphoglobulin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2013 Jan; 34(1):30-5.
To assess the short term curative efficacy and long-term survival outcomes of severe aplastic anemia patients following antithymocyte globulin/lymphoglobulin (ATG/ALG) with or without cyclosporine (CsA).A total of 345 cases hospitalized in our hospital between December 1982 and June 2011 were enrolled into this study. We assessed the response rates 3 and 6 months after ATG/ALG, and estimated the overall survival (OS) by Kaplan-Meier method for this cohort of patients.The cohort of 345 patients was routinely followed-up with a median follow-up of 44.0 (range, 0.5 - 244.0) months. The response rates at 3 and 6 months were 29.9% and 45.4%, respectively. The differences in response rates at both 3 (39.2% vs 19.6%, P < 0.01) and 6 months (55.6% vs 34.0%, P < 0.01) between 184 non-severe aplastic anemia (mSAA) and 161 very severe aplastic anemia (VSAA) were statistically significant. The response rates among the different ATG preparations were comparative; but 3-(10.6%) and 6-month (25.5%) responses produced by rATG-Fresenius were significantly inferior to those by rATG-Sangstat (36.6% and 56.6%, respectively) (all P < 0.01). The 5-year OS was 61.7% (95%CI 55.4% - 68.0%) for the entire cohort of patients, and 5-year OS for mSAA patients \[71.0% (95%CI 62.9% - 79.1%)\] was superior to that of VSAA patients \[50.4% (95%CI 40.1% - 60.7%), P < 0.01\]; but for the patients treated from 2007, the difference of OS in the last 5 years between VSAA and mSAA was not significant \[ 73.7% (95%CI 52.2% - 95.2%) vs 89.7% (95%CI 79.5% - 99.9%); P = 0.24\]. Our study also confirmed the superiority of ATG/ALG + CsA regimen \[64.8% (95%CI 57.9% - 71.7%)\] over ATG/ALG alone \[32.6% (95%CI 15.7% - 49.5%)\] with regard to 5-year OS (P < 0.01); but the addition of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to ATG/ALG had no benefit in terms of OS. rATG-S produced significantly better 5-year OS \[66.1% (95%CI 55.8% - 76.4%)\] than rATG-F \[46.6% (95%CI 35.9% - 57.3%); P < 0.01\].(1) The outcome of mSAA was superior to that of VSAA, but the latter was markedly improved in the last 5 years; (2) rATG-F was inferior to rATG-S with regard to 5-year OS; (3) Immunosuppressive treatment with ATG/ALG plus CsA was more effective than ATG/ALG alone; (4) The addition of rhG-CSF to ATG/ALG had no benefit in terms of OS.