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Hematology AND Aplastic anemia [keywords]
- Reduced intensity conditioning, combined transplantation of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells in patients with severe aplastic anemia. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(3):e89666.
We examined if transplantation of combined haploidentical hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) affected graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Patients with SAA-I (N = 17) received haploidentical HSCT plus MSC infusion. Stem cell grafts used a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed bone marrow and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells of haploidentical donors and the culture-expanded third-party donor-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs), respectively. Reduced intensity conditioning consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m2·d)+cyclosphamide (500 mg/m2·d)+anti-human thymocyte IgG. Transplant recipients also received cyclosporin A, mycophenolatemofetil, and CD25 monoclonal antibody. A total of 16 patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution. The median mononuclear cell and CD34 count was 9.3×108/kg and 4.5×106/kg. Median time to ANC was >0.5×109/L and PLT count >20×109/L were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Grade III-IV acute GVHD was seen in 23.5% of the cases, while moderate and severe chronic GVHD were seen in 14.2% of the cases. The 3-month and 6-month survival rates for all patients were 88.2% and 76.5%, respectively; mean survival time was 56.5 months. Combined transplantation of haploidentical HSCs and MSCs on SAA without an HLA-identical sibling donor was safe, effectively reduced the incidence of severe GVHD, and improved patient survival.
- Threshold of galactomannan antigenemia positivity for early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2014 Feb 27.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Pediatric data on the accuracy and optimal cutoff of galactomannan antigen detection to diagnose IA is sparse and controversial. We evaluated the utility and optimal serum galactomannan assay (GA) cutoff in children.Children with febrile neutropenia due to malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, aplastic anemia, or congenital neutropenia, were prospectively included from 2007 to 2011. All new episodes of febrile neutropenia were recorded. In case of a previous diagnosis of IA, subsequent episodes were excluded. One to four GA were tested by enzyme immunoassay during each episode. Bronchoalveolar lavage and other relevant samples for mycological diagnosis, and computed tomography of chest/sinus were performed wherever appropriate. IA was classified as "proven", "probable", and "possible" as per the 2008 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group Guidelines. The optimal cutoff value was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves in episode-wise analysis.There were 145 patients with 211 febrile episodes included: hematopoietic stem cell transplant (n = 15), oncological (n = 113), and hematological disorders (n = 17). Forty-five children (31.0%) developed IA (5 proven, 15 probable, and 25 possible). Cutoff value of single GA ≥ 0.7 for proven/probable/possible IA offered the best combination of sensitivity (82.2%)/specificity (82.5%), and 94.4% negative predictive value. Two consecutive positive GA ≥ 0.7 had a sensitivity/specificity of 75.0%/91.0%. Index GA ≥ 1.9 was associated with significantly higher mortality in children with IA and overall.Serum GA is sensitive to diagnose IA in pediatric patients with excellent negative predictive value at an optimal cutoff of ≥0.7. Considering two consecutive values ≥0.7 increases specificity to 91.0%.
- Autoimmune complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with nonmalignant disorders. [Journal Article]
- ScientificWorldJournal 2014.:581657.
Background.Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment for many nonmalignant disorders, such as autoimmune disorders, inborn metabolic disorders, hemoglobinopathies, and immunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmune complications (AICs) after HSCT, such as autoimmune cytopenias, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and autoimmune cutaneous manifestations, are still neither well defined nor characterized. Patients. Between 2000 and 2012, 92 patients (47 males, 45 females) were treated with HSCT in our hospital, 51 with congenital hemoglobinopathies, 19 with primary immunodeficiency disease, 10 with metabolic disorders, five with Fanconi anemia, three with aplastic anemia, and four with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Results.Mean age at HSCT was 6.4 years (range, 0.2-32 years) and mean duration of followup after HSCT was 6.81 years (range, 1-11 years). Sixteen (17.4%) patients developed chronic GVHD and five (5.4%) showed sclerodermatous features. Five (5.4%) patients were diagnosed with scleroderma manifestations, six (6.5%) with vitiligo, six (6.5%) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), six (6.5%) with idiopathic thrombocytopenia, three (3.3%) with mild leucopenia, two (2.2%) with aplastic anemia, two (2.2%) (one boy, one girl) with autoimmune thyroid disease, and one (1.1%) with autoimmune hepatitis.
Conclusions.It was concluded that AICs are clinically significant complications after HSCT that contribute to morbidity but not to mortality. AICs are more frequent after HSCT for metabolic disorders, and sclerodermatous GVHD is more significant in children who underwent allogeneic HSCT for hemoglobinopathies. The potential to identify risk factors for AICs could lead to less morbidity and mortality and to maintain the patient's quality of life.
- Antithymocyte globulin induced recurrent seizures in a case of severe aplastic anemia. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Mar; 30(1):70-1.
Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been the standard immuno suppressive therapy for aplastic anemia. ATG significantly improves survival and response rates vary between 40 and 70 %. Mild side effects are common but recurrent seizures have rarely been reported with ATG.
- Elevated expression of CX3C chemokine receptor 1 mediates recruitment of T cells into bone marrow of patients with acquired aplastic anaemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Intern Med 2014 Feb 16.
Acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) is a T-cell-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by haematopoietic stem cell destruction in the bone marrow. The exact molecular mechanism of T-cell trafficking into the bone marrow is unclear in AA. Very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4) and CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) play active roles in many autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether VLA-4 and CX3CR1 also contribute to T-cell migration into the bone marrow in acquired AA.Expression levels of CX3CR1 and VLA-4 and their ligands [fractalkine (CX3CL1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] were examined in 63 patients with AA and 21 healthy control subjects. T-cell chemotaxis and adhesion were analysed in 17 patients with severe AA. We also prospectively evaluated the expression pattern of CX3CR1 during treatment with antithymocyte globulin plus cyclosporine in 11 patients with severe AA.The proportion of peripheral and bone marrow CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing CX3CR1 and the level of CX3CL1 was increased in patients with AA. However, there was no significant difference in VLA-4 expression or VCAM-1 levels. Functional studies demonstrated that chemotaxis towards autologous bone marrow plasma or soluble CX3CL1 was significantly higher in T cells from AA patients and could be blocked by CX3CR1 inhibitors. CX3CR1-mediated T-cell adhesion was also upregulated in these patients. The expression of CX3CR1 was associated with the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy.The present findings demonstrate that CX3CR1 plays a pivotal role in recruitment of T cells into the bone marrow in acquired AA and is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of this disorder.
- [Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of iron overload]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Nov 26; 93(44):3506-9.
To evaluate the significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2(*) value analysis in patients with iron overload and compare it with other clinical parameters.A total of 53 patients with suspected iron overload were recruited from four Beijing hospitals from December 2010 to December 2012. Their liver and heart T2(*) values were calculated and their serum ferritin (SF), transferin saturation, blood transfusion volume and other clinical parameters were recorded and analyzed.There were 37 males and 16 females with a medium age of 50 years(15-72 years). Their etiologies included myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n = 25), aplastic anemia (AA, n = 16), myelofibrosis (n = 5), hemachromatosis (n = 2) and β thalassaemia (n = 2), and 3 patients with high SF values were found on regular health examinations. Among them, there were transfusion history (n = 45), SF>1000 µg/L (n = 49), sign of iron overload (n = 10), abnormal liver function (n = 38) and hyperglycemia (n = 32). T2(*) value analysis showed that 10 patients had no evidence of iron overload, 43 patients had liver iron overload (14 mild, 22 moderate and 7 severe) and 2 patients had heart iron overload (1 MDS with heavy transfusion history and 1 AA with heart failure). No relations existed between T2(*) value and SF (P = 0.050) , T2(*) value and transfusion volume (P = 0.820) , and liver T2(*) value and heart T2(*) value (P = 0.129) .MRI T2(*) value is an accurate way of quantitative detection of iron overload. It provides a comprehensive understanding of patients with iron overload in conjunctions with MRI T2(*) value and other clinical parameters.
- [Analysis of clinical features of traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and syndromes of 220 patients with chronic aplastic anemia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2014 Jan; 34(1):43-5.
To study Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of chronic aplastic anemia (CAA) patients and the distribution laws of typical CM symptoms in different genders.From June 2002 to June 2012, 220 CAA outpatients/inpatients at Department of Hematology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical Hospital were recruited. Patients' symptoms and signs, as well as four diagnostic information at the first onset were collected. CM syndrome differentiation was performed. The syndrome types and typical symptoms were analyzed.(1) In the 220 CAA patients, there were 121 cases of Shen yang deficiency syndrome (55.0%), 18 of Shen yin deficiency syndrome type (8.18%), 81 cases of Shen yin-yang deficiency syndrome (36.82%). (2) The distribution of typical symptoms: fatigue and shortness of breath (77.12% males and 73.53% females), pale complexion (64.41% males and 57.84% females), low temperature of four limbs (12.71% males and 26.47% females), spontaneous perspiration and night sweating (32.20% males and 26.47% females), dry mouth and throat (6.78% males and 6.86% females), feverish feelings in palms and soles (14.41% males and 20.59% females), loose stool (6.78% males and 2.94% females), petechiae and ecchymosis (42.37% males and 43.14% females).Shen yang deficiency syndrome was most often seen in CAA patients at the initial diagnosis, followed by Shen yin-yang deficiency syndrome. Shen yin deficiency syndrome was the least seen. In CM symptoms, fatigue and shortness of breath were most common seen, followed by pale complexion, skin petechia and ecchymosis.
- Granulocyte transfusion combined with granulocyte colony stimulating factor in severe infection patients with severe aplastic anemia: a single center experience from china. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e88148.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of granulocyte transfusion combined with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in severe infection patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA).Fifty-six patients in severe infections with SAA who had received granulocyte transfusions combined with G-CSF from 2006 to 2012 in our department were analyzed. A retrospective analysis was undertaken to investigate the survival rates (at 30 days, 90 days and 180 days), the responses to treatment (at 7 days and 30 days, including microbiological, radiographic and clinical responses), the neutrophil count and adverse events after transfusion.All SAA patients with severe infections were treated with granulocyte transfusions combined with G-CSF. Forty-seven patients had received antithymocyte globulin/antilymphocyte globulin and cyclosporine A as immunosuppressive therapy. The median number of granulocyte components transfused was 18 (range, 3-75). The survival at 30 days, 90 days and 180 days were 50(89%), 39(70%) and 37(66%) respectively. Among 31 patients who had invasive fungal infections, the survival at 30 days, 90 days and 180 days were 27(87%), 18(58%) and 16(52%) respectively. Among the 25 patients who had refractory severe bacterial infections, the survival at 30 days, 90 days and 180 days were 23(92%), 21(84%) and 21(84%) respectively. Survival rate was correlated with hematopoietic recovery. Responses of patients at 7 and 30 days were correlated with survival rate. Common adverse effects of granulocyte transfusion included mild to moderate fever, chills, allergy and dyspnea.Granulocyte transfusions combined with G-CSF could be an adjunctive therapy for treating severe infections of patients with SAA.
- Interpreting the developmental dance of the megakaryocyte: a review of the cellular and molecular processes mediating platelet formation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Haematol 2014 Feb 6.
Platelets are essential for haemostasis, and thrombocytopenia (platelet counts <150 × 10(9) /l) is a major clinical problem encountered across a number of conditions, including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, myelodysplastic syndromes, chemotherapy, aplastic anaemia, human immunodeficiency virus infection, complications during pregnancy and delivery, and surgery. Circulating blood platelets are specialized cells that function to prevent bleeding and minimize blood vessel injury. Platelets circulate in their quiescent form, and upon stimulation, activate to release their granule contents and spread on the affected tissue to create a physical barrier that prevents blood loss. The current model of platelet formation states that large progenitor cells in the bone marrow, called megakaryocytes, release platelets by extending long, branching processes, designated proplatelets, into sinusoidal blood vessels. This review will focus on different factors that impact megakaryocyte development, proplatelet formation and platelet release. It will highlight recent studies on thrombopoeitin-dependent megakaryocyte maturation, endomitosis and granule formation, cytoskeletal contributions to proplatelet formation, the role of apoptosis, and terminal platelet formation and release.
- A combination of fludarabine, half-dose cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin is an effective conditioning regimen before allogeneic stem cell transplantation for aplastic anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Hematol 2014 Feb 1.
Conditioning regimens consisting of reduced-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) and fludarabine (FDR) have been investigated for use in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with aplastic anemia to reduce the toxicities associated with CY. However, the ideal dose of CY has not been identified. In addition, little information is available regarding donor cell chimerism after allo-HSCT with these regimens. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed 13 patients who underwent allo-HSCT with half-dose CY (100 mg/kg in total), FDR, and anti-thymocyte globulin at total doses of 2.5-10 mg/kg at our center. All the patients except one, who died due to encephalopathy on day 20, achieved neutrophil engraftment a median of 18.5 days after HSCT with complete donor-type chimerism. Two patients who received a graft from an HLA-matched donor subsequently developed mixed chimerism (MC) associated with transfusion-dependent cytopenia. One became transfusion-independent after donor lymphocyte infusion, but continues to exhibit MC. The other regained complete donor-type chimerism after the cessation of cyclosporine, but remains transfusion-dependent. These findings suggest that a conditioning regimen with half-dose CY and FDR is effective for achieving neutrophil engraftment and complete donor-type chimerism. However, subsequent MC may be observed, especially after HLA-matched HSCT.