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Hematology AND TTP [keywords]
- Treatment of plasmapheresis refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with double-filtration membrane plasmapheresis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transfus Apher Sci 2013 Apr 27.
Thrombotic thrombocytic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disorder. Without plasma exchange treatment (PET) the mortality rate is quite high. Double-filtration plasmapheresis is an alternative opportunity for TTP patients refractory to PET. Here we report our experience in a refractory TTP patient who was successfully treated by means of double-filtration plasmapheresis therapy.
- Therapeutic plasma-exchange in hematologic disease: Results from a single center in Eastern Anatolia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transfus Apher Sci 2013 Apr 22.
Therapeutic plasma-exchange (TPE) is used as primary and adjunctive therapy in treatment of several hematologic diseases. We retrospectively evaluated the results of TPE in hematologic diseases during 2008-2012. A total of 301 TPE procedures were performed in 44 patients (19 male and 25 female, with mean age of 50.6±15years). Fifteen of 44 patients had thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), 14 patients had HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count), 10 patients had multiple myeloma-hyperviscosity and the rest five patients had snake bite. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was used as replacement fluid. Complete response (CR) was achieved on 13 patients (87%) in primarily TTP. CR was achieved in all other three diseases. Total complications were detected in 8.1% of the TPE procedures. Adverse events (AEs), were seen in 5.4% of all procedures. None of the patients died from any complication. AE occurred in 4% (Grade-I), 1% (Grade-II), and 0.3% (Grade-III) of the procedures. The most common AE were nausea/vomiting, hypotension, pruritus and abdominal pain. TPE is effectively and safely carried out in our center in hematologic diseases.
- Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: A retrospective multicenter study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transfus Apher Sci 2013 Apr 18.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a particular form of thrombotic microangiopathy typically characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, fever, neurological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction. TTP requires a rapid diagnosis and an adapted management in emergency. Daily sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) remain the basis of management of TTP. Also, TTP is a rare disease that is fatal if it is not treated. TPE has resulted in excellent remission and survival rates in TTP patients.
AIM:We aimed to present our experience in 163 patients with TTP treated with TPE during the past 5years from 10 centers of Turkey.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:One hundered and sixty-three patients with TTP treated with TPE during the past 5years from 10 centers of Turkey were retrospectively evaluated. TPE was carried out 1-1.5times plasma volume. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was used as the replacement fluid. TPE was performed daily until normalization of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and recovery of the platelet count to >150×10(9)/dL. TPE was then slowly tapered. Clinical data, the number of TPE, other given therapy modalities, treatment outcomes, and TPE complications were recorded.
RESULTS:Fifty-eight percent (95/163) of the patients were females. The median age of the patients was 42years (range; 16-82). The median age of male patients was significantly higher than female (53 vs. 34years; p<0.001). All patients had thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. At the same time, 82.8% (135/163) of patients had neurological abnormalities, 78.5% (128/163) of patients had renal dysfunction, and 89% (145/163) of patients had fever. Also, 10.4% (17/163) of patients had three of the five criteria, 10.4% (17/163) of patients had four of the five criteria, and 6.1% (10/163) of patients had all of the five criteria. Primary TTP comprised of 85.9% (140/163) of the patients and secondary TTP comprised of 14.1% (23/163) of the patients. Malignancy was the most common cause in secondary TTP. The median number of TPE was 13 (range; 1-80). The number of TPE was significantly higher in complete response (CR) patients (median 15.0 vs. 3.5; p<0.001). CR was achieved in 85.3% (139/163) of the patients. Similar results were achieved with TPE in both primary and secondary TTP (85% vs. 87%, respectively; p=0.806). There was no advantage of TPE+prednisolone compared to TPE alone in terms of CR rates (82.1% vs. 76.7%; p=0.746). CR was not achieved in 14.7% (24/163) of the patients and these patients died of TTP related causes. There were no statistical differences in terms of mortality rate between patients with secondary and primary TTP [15% (21/140) vs. 13% (3/23); p=0.806]. But, we obtained significant statistical differences in terms of mortality rate between patients on TPE alone and TPE+prednisolone [14% (12/86) vs. 3% (2/67), p<0.001].
CONCLUSIONS:TPE is an effective treatment for TTP and is associated with high CR rate in both primary and secondary TTP. Thrombocytopenia together with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is mandatory for the diagnosis of TTP and if these two criteria met in a patient, TPE should be performed immediately.
- Molecular determinants of outcome in sorafenib-treated patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2013 Apr 9.
PURPOSE:Preclinical studies show that sorafenib, a multitarget kinase inhibitor, displays anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic properties in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the determinants of sorafenib sensitivity in vivo remain largely unknown.
METHODS:We assessed the expression of Mcl-1, activated/phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2, and activated/phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in pretreatment tumor specimens from 44 patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib. Furthermore, we assessed MYC and MET gene copy numbers (GCN) by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
RESULTS:Poorer overall survival (OS) times were correlated with pERK expression [hazard ratio (HR) 1.013; 95 % CI 1.003-1.035] and Mcl-1 expression (HR 1.016; 95 % CI 1.002-1.030) in pretreatment tumor samples. Expression levels of pERK and Mcl-1, however, were not correlated with time to tumor progression (TTP). Increased pERK expression was positively associated with higher Cancer of Liver Italian Program scores (P = 0.012) and was prognostic in patients with scores 2-6 but not in those with scores 0-1. pERK expression was significantly less frequent in specimens sourced from previous surgical procedures compared to biopsy samples (9.6 vs. 92.3 %, respectively; P < 0.0001). Analysis of pAKT expression, MET and MYC GCN, did not indicate any prognostic nor predictive values for these biomarkers in terms of survival.
CONCLUSIONS:Expression levels of Mcl-1 and pERK are associated with reduced OS in HCC patients treated with sorafenib and might be useful markers for risk stratification. However, in contrast to previous findings, pERK expression levels, as well as other biomarkers tested, did not affect TTP.
- Impact of primary molecular cytogenetic abnormalities and risk of progression in smoldering multiple myeloma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Leukemia 2013 Mar 21.
We studied 351 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) in whom the underlying primary molecular cytogenetic subtype could be determined based on cytoplasmic immunoglobulin fluorescent in situ hybridization studies. Hundred and fifty-four patients (43.9%) had trisomies, 127 (36.2%) had immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) translocations, 14 (4%) both trisomies and IgH translocations, 53 (15.1%) no abnormalities detected and 3 (0.9%) had monosomy13/del(13q) in the absence of any other abnormality. Among 127 patients with IgH translocations, 57 were t(11;14), 36 t(4;14), 11 musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF) translocations, and 23 other or unknown IgH translocation partner. Time to progression (TTP) to symptomatic multiple myeloma was significantly shorter in patients with the t(4;14) compared with patients with t(11;14), median 28 versus 55 months, respectively, P=0.025. The median TTP was 28 months with t(4;14) (high-risk), 34 months with trisomies alone (intermediate-risk), 55 months with t(11;14), MAF translocations, other/unknown IgH translocations, monosomy13/del(13q) without other abnormalities, and those with both trisomies and IgH translocations (standard-risk), and not reached in patients with no detectable abnormalities (low-risk), P=0.001. There was a trend to shorter TTP with deletion 17p (median TTP, 24 months). Overall survival from diagnosis of SMM was significantly inferior with t(4;14) compared with t(11;14), median 105 versus 147 months, respectively, P=0.036.Leukemia advance online publication, 12 April 2013; doi:10.1038/leu.2013.86.
- Microscopic schistocyte determination according to International Council for Standardization in Hematology recommendations in various diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Lab Hematol 2013 Mar 9.
INTRODUCTION:Recently, a consensus report for microscopic schistocyte determination was prepared by International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH). ICSH focused on diagnosis of thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)/hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We aimed to reanalyze schistocytes according to ICSH recommendations, to study diseases other than TTP/HUS related to the schistocytes, and to compare the percentage of schistocytes among the various diseases.
METHODS:We retrieved all reported cases of peripheral blood (PB) smear in a single institution during 6 years. Schistocytes on 282 PB smears showing previous peripheral schistocytes and hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL were recounted according to ICSH recommendations.
RESULTS:The schistocytes were frequently observed in patients with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), metastatic carcinoma, sepsis, chronic renal failure, preterm infant, and infection. Only two among 34 patients categorized as MAHA were diagnosed as TTP/HUS. Schistocytes were observed with other morphological changes in 169 of 170 cases with schistocyte ≤1% and in 102 of 112 with schistocyte >1%. The median schistocyte percentages of patients with hematologic malignancy, megaloblastic anemia, acute renal failure, and preterm infant were 1.20%, 1.30%, 1.35%, and 1.70%, respectively.
CONCLUSION:Schistocytes were observed above 1% in many diseases other than TTP /HUS. Therefore, it is important to understand that schistocytes could be seen in various diseases, and in these cases, schistocytes were usually detected together with other red blood cell morphologic changes. These data support ICSH recommendation that a schistocyte count should be considered clinically meaningful if schistocytes represent the main morphological abnormality in the PB smear.
- Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) induced by silicone breast implants in 37-year old woman. [Letter]
- Thromb Res 2013 May; 131(5):e223-5.
- [Efficacy and safety of rituximab therapy for refractory/relapsing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2013 Feb; 35(1):116-20.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in treating patients with refractory and/or relapsing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).Totally three patients received rituximab as salvage therapy in our hospital. Rituximab was administered at a weekly dose of 375 mg/m(2) for 2 or 4 consecutive weeks. After clinical remission, patients were followed up every 3 months.All three patients achieved complete remission. The median time to platelet count recovery was 7 days (4-12 days) after the first rituximab infusion. During the follow-up (median: 12 months; range: 9-18 months), no patients experienced relapse. No side effect was noted during treatment and follow-up period.Therapy with rituximab is effective and well tolerated for patients with refractory or relapsing TTP.
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with unusual 33 recurrences: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Lab Sci 2013; 43(1):91-3.
The hereditary or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS-13 activity leads to an excess of high molecular weight von Willebrand factor multimers in plasma, leading to platelet aggregation and diffuse intravascular thrombus formation, resulting in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We report a 36 year old male with a long history of TTP associated with 33 relapses. As a result of early transfusions, the patient acquired Hepatitis C. This time, the patient presented with a TTP relapse after a 10 year remission, following PEG-interferon-Alpha (IFA) therapy for Hepatitis C. Since IFA has been reported to activate autoimmune reactions, it may have augmented production of ADAMTS-13 antibody.
- Allogeneic partially HLA-matched dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor cell lysate as a vaccine in metastatic renal cell cancer: A clinical phase I/II study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Vaccin Immunother 2013 Mar 4; 9(7)
Multi-kinase inhibitors have been established for the treatment of advanced renal cell cancer, but long-term results are still disappointing and immunotherapeutic approaches remain an interesting experimental option particularly in patients with a low tumor burden. DC are crucial for antigen-specific MHC-restricted T cell immunity. Furthermore, allogeneic HLA-molecules pose a strong immunogenic signal and may help to induce tumor-specific T cell responses. In this phase I/II trial, 7 patients with histologically confirmed progressive metastatic RCC were immunized repetitively with 1 × 10 ( 7) allogeneic partially HLA-matched DC pulsed with autologous tumor lysate following a schedule of 8 vaccinations over 20 weeks. Patients also received 3 Mio IE IL-2 s.c. once daily starting in week 4. Primary endpoints of the study were feasibility and safety. Secondary endpoints were immunological and clinical responses. Vaccination was feasible and safe with no severe toxicity being observed. No objective response could be documented. However, while all patients had documented progress at study entry, 29% of the patients showed SD throughout the study with a mean TTP of 24.6 weeks (range 5 to 96 weeks). In 3/7 patients, TH1-polarized immune responses against RCC-associated antigens were observed. In one patient showing a minimal clinical response and a TTP of 96 weeks, clonally proliferated T cells against yet undefined antigens were induced by the vaccine. Vaccination with tumor antigen loaded DC remains an interesting experimental approach, but should rather be applied in the situation of minimal residual disease after systemic therapy. Additional depletion of regulatory cells might be a promising strategy.