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Hematology AND DIC [keywords]
- Microparticle bearing tissue factor: A link between promyelocytic cells and hypercoagulable state. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thromb Res 2013 Nov 16.
Patients with hematological malignancies have a 28-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Among patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the 2-year cumulative incidence of VTE is 5.2%. Several studies suggest that microvesicles (MVs) harboring TF may play a role in VTE and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of untreated (APL) cells to shed procoagulant MVs. APL cells (NB4 and HL-60 cell lines) and MVs were separated by filtration (0.1-0.22-0.45-0.65μm). The procoagulant activity (PCA) was assessed by thrombin generation assay (TGA). Alternatively, MVs were incubated with anti-Tissue Factor (TF) antibodies, with annexin V to assess the contribution of TF and phospholipids (PL) to the PCA, respectively. NB4 cells had a high PCA mainly triggered by MVs of size under 0.45μm. The PCA of MVs was related to the expression of active TF and PL. HL-60 cells had a weaker PCA since TF is mostly present in its inactive form. Moreover, HL-60 do not produce MVs<0.65μm associated with PCA. MVs could have a predicting value for VTE and DIC in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and could inform physicians about the optimal use of a thromboprophylaxis.
- Schistocytes in disseminated intravascular coagulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Lab Hematol 2013 Nov 22.
The presence of schistocytes on the peripheral blood film during disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) remains controversial.We examined schistocytes count on blood films from 35 DIC patients and checked morphological anomalies of all RBCs.Thirty of 35 patients presented with schistocytes and 22 with acanthocytes, which was the commonest shape anomaly. Mean percentage ± standard deviation was 0.33 ± 0.38%, median value was 0.1%, and range was 0-1.4%. The patients with schistocytes ≥ 1% had circumstances frequently associated with increased schistocytes count (promyelocytic leukaemia, pregnancy, severe infection).Schistocytes were thus frequently observed in DIC patients, usually with low percentage, within or close to the reference range (<0.5%). Schistocytes measurement is not a clue test for the initial diagnosis of DIC, but might be of clinical value to suggest an associated or underlying thrombotic microangiopathy if ≥ 1%.
- Hematologic Manifestations of Systemic Disease (Including Iron Deficiency, Anemia of Inflammation and DIC). [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Clin North Am 2013 Dec; 60(6):1337-48.
A complete blood cell count (CBC) is a frequent test sent to aid in the diagnostic evaluation of ill patients. Not uncommonly hematologic abnormalities may be the first sign of an underlying systemic disorder. The astute clinician needs to understand how systemic disease can affect the CBC to direct further diagnostic investigations. This article focuses on the 2 most common acquired anemias including iron deficiency and anemia of inflammation as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation.
- Pathogenesis of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, and its treatment using recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Hematol 2013 Nov 12.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an uncommon subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia characterized by the proliferation of blasts with distinct morphology, a specific balanced reciprocal translocation t(15;17), and life-threatening hemorrhage caused mainly by enhanced fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy regimens has dramatically improved overall survival of individuals with APL, although hemorrhage-related death during the early phase of therapy remains a serious problem. Moreover, population-based studies have shown that the incidence of early death during induction chemotherapy is nearly 30 %, and the most common cause of death is associated with hemorrhage. Thus, development of a novel treatment strategy to alleviate abnormal coagulation in APL patients is urgently required. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) comprises the active extracellular domain of TM, and has been used for treatment of DIC since 2008 in Japan. Use of rTM in combination with remission induction chemotherapy, including ATRA, produces potent resolution of DIC without exacerbation of bleeding tendency in individuals with APL. This review article discusses the pathogenesis and features of DIC caused by APL, as well as the possible anticoagulant and anti-leukemic action of rTM in APL patients.
- A novel mutation c.1048A>T at codon 350(Lys>Stop) in PROC gene causing neonatal purpura fulminans. [Journal Article]
- Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2013 Dec; 24(8):890-2.
Purpura fulminans in the neonatal period due to severe congenital protein C deficiency (protein C activity <1 IU/dl) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. If untreated, it is fatal. Early identification of such patients may be lifesaving. Acquired deficiency of protein C caused by increased consumption as overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and severe infection creates a diagnostic dilemma. Mutation analysis plays a critical role in confirming the diagnosis of the disease and offering prenatal diagnosis. In this report, we describe a newborn who presented with purpura fulminans and DIC, molecular analysis showed a novel c.1048A>T transversion in a homozygous state at codon 350 (Lys>Stop) of protein C (PROC) gene. Prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancy was done which revealed the affected fetus had the same mutation in homozygous form.
- Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin is active against hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Int J Hematol 2013 Nov; 98(5):615-9.
A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital to initiate highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for documented acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The HIV load was 2.5 million copies/mL and the CD4-positive lymphocyte count was only 52 cells/µL at presentation. The HAART regimen consisted of lamivudine and abacavir as the backbone, plus raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir as the base. The day after initiating HAART, his body temperature rose to 102.4 °F (39.1 °C), accompanied by elevated levels of liver enzymes, neutropenia, coagulopathies, and an extremely high serum ferritin level, prompting us to suspect hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). To correct the coagulation abnormalities, recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM) was initiated at 375 U/kg. Surprisingly, fever resolved almost immediately, in parallel with dramatic decreases in serum levels of ferritin and liver enzymes and prompt normalization of coagulopathy with only two doses of rTM. The patient subsequently developed amebiasis, which was successfully treated using metronidazole. In summary, the use of rTM dramatically improved not only DIC, but also HLH, suggesting potent anti-inflammatory effects of the agent. Although further clinical reports and trials are needed, rTM appears to provide an additional therapeutic option in the management of HLH.
- Coagulopathy in malaria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thromb Res 2013 Sep 26.
Blood coagulation activation is frequently found in patients with malaria. Clinically apparent bleeding or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is associated with very severe disease and a high mortality. Protein C, protein S, and antithrombin levels were found to be low in P. falciparum, but were normal in P. vivax infection. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were high in cases of P. falciparum infection whereas tissue plasminogen activator levels were low. Elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF propeptide, thrombomodulin, endothelial microparticles have been reported in P. falciparum-infected patients. It has been demonstrated that severe P. falciparum infection is associated with acute endothelial cell (EC) activation, abnormal circulating ultralarge vWF multimers, and a significant reduction in plasma ADAMTS13 function. These changes may result in intravascular platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and microvascular disease. It has also been shown that P. falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) induce tissue factor (TF) expression in microvascular ECs in vitro. Recently, loss of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) localized to sites of cytoadherent pRBCs in cerebral malaria has been demonstrated. Severe malaria is associated with parasite binding to EPCR. The cornerstone of the treatment of coagulopathy in malaria is the use of effective anti-malarial agents. DIC with spontaneous systemic bleeding should be treated with screened blood products. Study in Thailand has shown that for patients who presented with parasitemia >30% and severe systemic complications such as acute renal failure and ARDS, survival was superior in the group who received exchange transfusion. The use of heparin is generally restricted to patients with DIC and extensive deposition of fibrin, as occurs with purpura fulminans or acral ischemia. Antiplatelet agents interfere with the protective effect of platelets against malaria and should be avoided.
- SIL-TAL1 Rearrangement is Related with Poor Outcome: A Study from a Chinese Institution. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(9):e73865.
SIL-TAL1 rearrangement is common in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), however its prognostic implication remains controversial. To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of this subtype in Chinese population, we systemically reviewed 62 patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL, including 15 patients with SIL-TAL1 rearrangement. We found that SIL-TAL1(+) T-ALL was characterized by higher white blood cell count (P = 0.029) at diagnosis, predominant cortical T-ALL immunophenotype (P = 0.028) of the leukemic blasts, and a higher prevalence of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS, P<0.001) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, P<0.001), which led to a higher early mortality (P = 0.011). Compared with SIL-TAL1(-) patients, SIL-TAL1(+) patients had shorter relapse free survival (P = 0.007) and overall survival (P = 0.002). Our NOD/SCID xenotransplantation model also demonstrated that SIL-TAL1(+) mice models had earlier disease onset, higher leukemia cell load in peripheral blood and shorter overall survival (P<0.001). Moreover, the SIL-TAL1(+) mice models exerted a tendency of TLS/DIC and seemed vulnerable towards chemotherapy, which further simulated our clinical settings. These data demonstrate that SIL-TAL1 rearrangement identifies a distinct subtype with inferior outcome which could allow for individual therapeutic stratification for T-ALL patients.
- Distinct reactivity of the commercially available monoclonal antibodies of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing to the molecular variants of fibrin degradation products. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Thromb Res 2013 Oct; 132(4):457-64.
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) are an important marker of coagulopathy. We assessed the reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratory testing (6 D-dimer reagents, D-dimer-1-6; 4 plasma FDP reagents, plasma FDP-1-4) to quantify FDP using in vitro-generated FDP as well as FDP in clinical samples. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-1, -2, -5, and -6 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-3 and -4 had better reactivity to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in plasma FDP-2, -3, and -4 reacted well to the high and low molecular weight FDP forms, while the monoclonal antibody in plasma FDP-1 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight FDP forms. Analysis of clinical samples revealed deviations in FDP molecular weight forms in DIC samples. The reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies of laboratory FDP testing to FDP variants in clinical samples was similar to that of in vitro-generated FDP. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratories to detect FDP have distinct reactivity to the molecular variants of FDP generated in vitro as well as those present in clinical samples. Our findings support the consensus for the standardization of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing.
- [Effective treatment with tranexamic acid for chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with aortic dissection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rinsho Ketsueki 2013 Aug; 54(8):769-71.
An 82-year-old female with a history of aortic dissection was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of thrombocytopenia and a bleeding tendency. Blood coagulation test data demonstrated that the patient had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) secondary to aortic dissection. We initiated anti-fibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid. After this anti-fibrinolytic therapy, thrombocytopenia and the levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation products improved. In addition, we reviewed 7 other patients who were treated with tranexamic acid for DIC associated with aortic dissection. Anti-fibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid is effective for treating DIC secondary to aortic dissection.