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Hepatitis B [keywords]
- Prevalence and Determinants of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in a Cohort of HIV-1 Discordant Couples in Western Kenya: Implications for HIV Care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2014 Oct; 30(S1):A280.
- Burden and Predictors of HIV /Hepatitis B Co-infection in Rural Uganda. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2014 Oct; 30(S1):A276-A277.
- Impact of Tenofovir 1% Gel on Hepatitis B Virus Resistance in CAPRISA 004. [Journal Article]
- AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2014 Oct.:A221.
- Seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B and C virus infection in Damietta Governorate, Egypt. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- East Mediterr Health J 2014; 20(10):605-613.
Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections remain major public health problems in Egypt and data are needed on risk factors for infection. This study determined the prevalence of anti-HCV and HBV surface antigen seropositivity in Damietta Governorate, Egypt, and evaluated potential risk factors for infection and the impact of HBV vaccination on seroprevalence. A household, cross-sectional study was conducted of 2977 individuals. About 20% were vaccinated against HBV. Only 1.1% were infected with HBV and 9.3% with HCV; both infections coexisted in 12 people (0.4%) (all unvaccinated). The main risk factors for both HCV and HBV were exposure to dental procedures, surgery, stitches, schistosomiasis treatment and contact with infected person. HBV and HCV prevalences in Damietta were lower than the national rate, likely due to the routine compulsory HBV vaccination in those aged < 19 years. There is a need to educate the general population about HBV and HCV transmission routes and avoidance of risky behaviours.
- Recent advances in molecular diagnostics of hepatitis B virus. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 28; 20(40):14615-14625.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the important global health problems today. Infection with HBV can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations including severe hepatic complications like liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Presently, routine HBV screening and diagnosis is primarily based on the immuno-detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). However, identification of HBV DNA positive cases, who do not have detectable HBsAg has greatly encouraged the use of nucleic acid amplification based assays, that are highly sensitive, specific and are to some extent tolerant to sequence variation. In the last few years, the field of HBV molecular diagnostics has evolved rapidly with advancements in the molecular biology tools, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Recently, apart of PCR based amplification methods, a number of isothermal amplification assays, such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, transcription mediated amplification, ligase chain reaction, and rolling circle amplification have been utilized for HBV diagnosis. These assays also offer options for real time detection and integration into biosensing devices. In this manuscript, we review the molecular technologies that are presently available for HBV diagnostics, with special emphasis on isothermal amplification based technologies. We have also included the recent trends in the development of biosensors and use of next generation sequencing technologies for HBV.
- Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A review. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 28; 20(40):14598-14614.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients.
- Hepatitis D virus infection, replication and cross-talk with the hepatitis B virus. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 28; 20(40):14589-14597.
Viral hepatitis remains a worldwide public health problem. The hepatitis D virus (HDV) must either coinfect or superinfect with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HDV contains a small RNA genome (approximately 1.7 kb) with a single open reading frame (ORF) and requires HBV supplying surface antigens (HBsAgs) to assemble a new HDV virion. During HDV replication, two isoforms of a delta antigen, a small delta antigen (SDAg) and a large delta antigen (LDAg), are produced from the same ORF of the HDV genome. The SDAg is required for HDV replication, whereas the interaction of LDAg with HBsAgs is crucial for packaging of HDV RNA. Various clinical outcomes of HBV/HDV dual infection have been reported, but the molecular interaction between HBV and HDV is poorly understood, especially regarding how HBV and HDV compete with HBsAgs for assembling virions. In this paper, we review the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HBsAgs and the molecular pathway involved in their promotion of LDAg nuclear export. Because the nuclear sublocalization and export of LDAg is regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including acetylation, phosphorylation, and isoprenylation, we also summarize the relationship among HBsAg-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, LDAg PTMs, and nuclear export mechanisms in this review.
- Chemotherapy-related reactivation of hepatitis B infection: Updates in 2013. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 28; 20(40):14581-14588.
Hepatitis B reactivation is a potentially serious complication of anticancer chemotherapy, which occurs during and after therapy. This condition affects primarily hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients, but sometimes HBsAg-negative patients can be at risk, based only on evidence of past infection or occult infection with a low titer of detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. The clinical outcomes vary with the different degrees of virologic and biochemical rebound, ranging from asymptomatic elevations in liver enzymes to hepatic failure and even death. Despite the remarkable advancement in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B over the past decade, proper strategies for the prevention and management of HBV reactivation remain elusive. Moreover, with the increasing use of rituximab in patients with lymphoma, HBV reactivation in occult or past infections has become increasingly problematic, especially in HBV-endemic regions. This review addresses the current knowledge on the clinical aspects and management of chemotherapy-related HBV reactivation, updates from recent reports, several unresolved issues and future perspectives.
- Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 28; 20(40):14568-14580.
The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the role, clinical applications and future perspectives of the most widely used non-invasive techniques for the evaluation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. During the past decade many non-invasive methods have been developed to reduce the need for liver biopsy in staging fibrosis and to overcome whenever possible its limitations, mainly: invasiveness, costs, low reproducibility, poor acceptance by patients. Elastographic techniques conceived to assess liver stiffness, in particular transient elastography, and the most commonly used biological markers will be assessed against their respective role and limitations in staging hepatic fibrosis. Recent evidence highlights that both liver stiffness and some bio-chemical markers correlate with survival and major clinical end-points such as liver decompensation, development of hepatocellular carcinoma and portal hypertension. Thus the non-invasive techniques here discussed can play a major role in the management of patients with chronic HBV-related hepatitis. Given their prognostic value, transient elastography and some bio-chemical markers can be used to better categorize patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis and assign them to different classes of risk for clinically relevant outcomes. Very recent data indicates that the combined measurements of liver and spleen stiffness enable the reliable prediction of portal hypertension and esophageal varices development.