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Hemolytic Anemias Inherited [keywords]
- Autonomic nervous system dysfunction: Implication in sickle cell disease. [Journal Article]
- C R Biol 2013 Mar; 336(3):142-7.
Sickle cell disease is an inherited hemoglobinopathy caused by a single amino acid substitution in the β chain of hemoglobin that causes the hemoglobin to polymerize in the deoxy state. The resulting rigid, sickle-shaped red cells obstruct blood flow causing hemolytic anemia, tissue damage, and premature death. Hemolysis is continual. However, acute exacerbations of sickling called vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) resulting in severe pain occur, often requiring hospitalization. Blood rheology, adhesion of cellular elements of blood to vascular endothelium, inflammation, and activation of coagulation decrease microvascular flow and increase likelihood of VOC. What triggers the transition from steady state to VOC is unknown. This review discusses the interaction of blood rheological factors and the role that autonomic nervous system (ANS) induced vasoconstriction may have in triggering crisis as well as the mechanism of ANS dysfunction in SCD.
- Variable presentation of primary immune deficiency: Two cases with CD3 gamma deficiency presenting with only autoimmunity. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 May; 24(3):257-62.
CD3 chain expression defects including CD3 gamma, epsilon, delta, and zeta chain subunits, are autosomal recessive inherited severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). The phenotype is usually T-B+NK+ SCID with lymphopenia where the clinical findings may be mild (CD3γ) or severe (CD3δ, ε, ζ) owing to the underlying molecular defect. There is limited information about the disease in literature.Here, we present two siblings from non-consanguineous family with autoimmunity including Evans syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, nephrotic syndrome, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and with no previous history of infections. To define the molecular basis of the disease, we performed linkage analysis around the CD3 receptor cluster and found consistent linkage to this region.The patient one displayed low TCRαβ expression, low IgG, low IgA, low IgM, low CD3, low CD4, low CD8. The patient two also displayed low TCRαβ expression and low anti-HBs titer. We went onto identify a homozygous splicing mutation (IVS2-1G>C) in the two affected individuals in the CD3γ gene.To date, only four cases have been reported with CD3γ deficiency. Occasionally, the patients present with only autoimmunity including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, vitiligo, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and autoimmune enteropathy. However, Evans syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and nephrotic syndrome have not been reported in previous cases. We believe that our cases will contribute to the literature.
- The spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations in Gaza Strip, Palestine. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Blood Cells Mol Dis 2013 Apr; 50(4):247-51.
β-Thalassemia is a disorder caused by mutations at the hemoglobin β-gene (HBB) locus. Its most important manifestation, the major form, is characterized by severe hypochromic and hemolytic anemia and is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. In Gaza Strip, Palestine 0.02% of the population has been identified as β-thalassemia major.An assessment of mutations was performed in 49 transfusion dependent patients with β-thalassemia major and in 176 β-thalassemia carriers diagnosed with a mean erythrocyte cell volume (MCV) <80fl and a proportion of HbA2>3.5%. In addition 39 individuals suspicious for β-thalassemia carrier status due to a reduced MCV (<80fl) but a normal HBA2 were screened.By screening with three hybridization assays a proportion of 80% of the thalassemic chromosomes from patients and carriers was identified to carry five different mutations of the hemoglobin (Hb) β-gene. Subsequent DNA sequencing confirmed these and revealed further 9% of the chromosomes to be affected by other mutations. In addition six chromosomes from suspicious carriers were detected to carry β-thalassemia mutations. Of the 15 different HBB mutations identified the variant IVS-I-110 G>A was the most frequent mutation identified in 34% of the thalassemic chromosomes, followed by IVS-I-1 G>A, IVS-I-6 T>C, Codon 39 C>T, and Codon 37 G>A. Three novel HBB variants were discovered by direct sequencing of the gene: 5' UTR-50 (-/G), 5' UTR-43 C>T, and IVS-II-26 T>G.The spectrum of HBB mutations described is of the Mediterranean type whereby the allele frequencies of the most common mutations differ from those, which were previously described for the population of the Gaza Strip and other Palestinian populations. The data presented may promote the introduction of molecular testing to the Palestinian premarital screening program for β-thalassemia in Gaza Strip, which will improve the screening protocol and genetic counseling in the future.
- Phytomedicines (medicines derived from plants) for sickle cell disease. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD004448.
Sickle cell disease (SCD), a common recessively inherited haemoglobin disorder, affects people from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Indian subcontinent, Caribbean and South America. It is associated with complications and a reduced life expectancy. Phytomedicines (medicine derived from plants in their original state) encompass many of the plant remedies from traditional healers which the populations most affected would encounter. There has been little systematic appraisal of their benefits.To assess the benefits and risks of phytomedicines in people with SCD of all types, of any age, in any setting.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN) and the Allied and Complimentary Medicine Database (AMED).Dates of most recent searches:Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 05 July 2012;ISRCTN: 28 December 2009;AMED: August 2003.Randomised or quasi-randomised trials with participants of all ages with SCD, in all settings, comparing the administration of phytomedicines, by any mode to placebo or conventional treatment, including blood transfusion and hydroxyurea.Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.Two trials (182 participants) and two phytomedicines Niprisan(®) (also known as Nicosan(®)) and Ciklavit(®) were included. The Phase IIB (pivotal) trial suggests that Niprisan(®) was effective in reducing episodes of severe painful SCD crisis over a six-month period. It did not affect the risk of severe complications or the level of anaemia. No serious adverse effects were reported. The single trial of Cajanus cajan (Ciklavit(®)) reported a possible benefit to individuals with painful crises, and a possible adverse effect (non-significant) on the level of anaemia.While Niprisan(®) appeared to be safe and effective in reducing severe painful crises over a six-month follow-up period, further trials are required to assess its role in the management of people with SCD and the results of its multicentre trials are awaited. Currently no conclusions can be made regarding the efficacy of Ciklavit(®). Based on the published results for Niprisan(®) and in view of the limitations in data collection and analysis of both trials, phytomedicines may have a potential beneficial effect in reducing painful crises in SCD. This needs to be further validated in future trials. More trials are required on the safety and efficacy of phytomedicines used in managing SCD.
- Hemoglobin Pyrgos with hemoglobin H disease: new triple heterozygosity. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2012 Sep; 43(5):1258-61.
A 19-year old Thai male presented to the hospital with fever, acute hemolysis, pallor and jaundice without hepatosplenomegaly. On admission his hematocrit was 17.4% and a blood smear showed moderate hypochromia with mild anisopoikilocytosis. Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis revealed Hb A2ABart's Hb H with an abnormal band, which on PCR proved to be Hb Pyrgos (beta83, glycine --> aspartic acid). The patient inherited beta(Pyrgos) globin from his mother and alpha-thalassemia-1 from his father. He was diagnosed as having Hb H (alpha-thalassemia-1/alpha-thalssemia-2) heterozygous Hb Pyrgos. He was treated with a transfusion of packed red blood cells. During follow-up his hematocrits ranged from 31 to 34%. The Hb Pyrgos did not add any deleterious effect to his Hb H disease.
- Assesment, treatment and prevention of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Int J Prev Med 2013 Jan; 4(1):6-14.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a heterogeneous group of hemolytic disorders. Different terminologies have been described in HUS, which are as follows: (1) D+ HUS: Presentation with a preceding diarrhea; (2) typical HUS: D+ HUS with a single and self-limited episode; (3) atypical HUS (aHUS): Indicated those with complement dysregulation; (4) recurrent HUS: Recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia and/or microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) after improvement of hematologic abnormalities; and (5) familial HUS: Necessary to distinct synchronous outbreaks of D+ HUS in family members and asynchronous disease with an inherited risk factor. aHUS is one of the potential causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. It has a high recurrence after renal transplantation in some genetic forms. Therefore, recognition of the responsible mechanism and proper prophylactic treatment are recommended to prevent or delay the occurrence of ESRD and prolong the length of survival of the transplanted kidney. A computerized search of MEDLINE and other databases was carried out to find the latest results in pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of aHUS.
- G6PD deficiency: global distribution, genetic variants and primaquine therapy. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Adv Parasitol 2013.:133-201.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a potentially pathogenic inherited enzyme abnormality and, similar to other human red blood cell polymorphisms, is particularly prevalent in historically malaria endemic countries. The spatial extent of Plasmodium vivax malaria overlaps widely with that of G6PD deficiency; unfortunately the only drug licensed for the radical cure and relapse prevention of P. vivax, primaquine, can trigger severe haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient individuals. This chapter reviews the past and current data on this unique pharmacogenetic association, which is becoming increasingly important as several nations now consider strategies to eliminate malaria transmission rather than control its clinical burden. G6PD deficiency is a highly variable disorder, in terms of spatial heterogeneity in prevalence and molecular variants, as well as its interactions with P. vivax and primaquine. Consideration of factors including aspects of basic physiology, diagnosis, and clinical triggers of primaquine-induced haemolysis is required to assess the risks and benefits of applying primaquine in various geographic and demographic settings. Given that haemolytically toxic antirelapse drugs will likely be the only therapeutic options for the coming decade, it is clear that we need to understand in depth G6PD deficiency and primaquine-induced haemolysis to determine safe and effective therapeutic strategies to overcome this hurdle and achieve malaria elimination.
- Phenotypic spectrum of COL4A1 mutations: porencephaly to schizencephaly. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ann Neurol 2013 Jan; 73(1):48-57.
Recently, COL4A1 mutations have been reported in porencephaly and other cerebral vascular diseases, often associated with ocular, renal, and muscular features. In this study, we aimed to clarify the phenotypic spectrum and incidence of COL4A1 mutations.We screened for COL4A1 mutations in 61 patients with porencephaly and 10 patients with schizencephaly, which may be similarly caused by disturbed vascular supply leading to cerebral degeneration, but can be distinguished depending on time of insult.COL4A1 mutations were identified in 15 patients (21%, 10 mutations in porencephaly and 5 mutations in schizencephaly), who showed a variety of associated findings, including intracranial calcification, focal cortical dysplasia, pontocerebellar atrophy, ocular abnormalities, myopathy, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and hemolytic anemia. Mutations include 10 missense, a nonsense, a frameshift, and 3 splice site mutations. Five mutations were confirmed as de novo events. One mutation was cosegregated with familial porencephaly, and 2 mutations were inherited from asymptomatic parents. Aberrant splicing was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses in 2 patients with splice site mutations.Our study first confirmed that COL4A1 mutations are associated with schizencephaly and hemolytic anemia. Based on the finding that COL4A1 mutations were frequent in patients with porencephaly and schizencephaly, genetic testing for COL4A1 should be considered for children with these conditions.
- A case of severe ADAMTS13 deficiency presenting as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in pregnancy. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Med Pregl 2012 Sep-Oct; 65(9-10):436-9.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare life-threatening disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. It is caused by the absent or severe deficiency of the von Willebrand Factor-cleaving protease named ADAMTS13. Pregnancy is a well recognized factor precipitating the appearance of the disease both in women that had reduced levels of ADAMTS13 activity prior to gestation and in those with other inherited or acquired thrombophilic syndromes.We report a 25-year old woman with severe ADAMTS13 deficiency presented early in her 1st pregnancy and relapsed in two subsequent gestations. This presentation is uncommon for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is associated with pregnancy (ADAMTS13 deficiency < 5%, without an inhibitor). In the first pregnancy she started with daily plasma exchange 1.5 x volume, corticosteroids and IV immunoglobulin and finally entered remission after 23 sessions and termination of pregnancy. In the second pregnancy she did not receive prophylactic treatment and relapsed in the 3rd trimester. Prophylactic treatment during the third pregnancy with plasma infusions proved also ineffective to prevent relapse.Many issues regarding treatment and prevention of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura relapses in subsequent pregnancies are unclear. Proposed guidelines recommend that the same treatment should be performed on pregnant and non pregnant patients without modification of plasma replacement dose according to ADAMTS13 levels. In addition, many authors suggest that pregnant patients with history of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 levels should received prophylactic treatment for prevention of relapses in the subsequent pregnancies.Severe ADAMTS 13 deficiency may present as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura of pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and especially with severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 levels require specific consideration regarding treatment and prophylaxis in subsequent pregnancies.