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Hematology AND Hemolytic uremic syndrome [keywords]
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome in laboratory medicine: single centre experience in children. [Journal Article]
- Clin Lab 2013; 59(1-2):65-9.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), although rare, is the most common cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in children and has poor prognosis. We present a single centre experience of aHUS.Thirty six children (29 males, 7 females), with mean age 7.9 years, presented with ARF, 2 children also had tonic-clonic type convulsions. Their hematology examination revealed hemolytic anemia with serum create-nine (SCr) of 5.54 mg/dL. Acute HUS was observed in 75%, acute-on-chronic HUS in 19.4%, and patchy cortical necrosis (PCN) in 5.6% biopsies. A mean of 5.4 plasma exchanges (PE) were carried out. Supportive management of anti-hypertensives and prednisone was also given. Recovery end points were establishment of urine output and improvement of SCr and hematological profile.Hematology and renal function profile improved variably in all children, 5.6% died, relapse was observed in 80.5% over a mean of 70 days; 13.9% children are doing well over a mean follow-up of 268.8 days. Thus, poor prognosis was observed in 86.1% children. Children with acute or chronic HUS and PCN did not recover. Six children who recovered had acute HUS.aHUS in Indian children occurs at an older age of around 8 years and chronic/irreversible changes on histopathology examination are harbingers of poor prognosis. PE is life-saving; however, further research for developing strategies to improve long-term survival is needed.
- Microscopic schistocyte determination according to International Council for Standardization in Hematology recommendations in various diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Lab Hematol 2013 Mar 9.
INTRODUCTION:Recently, a consensus report for microscopic schistocyte determination was prepared by International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH). ICSH focused on diagnosis of thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)/hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We aimed to reanalyze schistocytes according to ICSH recommendations, to study diseases other than TTP/HUS related to the schistocytes, and to compare the percentage of schistocytes among the various diseases.
METHODS:We retrieved all reported cases of peripheral blood (PB) smear in a single institution during 6 years. Schistocytes on 282 PB smears showing previous peripheral schistocytes and hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL were recounted according to ICSH recommendations.
RESULTS:The schistocytes were frequently observed in patients with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), metastatic carcinoma, sepsis, chronic renal failure, preterm infant, and infection. Only two among 34 patients categorized as MAHA were diagnosed as TTP/HUS. Schistocytes were observed with other morphological changes in 169 of 170 cases with schistocyte ≤1% and in 102 of 112 with schistocyte >1%. The median schistocyte percentages of patients with hematologic malignancy, megaloblastic anemia, acute renal failure, and preterm infant were 1.20%, 1.30%, 1.35%, and 1.70%, respectively.
CONCLUSION:Schistocytes were observed above 1% in many diseases other than TTP /HUS. Therefore, it is important to understand that schistocytes could be seen in various diseases, and in these cases, schistocytes were usually detected together with other red blood cell morphologic changes. These data support ICSH recommendation that a schistocyte count should be considered clinically meaningful if schistocytes represent the main morphological abnormality in the PB smear.
- Idiopathic Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) with Trilineage Myelodysplasia. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2012 Mar; 28(1):44-6.
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, with an unexplained pathogenesis. We report here with an interesting case of a 6 years old male child presenting with atypical feature of HUS and bone marrow trilineage myelodysplasia.
- Untying the knot of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Review]
- Am J Med 2013 Mar; 126(3):200-9.
Patients presenting with microangiopathic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia are often given the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and treated with plasma exchange until the acute episode is over. Recent findings have shown that acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a chronic autoimmune disease with inhibitory antibodies of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin repeat, member 13 and are at risk of relapses that may be preventable. Furthermore, many of the patients given the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura really have atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome due to defective complement regulation that can be more effectively treated to prevent death and end-stage renal failure with eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody of complement C5. These advances indicate that an accurate differential diagnosis of microangiopathic hemolysis is essential for optimal patient management.
- The Oklahoma thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-haemolytic uraemic syndrome Registry. A model for clinical research, education and patient care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hamostaseologie 2013 Jan 31; 33(2)
The Oklahoma Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura-Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (TTP-HUS) Registry has a 24 year record of success for collaborative clinical research, education, and patient care. This article tells the story of how the Registry began and it describes the Registry's structure and function. The Registry provides a model for using a cohort of consecutive patients to investigate a rare disorder. Collaboration between Oklahoma, United States and Bern, Switzerland has been the basis for successful interpretation of Registry data.Registry data have provided new insights into the evaluation and management of TTP. Because recovery from acute episodes of TTP has been assumed to be complete, the increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, depression, and death documented by long-term follow-up was unexpected. Registry data have provided opportunities for projects for students and trainees, education of physicians and nurses, and also for patients themselves. During our follow-up, patients have also educated Registry investigators about problems that persist after recovery from an acute episode of TTP. Most important, Registry data have resulted in important improvements for patient care.
- How I treat thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- Blood 2013 Jan 3; 121(1):38-47.
A mild thrombocytopenia is relatively frequent during pregnancy and has generally no consequences for either the mother or the fetus. Although representing no threat in the majority of patients, thrombocytopenia may result from a range of pathologic conditions requiring closer monitoring and possible therapy. Two clinical scenarios are particularly relevant for their prevalence and the issues relating to their management. The first is the presence of isolated thrombocytopenia and the differential diagnosis between primary immune thrombocytopenia and gestational thrombocytopenia. The second is thrombocytopenia associated with preeclampsia and its look-alikes and their distinction from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. In this review, we describe a systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disease entities using a case presentation format. Our discussion includes the antenatal and perinatal management of both the mother and fetus.
- Recent advances in the management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2012 Aug; 10(8):537-9.
- Eculizumab therapy in a child with hemolytic uremic syndrome and CFI mutation. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Nephrol 2012 Dec; 27(12):2327-31.
BACKGROUND:Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure in childhood. It usually occurs after a prodromal episode of diarrhea and it leads to significant morbidity and mortality during the acute phase. However, cases that start as diarrhea-positive HUS whose renal function fail to recover should be screened for genetic disorders of the complement system, which is called atypical HUS (aHUS). CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We herein report a 10-year-old girl, who initially came with bloody diarrhea and had features of HUS with delayed renal and hematological recovery despite plasma therapy. Eculizumab (600 mg/week) was initiated on day 15 for atypical presentation and later a complement factor I (CFI) mutation was detected. The girl recovered diuresis within 24 h and after the third eculizumab infusion, hemoglobin, platelet, and C3 levels normalized; renal function improved; and proteinuria completely disappeared in 2 weeks.
CONCLUSION:It is our belief that eculizumab can be the treatment of choice in children who have plasma exchange-refractory HUS with defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway.
- Phase II study of bevacizumab with liposomal doxorubicin for patients with platinum- and taxane-resistant ovarian cancer. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ann Oncol 2012 Dec; 23(12):3104-10.
Suppression of neoangiogenesis and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) each contribute to the management of platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer. The aim of this study is to test the combination of bevacizumab and PLD in women with resistant or refractory ovarian cancer.Eligibility criteria were no more than two prior treatments with platinum-containing regimens and one additional regimen, without anthracyclines. Treatment was administered every 3 weeks (bevacizumab 15 mg/kg beginning on cycle 2 and PLD 30 mg/m(2)). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months; the secondary end points included side-effects, overall response rates (ORR) and survival (OS).Forty-six patients were enrolled. The average number of courses administered was 7. The median PFS was 6.6 months (range 1-24.6 months) according to Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Committee (GCIC) criteria and 7.8 months (range 2-13.3 months) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). The median OS was 33.2 months (range 3-37.5+ months). The ORR was 30.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.2-46.1] and the clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 86.1% (95% CI 72.1-94.7). Adverse events included mucosal and dermal erosions (30% grade 3) and asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction. Additional toxic effects included hypertension, headache, renal dysfunction and proteinuria, wound healing delay, and one episode each of central nervous system (CNS) ischemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome.PLD with bevacizumab has improved activity in recurrent ovarian cancer with increased toxicity.
- Cancer-related microangiopathic hemolytic anemia: clinical and laboratory features in 168 reported cases. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2012 Jul; 91(4):195-205.
Cancer-related microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (CR-MAHA) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia with schistocytes and thrombocytopenia. We reviewed and analyzed all cases of CR-MAHA reported since 1979 (the time of the last published review on this topic) according to predefined criteria. We found 154 cases associated with solid cancer and 14 with lymphoma. Among the solid cancers, gastric, breast, prostate, lung, and cancer of unknown primary (CUP) were most common; 91.8% of cancers were metastatic, and in 19.4% of solid cancers CR-MAHA did not occur until recurrence of cancer. Lymphoma cases included Hodgkin disease, angiotropic lymphoma, diffuse large cell lymphoma, and myeloma. Evaluation of the clinical and laboratory findings revealed that only a minority of cases presented with the features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) or atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), with the exception of prostate cancer, where aHUS was a common presentation. Compared to hereditary or immune TTP or aHUS, disseminated intravascular coagulation and pulmonary symptoms were more common in CR-MAHA. Plasma exchange or fresh frozen plasma was rarely effective except in prostate cancer patients with aHUS. CR-MAHA responded to antitumor therapy in many patients with gastric, breast, lung, and CUP cancers. These patients had a superior survival compared to patients without chemotherapy. Compared to the prognosis of patients with metastatic cancer without CR-MAHA, the prognosis of CR-MAHA patients was greatly inferior. There is evidence that some cases of CR-MAHA in lymphoma are immune mediated.