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Hematology AND Thalassemia [keywords]
- Outcome of patients with hemoglobinopathies given either cord blood or bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood 2013 May 21.
We analyzed the outcomes of 485 patients with thalassemia major (TM) or sickle cell disease (SCD) receiving HLA-identical sibling cord blood transplantation (CBT, n=96) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT, n=389). Compared to patients given BMT, CBT recipients were significantly younger (median age 6 versus 8 years, p=0.02), and were treated more recently (median year 2001 versus 1999, p<0.01). A higher proportion of patients with TM belonging to classes II-III of the Pesaro classification received BMT (44%) compared to CBT (39%, p<0.01). In comparison with patients receiving BMT (n=259, TM; n=130, SCD), those given CBT (n=66, TM; n=30, SCD) had slower neutrophil recovery, less acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and none had extensive chronic GVHD. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 6-year overall survival was 95% and 97% after BMT and CBT, respectively (p=0.92). The 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 86% and 80% in TM patients after BMT and CBT, respectively, while DFS in SCD patients was 92% and 90%, respectively. The cell dose infused did not influence outcome of patients given CBT. In multivariate analysis, DFS did not differ between CBT and BMT recipients. Patients with TM or SCD have excellent outcomes after both HLA-identical sibling CBT and BMT.
- Oral Ketamine for Sickle Cell Crisis Pain Refractory to Opioids. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2013 May 21.
ABSTRACTThere is literature demonstrating that the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has analgesic properties that can be used as an adjuvant to opiates for pain relief in multiple various conditions and pain states. However, there is a lack of published information on ketamine used in persons with sickle cell disease in acute pain crises. The Virginia Commonwealth University Palliative Care team was consulted on a 38-year-old African American female with sickle cell thalassemia in severe acute pain crisis overlying chronic pain related to her disease. Pain control was unable to be achieved with escalating doses of opiates and other adjuvant medications. The patient responded well to an intravenous test dose of ketamine and was subsequently placed on an oral regimen of ketamine in addition to opiates. In the 24-hour period following ketamine initiation, the patient's pain was able to be controlled on decreased amounts of opiates. She was eventually transitioned to an oral opiate and ketamine regimen, which allowed her to be discharged home with pain levels close to her baseline and the ability to function and perform all activities of daily living.
- Effect of zinc supplementation on serum antibody titers to heat shock protein 27 in patients with thalassemia major. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hematology 2013 May 16.
OBJECTIVE:This current study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on antibody titers to heat shock protein 27 (anti-HSP27) in patients with beta-thalassemia major (β-TM).
METHODS:This was a double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at Dr Sheikh Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) from 2011 to 2012. Sixty-four patients (41 females and 23 males), aged between 8 and 18 years with transfusion-dependent β-TM were randomly allocated to two age- and sex-matched groups. The zinc (case) group received 30 mg of daily zinc sulfate supplementation and the placebo (control) group received same shape and color placebo over 9 months period of the trial. Serum anti-HSP27 titers were measured at the third and ninth months of the trial, using an in-house enzyme-linked immune-absorbent assay.
RESULT:There was a significant difference in anti-HSP27 titers, between the groups after 9 months. The baseline value of anti-HSP27 was 0.44 ± 0.15 in zinc group and were significantly decreased to 0.40 ± 0.18 after 9 months on treatment, while the baseline value of anti-HSP27 were significantly increased from 0.43 ± 0.17 to 0.44 ± 0.18 in the placebo group (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION:Serum anti-HSP27 titers were significantly reduced in patients with β-TM treated with zinc supplements compared to a group treated with a placebo. It suggests that the potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc supplements may account for a reduction in anti-HSP27 titers in patients with β-TM.
- Rapid and inexpensive detection of common HBB gene mutations in Tunisian population by high-resolution melting analysis: Implication for molecular diagnosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hematology 2013 May 15.
In Tunisia, β-thalassemia is a common hereditary disease with a carrying rate of 2.21%. Up to now, detection of responsible mutations was made by laborious, expensive, and/or time consuming methods. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a specific assay for detection of the two most frequent mutations in Tunisian population, the IVS-I-110 (G → A) and Cd39 (C → T) mutations. In this study, we optimize high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) conditions for these mutations, using control DNAs. Then, we evaluate the strength of this methodology by screening a cohort of patients with β-thalassemia. All examined reference DNA samples were unambiguously distinguished from each other. For the blinded test, the results were completely compatible with direct sequencing, performed after the HRMA. As HRMA represents a highly sensitive and high-throughput gene scanning method, it can provide timely diagnosis at low cost for effective clinical management of β-thalassemia.
- Twenty years of experience on stem cell transplantation in iran. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):93-100.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a new window to therapy of many diseases. From March 1991 through April 2011, a total of 3237 HSCT were performed in the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Here we report 20 years experience of HSCT.Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Cord Blood Bank (ICBB) and development of the first Iranian Stem Cell Donor Program (ISCDP), and improvement the researches in new therapeutic fields.Totally, 3237 patients were undergone HSCT. Of these transplants, 2205 were allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 1016 autologous and 16 syngeneic. Among 2205 patients who were undergone allogenic-HSCT, 34 received cord blood stem cells as stem cell source for transplantation. It is important to point out that cord blood bank at our center provides reliable storage of cord blood stem cells for our patients. Stem cell transplantation was performed for treatment of various diseases such as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, beta-thalassemia major, sickle- cell thalassemia, sickle- cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. Also, we had 220 cellular therapies for post-myocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, Diabetes Mellitus and GvHD treatment. 45 patients were undergone retransplantation in this center.About 78.2% of the patients (2530 of 3237) remained alive between one to 211 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly, 21.8% (707) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The main causes of death were relapse, infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft-versus- host disease and etc.In Iran, HSCT has been successfully adapted in routine clinical care. Recently, new methods such as double cord blood and haploidentical transplantation have been used to treat many life-threatening diseases.
- Third party cord blood transplant boosts autologous hematopoiesis in a case of persistent bone marrow aplasia after double transplant failure for B-thalassemia major. [Journal Article]
- Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2013; 5(1):e2013029.
A 9-year-old female received an allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) from an ABO-incompatible HLA-matched sibling for β-thalassemia major, without achieving a complete donor chimerism. Subsequently, the patient received five donor lymphocyte infusions, without increasing donor chimerism, and autologous SCT. Due to the persistent bone marrow aplasia, the patient received a second allogeneic SCT from the same donor without obtaining any engrafment. After the double transplant failure, we performed an unrelated transplant from a full-matched umbilical cord blood (UCBT) without administering any neither conditioning regimen nor GVHD prophylaxis. Forty days after UCBT, trilinear engraftment was documented. Surprisingly, the hematopoietic reconstitution was related to the re-expansion of the autologous (beta-thalassemic) hematopoietic stem cell, as documented by chimerism studies. At present, 30 months after UCBT, there is stable hematopoietic autologous reconstitution. This is the first description of the restoration of autologous hematopoiesis obtained with UCBT in a thalassemia-major patient after a double transplant failure.
- Improved Clinical Outcomes of High Risk β Thalassemia Major Patients Undergoing a HLA Matched Related Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant with a Treosulfan Based Conditioning Regimen and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Grafts. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e61637.
Improving clinical outcomes among high risk Class III β thalassemia major patients (Class IIIHR) receiving an allogeneic SCT remains a challenge. From October, 2009 a treosulfan based regimen (TreoFluT) was used for all consecutive Class III patients (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were compared with the historical conventional busulfan (BuCy) based regimen (n = 139). Use of TreoFluT was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) among Class IIIHR cases (78% to 30%; P = 0.000) and early TRM (46% to 13%; p = 0.005). There was also a trend towards better engraftment in the Class IIIHR subset (P = 0.055). However, the use of bone marrow (BM) as source of stem cells along with the TreoFluT regimen was associated with 50% early mixed chimerism which reduced to 8.5% with the use of a peripheral blood stem cell graft (PBSC). Use of a PBSC graft was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of acute or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). The overall and event free survival was significantly better among the Class IIIHR subset with the use of TreoFluT Vs. BuCy (86.6±7.3 Vs. 39.4±6.8%; P = 0.002 and 77.8±8.8 Vs. 32.4±6.5%; P = 0.003 respectively). A TreoFluT conditioning regimen with a PBSC graft can significantly improve clinical outcomes of Class IIIHR patients.
- Homozygous sickle cell disease in Uganda and Jamaica a comparison of Bantu and Benin haplotypes. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- West Indian Med J 2012 Oct; 61(7):684-91.
To compare the haematological and clinical features of homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in Bantu and Benin haplotypes in a cross-sectional study of 115 Ugandan patients attending the Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, with 311 patients in the Jamaican Cohort StudyThis involved comparison of clinical features and haematology with special reference to genetic determinants of severity including fetal haemoglobin levels, beta-globin haplotype and alpha thalassaemia status.The Bantu haplotype accounted for 94% of HbS chromosomes in Ugandan patients and the Benin haplotype for 76% of HbS chromosomes in Jamaica. Ugandan patients were marginally more likely to have alpha thalassaemia, had similar total haemoglobin and fetal haemoglobin levels but had higher reticulocyte counts and total bilirubin levels consistent with greater haemolysis. Ugandan patients had less leg ulceration and priapism, but the mode of clinical presentation, prevalence of dactylitis, features of bone pain and degree of delay in sexual development, assessed by menarche, were similar in the groups. In Ugandan patients, a history of anaemic episodes was common but these were poorly documented.The haematological and clinical features of the Bantu haplotype in Uganda were broadly similar to the Benin haplotype in Jamaica except for less leg ulceration and priapism and possibly greater haemolysis among Ugandan subjects. Anaemic episodes in Uganda were treated empirically by transfusion often without a clear diagnosis; better documentation including reticulocyte counts and observations on spleen size is necessary to evolve appropriate models of care.
- Detection of β-globin Gene Mutations Among β-thalassaemia Carriers and Patients in Malaysia: Application of Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction. [Journal Article]
- Malays J Med Sci 2013 Jan; 20(1):13-20.
β-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene disorders worldwide. Each ethnic population has its own common mutations, accounting for the majority of cases, with a small number of mutations for the rarer alleles. Due to the heterogeneity of β-thalassaemia and the multi-ethnicity of Malaysians, molecular diagnostics may be expensive and time consuming.A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach involving a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) and one amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), consisting of 20 β-globin gene mutations, were designed and employed to investigate β-thalassaemia patients and carriers.Out of 169 carriers tested with the MARMS, Cd 41/42 (-TTCT), Cd 26 (A-G) HbE, IVS 1-1 (G-T), and IVS 1-5 (G-C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 78.1%. Among the Malays, Cd 26 (A-G) HbE, Cd 41/42 (-TTCT), IVS 1-1 (G-T), and IVS 1-5 (G-C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 81.4%, whereas Cd 41/42 (-TTCT) and IVS 2-654 (C-T) were most common among the Chinese (79.1%).We propose the use of this cheap, easy to interpret, and simple system for the molecular diagnostics of β-thalassaemia among Malaysians at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR).
- Genetic modifiers of sickle cell anemia in the BABY HUG cohort: Influence on laboratory and clinical phenotypes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Hematol 2013 Apr 20.
The recently completed BABY HUG trial investigated the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in infants with sickle cell anemia (SCA). To investigate the effects of known genetic modifiers, genomic DNA on 190 randomized subjects was analyzed for alpha thalassemia, beta-globin haplotype, polymorphisms affecting endogenous fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (XmnI, BCL11A, and HBS1L-MYB), UGT1A1 promoter polymorphisms, and the common G6PD A(-) mutation. At study entry, infants with alpha thalassemia trait had significantly lower MCV, total bilirubin, and absolute reticulocyte count. Beta-globin haplotypes associated with milder disease had significantly higher hemoglobin and %HbF. BCL11A and XmnI polymorphisms had significant effects on baseline HbF, while UGT1A1 promoter polymorphisms significantly influenced baseline serum bilirubin. At study exit, subjects randomized to placebo still exhibited laboratory effects of alpha thalassemia and other modifiers, while those assigned hydroxyurea had treatment effects that exceeded most genetic influences. The pain phenotype was influenced by HbF modifiers in both treatment groups. These data document that genetic polymorphisms do modify laboratory and clinical phenotypes even in very young patients with SCA. The hydroxyurea effects are more potent, however, indicating that treatment criteria should not be limited to certain genetic subsets, and supporting the use of hydroxyurea for all young patients with SCA.