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Hematology AND DIC [keywords]
- Prevalence and characterization of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy in Indian women. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2012 Jun; 28(2):77-81.
To find the prevalence and causes of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy. An analytical prospective observational study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, CSMMU, Lucknow. 1079 antenatal women screened for thrombocytopenia and investigated for cause and management strategies and fetomaternal outcome were recorded. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8%. Gestational thrombocytopenia was seen in 64.2%, obstetric in 22.1% and medical in 13.68% cases. Mean platelet count in controls was lower with a significant fall (P < 0.001) in the platelet count as pregnancy advanced. Hypertensive and hepatic disorders were the most common obstetric causes of thrombocytopenia. Mode of delivery was not affected by thrombocytopenia. Maternal morbidity and mortality was seen only in medical and obstetric thrombocytopenia. The low platelet counts and declining trend with increasing gestational age predispose Indian women to risk of thrombocytopenia and a routine platelet count is suggested.
- Successful treatment with recombinant thrombomodulin for B-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. [Journal Article]
- Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2013; 6(6):1190-4.
We report here a 47-year-old male with the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytosis accompanying disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS) is a life-threatening disorder, and LAHS secondary to B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare compared to that secondary to T- or NK/T-cell lymphoma in Western countries. T- or NK/T-cell LAHS is sometimes combined with DIC, which makes patients' outcomes even worse, but few reports of B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC has been published so far. We successfully treated a patient with this condition with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), a novel agent for DIC. We believe that rTM is a therapeutic option in cases with B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC.
- Severe disseminated coagulopathy caused by adenocarcinoma with bone marrow metastasis. [Journal Article]
- Onkologie 2013; 36(5):292-4.
Background:Patients with mucin-producing adenocarcinoma have an increased risk for venous and arterial thrombosis. When these patients present with thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is often the underlying cause. Case Report: We report 2 patients who were admitted due to bleeding symptoms of unknown cause, in whom further workup revealed adenocarcinoma-induced DIC.
Conclusion:In elderly patients presenting with signs of DIC, such as reduced fibrinogen levels, elevated prothrombin time, elevated D-dimer, and thrombocytopenia, without any obvious reason (e.g., sepsis), adenocarcinoma-associated coagulopathy should be considered as the underlying cause. Paradoxically, in these patients bleeding symptoms improve when the patient is sufficiently anti-coagulated with low molecular weight heparin. Treatment of the underlying disease is of central importance in controlling acute or chronic DIC associated with malignant diseases and chemotherapy should be started as soon as possible.
- Coagulopathies in the PICU: DIC and liver disease. [Journal Article]
- Crit Care Clin 2013 Apr; 29(2):319-33.
Bleeding in patients in pediatric intensive care units is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Fortunately, most patients with an abnormal coagulation profile do not bleed because this is generally secondary to liver disease or dietary-induced vitamin K deficiency. When the laboratory markers of coagulopathy are the result of disseminated intravascular coagulation, bleeding is common and the risk of mortality extreme. Although interventions directed toward correcting the abnormal coagulation test results are generally initiated, they are also generally either not warranted or not fully successful.
- A New Case of dic(1;15)(p11;p11) in AML M1: Apropos of a Case and a Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Genet 2013.:462896.
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) develops as the consequence of a series of genetic changes in a hematopoietic precursor cell. Specific cytogenetic abnormalities have been identified by karyotype analysis in AML. One of the rare chromosomal abnormalities is a dicentric chromosome, which is defined as an aberrant chromosome having two centromeres. In the literature, a limited number of cases have been reported with dic(1;15) in myeloid disorders, but only one case has been reported with in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Herein, we report a case of acute myelogenous leukemia without maturation with a dic(1;15)(p11;p11), resulting in trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 1. To date, this is the second case of dic(1;15) in acute myelogenous leukemia and the first case in acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation.
- Severe inhibitor-negative acquired factor XIII/13 deficiency with aggressive subdural haemorrhage. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2013 Mar 17.
Acquired factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a common disease and seldom causes bleeding. However, severe FXIII deficiency may result in life-threatening bleeding. Although the inhibitor against FXIII has recently been focused as the cause of haemorrhagic acquired FXIII deficiency, the pathophysiology of inhibitor-negative cases could also be involved. We report a case of an 85-year-old Japanese man with serious subdural haemorrhage showing a remarkable decreased level of FXIII activity. He also manifested complications of compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with chronic renal failure, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and right renal carcinoma. Despite the successful evacuation of the haemorrhage, acute subdural haemorrhage subsequently developed that necessitated further craniotomies. Plasma cross-mixing studies and dot blot assay revealed no inhibitors against FXIII. We speculated that the decreased FXIII activity could be mainly due to hyperconsumption by DIC and surgery. Because plasma-derived FXIII concentrates are available to stop bleeding, clinicians should be aware of severe acquired inhibitor-negative FXIII deficiency in cases of unexplained excessive bleeding.
- Low ADAMTS-13 activity during hemorrhagic events with disseminated intravascular coagulation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Hematol 2013 Apr; 97(4):511-9.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a life-threatening complication, and its control is essential for therapeutic success. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin alfa (rTM) is a novel therapeutic agent for DIC. The efficacy of rTM in the treatment of DIC is reportedly superior to that of conventional anti-DIC treatments, such as unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin, but hemorrhagic events occasionally interfere with the therapeutic benefits of rTM. We assessed the clinical features of 20 consecutive patients who were given rTM for DIC associated with various hematologic disorders. Eight patients achieved remission of both primary disease and DIC, eight died due to progression of the primary disease, and four died of various hemorrhagic complications. Assessment of 16 biomarkers for coagulation showed that the four patients who died of hemorrhagic complications despite remission of their primary disease showed lower ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin Type 1 motif, member 13) plasma activity than other patients (P = 0.016). The optimal cut-off level of ADAMTS-13 for predicting risk of hemorrhagic complications was 42 % (P = 0.007). Plasma ADAMTS-13 activity determined at diagnosis of DIC may help predict the risk of hemorrhagic events during and/or following DIC treatment with hematologic disorders.
- International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scoring System for disseminated intravascular coagulation ≥ 6: a new predictor of hemorrhagic early death in acute promyelocytic leukemia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Oncol 2013 Mar; 30(1):478.
High-hemorrhagic early death (ED) rate is a major impediment in the managing of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our group of 56 newly diagnosed APL patients, ED occurred in 12 subjects, due to endocranial bleeding (8/12), differentiation syndrome (2/12), or infection (2/12). Predictors of hemorrhagic ED were as follows: white blood cells count ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L (P = 0.002337), Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status ≥ 3 (P = 0.00173), fibrinogen level <2 g/L (P = 0.004907), prothrombin time <50% (P = 0.0124), and International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scoring System for disseminated intravascular coagulation (ISTH DIC score) ≥ 6 (P = 0.00741). Multivariate analysis indicated ISTH DIC score ≥ 6 to be the most significant predictor for hemorrhagic ED (P = 0.008). The main finding of this study is that simple coagulation-related tests, performed on hospital admission and combined in the ISTH DIC score, might help to identify patients at high risk for fatal bleeding needing more aggressive supportive measures.
- [Series: Knowledge of emergency required for internist; disseminated intravascular coagulation <DIC>]. [Journal Article]
- Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 2012 Nov 10; 101(11):3256-60.
- A case report of acute myeloid leukemia after liver transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Acta Haematol 2013; 129(4):225-8.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare complication observed after liver transplantation and only a handful of cases have been reported until now. We report a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) after liver transplantation in a 50-year-old man. The case presentation was postodontectomy bleeding with an associative abnormal coagulation test 85 months after liver transplantation. A routine blood test, bone marrow test, chromosome analysis and examination of PML/RARα chimeric gene confirmed the diagnosis of APL and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Induction chemotherapy with all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide and daunorubicin was given to this patient and complete remission was achieved. The patient was subjected to DA (daunorubicin combined with cytarabine) and MA (mitoxantrone combined with cytarabine) regimens after remission induction to consolidate the chemotherapy for two courses of treatment, and subsequently subjected to arsenous acid chemotherapy on a periodic basis. Twenty-two months into the follow-up, sustained bone marrow remission was observed with the adapted treatment regimen.