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Hematology AND Aplastic anemia [keywords]
- [Th17 cells and aplastic anemia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2014 Sep; 22(5):1463-6.
During the past few years, a novel family of CD4(+)T cell lineage was detected and named as Th17 cells because of its unique ability expressing IL-17, which also can produce IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-26. Some cytokines, such as TGF-β, IL-6, L-23 may promote the differentiation of Th17 subset, whereas some cytokines, such as IL-21, IL-2, IFN-γ, may have inhibitory effects. Th17 cells serving as immune effectors play an important role in autoimmune diseases caused by chronic inflammation injury. More and more studies confirmed that Th17 cells have closely correlations with the development of aplastic anemia, and may be a new target in the diagnosis, therapy, prognosis and prophylaxis of aplastic anemia.
- [Retrospective analysis of therapeutic efficacy of haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2014 Sep; 22(5):1354-8.
This study was purposed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of haploidentical allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), and evaluate the safety of this treatment by retrospective analysis. A total of 21 patients with SAA (13 cases of SAA-I, 8 cases of SAA-II) were treated with haploidentical allo-HSCT. Donors were the relatives of the patients (12 were the parents, 9 were the siblings). The conditioning regimen contained cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and antithymocyte globulin. Methylaminopterin, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporin A were used for preventing graft versus host disease (GVHD). The chimerism rate was monitored periodically after successful graft. The long survival rate, incidence and severity of complication, such as GVHD, infection, and so on were analyzed. The results showed that 15 out of 21 patients were survived for 16 (3-46) months, survival rate was 71.4%. Graft tailure happened in one case who died of mycetes septicemia at 43 days after allo-HSCT. Two patients died of pulmonary infection at 6 days and 10 days respectively after transplantation. Rejection happened in one case at 3 months who died of pulmonary infection at 17 days after the second transplantation with the same donor. Two patients died of IV grade intestinal GVHD at 35 days and 52 days. GVHD occurred in 14 of 21 patients, the accumulative incidence was 66.7%, 5 cases of them were severe. It is concluded that the therapeutic efficacy of haploidentical allo-HSCT is effective for SAA and with slighter complications.
- [Therapeutic Efficacy of Second Allo-HSCT for Aplastic Anemia after Failure of First Allo-HSCT]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2014 Sep; 22(5):1348-53.
This study was purposed to evaluate the curative efficacy of second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) after failure of the first allo-HSCT in aplastic anemia patients, the cause of implant failure after allo-HSCT and clinical data of 10 severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients in the second allo-HSCT were retrospectively analyszed. The second HSCT conditioning programs include: cyclophosphamide (CTX) + fludarabine (FLU)+ anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) combination chemotherapy for 3 cases; CTX + FLU + white busulfan (Bu) + ATG combination chemotherapy for 7 cases. The prevention regimen of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) include cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and methotrexate (MTX). The median count of mononuclear cell infusion was 12.17 (5.99-18.12)×10(8)/kg. The CD34(+) cell count was 5.2 (3.8-10.9)×10(6)/kg. The results showed that 10 evaluable patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution with absolute neutrophil >0.5×10(9)/L, platelets >20×10(9)/L at 15d (8-21d) and 17d (11-27d) after transplantation. The grade I aGVHD occurred in 2 case, grade II in 1 case, chronic GVHD in 3 cases. Transplant-related deaths occurred in 4 cases. The disease-free survival rate, transplant-related mortality, GVHD after transplantation were 60%, 40% and 50% respectively. It is concluded that the second allo-HSCT is an effective therapy for aplastic anemia after allo-HSCT implant failure.
- Unusual presentation of hairy cell leukemia: a case series of four clinically unsuspected cases. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):413-7.
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is characterized by pancytopenia and usually associated with massive splenomegaly, however the same may not be true in the clinical settings. Here we report four cases of HCL and all of them were without the classical clinical feature of splenomegaly. This is an observational study conducted between January 2013 to March 2014 where we could diagnose ten cases of HCL in Department of Hematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Of these, four cases attracted attention because of absence of classical clinical features of HCL. Of the four cases, three presented with weakness/fatigability while fourth patient presented with recurrent respiratory tract infection. Surprising finding in these cases was absence of splenomegaly, both clinically and on imaging which demerit the suspicion of HCL clinically. All four had bi/pancytopenia and bone marrow examination coupled with immunophenotypic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of HCL. Three patients received chemotherapy with cladribine and achieved complete hematological remission. One patient did not receive chemotherapy due to poor general condition and was subsequently lost to follow up. To conclude, HCL can and do present without splenomegaly and this should not restrain one from suspecting HCL based on histomorphology which needs to be further confirmed by ancillary techniques. This finding in our series could be because these cases were picked early in their natural course of the disease. A high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosing and appropriately managing such cases.
- Rare association of coeliac disease with aplastic anaemia: report of a case from India. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):208-11.
Coeliac disease is a systemic autoimmune disorder with major intestinal manifestations. It has multiple hematologic associations including anaemia (mostly due to iron, folate and/or vitamin B12 malabsorption), other cytopenias, coagulation abnormalities, hyposplenism, IgA deficiency and lymphomas. Aplastic anaemia has however, only rarely been described with celiac disease in published literature. We here present a case of atypical coeliac disease in a 40 year male Indian patient, with insignificant gastrointestinal symptoms, presenting with aplastic anaemia manifested by pancytopenia with hypocellular bone marrow. On gluten free diet, his symptoms like weakness, fatigue and malaise were relieved-blood and platelet transfusion requirement also diminished.
- [Selection of an unrelated donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. HLA haplotypes in patients with blood system diseases]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2014; 86(7):31-6.
To study the distribution of HLA-A*-B*-C*-DRB1 *-DQB1 * haplotypes in patients with blood system diseases, to establish the most common HLA haplotypes, and to compare the findings with the data on the frequency and distribution of the highest-frequency HLA haplotypes in donors of a number of leading registries.In 2008-2012, the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, examined 203 patients with blood system diseases who needed allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and their 386 blood relatives. Typing ascertained the kind of HLA haplotype in all the patients. Among the patients, there were 97 men who were aged 17 to 64 years (median 38 years) and 106 women who were aged 18 to 59 years (median 40 years).The examinees were found to have 265 different HLA haplotypes. There were 21 high-frequency HLA haplotypes; of them 7 belonged to 10 HLA haplotypes that are most frequent in the representatives of the Caucasoid race. Nearly 30% of the patients who needed allo-HSCT and had no HLA-identical siblings had HLA haplotypes out of the 10 ones that are most common in the representatives of the Caucasoids and thus could expect to find a compatible unrelated donor for a short time. The examinees were found to have a wide variety of HLA haplotypes (265 types in 203 persons). This variety, as well as the extreme polymorphism of HLA alleles, shows that there should be large registries of HLA-typed bone marrow donors in the country. These registries increase the chance to find a HLA-compatible unrelated donor for a short time for a patient with blood disease who has an indication for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The performed study supported that there were regional features in the distribution of HLA haplotypes within the same ethnic group.The chance to find a HLA-compatible donor for Russian patients in the large national registry that accumulates donors from different regional populations is substantially higher than that in the foreign registries. To create large cohorts of HLA-typic bone marrow donors from different regions of the country will substantially increase the chance of patients with blood system diseases to find a HLA-compatible unrelated donor.
- First-Line Immunosuppressive Treatment in Children with Aplastic Anemia: Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Adv Exp Med Biol 2014 Oct 14.
Immunosuppressive therapy is the treatment of choice in children with acquired severe aplastic anemia (AA) and no HLA-matched family donor. The paper presents results of a multicenter study of 63 children with AA treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) and cyclosporine A as the first line treatment in the years 1996-2012. Therapeutic effects were evaluated at Days 112, 180, and 360. At Day 112, remission was achieved in 28 out of the 63 patients (44.4 %), complete remission in 10 patients (15.9 %), and partial remission in 18 (28.5 %). At Day 180, 31 patients (49.2 %) were in remission including 15 cases in complete (23.8 %), and 16 cases in partial remission (25.4 %). One year after therapy onset, 34 patients (64.9 %) were in remission including 24 patients (38.0 %) in complete and 10 (15.9 %) in partial remission. Relapse occurred in 4 patients, from 8 months up to 2 years and 2 months after remission. One child, 5 years after remission, was diagnosed with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The estimated 10-year overall survival rate and 10-year event-free survival rate were 67 % and 57 %, respectively.
- Diagnostic value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in routine hematology practice. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Aug; 8(8):FC13-6.
The bone marrow is frequently involved in variety of cases presenting with hematological and non-hematological disorders, which are diagnosed by two separate but interrelated techniques such as bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and bone marrow biopsy (BMB).This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic value of the BMA and BMB and role of both the procedures to reach final diagnosis when done simultaneously.It was a prospective study. The findings of BMA smears were correlated with BMB sections and data obtained was analysed.BMA and BMB were performed on 50 patients. Criteria of inclusion included the main indications for performing this procedure, the availability of full medical records and patient consent. The patients had a male to female sex ratio of 1.6:1 and a wide age range from 4 years to 74 years.In the present study, the main indications for bone marrow examination were categorized. Out of 50 cases studied, in 23 cases, a strong positive correlation between BMA and BMB was noted. However, it was found that in the cases of aplastic anaemia, different phases of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), multiple myeloma, tubercular granulomas and hemato-lymphoid neoplasm, involvement of the marrow was detected better in bone marrow biopsies.The study concludes that preparations of aspirate and trephine biopsy are easy, rapid and complementary to each other in majority of the lesions. The advantage of both the procedures done together enabled us to study the cytomorphology of the cells along with the pattern of distribution of the cells depending on the cases, hence help in making the diagnosis accurately.
- Diagnostic and management dilemma of a pancreas-kidney transplant recipient with aplastic anaemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with type I diabetes who had received a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant maintained on tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and prednisolone. Her renal allograft failed 6 years post-transplant but she continued to have a normal functioning pancreatic allograft. Over the course of 5 years, she developed progressive bone marrow failure with repeat bone marrow aspirates demonstrating an evolution from erythroid hypoplasia to hypocellular marrow and eventual aplastic anaemia despite discontinuation of MPA and reduction of tacrolimus. She was transfusion-dependent and had frequent admissions for sepsis. Despite treatment with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for aplastic anaemia, she developed fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis within 3 weeks of treatment. Even though the cause of aplastic anaemia is likely multifactorial, this case highlights the difficulty in balancing the need for versus the risk of ongoing immunosuppression in a SPK transplant recipient who continues to have normal pancreatic graft function.