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Hepatitis B [keywords]
- Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Naturwissenschaften 2014 Oct 18.
Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.
- Metastatic tumor antigen in hepatocellular carcinoma: golden roads toward personalized medicine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Metastasis Rev 2014 Oct 18.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a prototype of hypervascular tumors, is one of the most common malignancies in the world, especially hyperendemic in the Far East where chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly prevalent. It is characterized by the clinical feature of a poor prognosis or a high mortality due to its already far advanced stages at diagnosis. It is so multifactorial that hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be explained by a single molecular mechanism. To date, a number of pathways have been known to contribute to the development, growth, angiogenesis, and even metastasis of HCC. Among the various factors, metastatic tumor antigens (MTAs) or metastasis-associated proteins have been vigorously investigated as an intriguing target in the field of hepatocarcinogenesis. According to recent studies including ours, MTAs are not only involved in the HCC development and growth (molecular carcinogenesis), but also closely associated with the post-operative recurrence and a poor prognosis or a worse response to post-operative anti-cancer therapy (clinical significance). Herein, we review MTAs in light of their essential structure, functions, and molecular mechanism in hepatocarcinogenesis. We will also focus in detail on the interaction between hepatitis B x protein (HBx) of HBV and MTA in order to clarify the HBV-associated HCC development. Finally, we will discuss the prognostic significance and clinical application of MTA in HCC. We believe that this review will help clinicians to understand the meaning and use of the detection of MTA in order to more effectively manage their HCC patients.
- A Meta-Analysis of the Correlation Between the HLA-DRB1*03 Allele and Chronic Hepatitis B in the Han Chinese Population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2014 Oct 17.
Objective: This study sought to use a meta-analysis approach to comprehensively evaluate correlations between the human leukocyte antigen-DR beta 1 (HLA-DRB1)*03 allele and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the Han Chinese population. Methods: The China Biomedical Literature database (CBMdisc), the Chongqing VIP database (VIP), and the PubMed database were searched. Using the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this study, all relevant case-control studies retrieved in these searches that satisfied the conditions of this investigation were collected. Review Manager (RevMan) 5.2 software was used to conduct a meta-analysis on the results of these studies. Results: There were 9 publications that satisfied the inclusion criteria. These publications included a total of 970 cases in the CHB group and 1185 cases in the normal control group. Egger's test revealed no significant publication bias. A comprehensive analysis indicated that the pooled odds ratio (OR) value was 1.94 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.23-3.06 (Z=2.84, p=0.004); these findings suggested that in the Han Chinese population, the HLA-DRB1*03 allele is a susceptibility allele related to the occurrence of CHB. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant correlation between the HLA-DRB1*03 allele and the occurrence of CHB in the Han Chinese population, and the HLA-DRB1*03 allele may be a susceptibility allele for this disease.
- Possible role of tocopherols in the modulation of host microRNA with potential antiviral activity in patients with hepatitis B virus-related persistent infection: a systematic review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Nutr 2014 Oct 17.:1-18.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection represents a serious global health problem and persistent HBV infection is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Recently, the study of the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of HBV has gained considerable interest as well as new treatments against this pathogen have been approved. A few studies have investigated the antiviral activity of vitamin E (VE) in chronic HBV carriers. Herein, we review the possible role of tocopherols in the modulation of host miRNA with potential anti-HBV activity. A systematic research of the scientific literature was performed by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases. The keywords used were 'HBV therapy', 'HBV treatment', 'VE antiviral effects', 'tocopherol antiviral activity', 'miRNA antiviral activity' and 'VE microRNA'. Reports describing the role of miRNA in the regulation of HBV life cycle, in vitro and in vivo available studies reporting the effects of VE on miRNA expression profiles and epigenetic networks, and clinical trials reporting the use of VE in patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis were identified and examined. Based on the clinical results obtained in VE-treated chronic HBV carriers, we provide a reliable hypothesis for the possible role of this vitamin in the modulation of host miRNA profiles perturbed by this viral pathogen and in the regulation of some cellular miRNA with a suggested potential anti-HBV activity. This approach may contribute to the improvement of our understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms involved in HBV infection and increase the possibility of its management and treatment.
- Clinical and laboratory findings of pigmented purpuric dermatoses. [Journal Article]
- Ann Dermatol 2014 Oct; 26(5):610-4.
Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are chronic, recurrent group of disorders characterized by petechial and pigmentary macules usually localized on the lower limbs. Its etiopathogenesis is unknown. There are very few clinical and etiological studies on PPD in the literature.We aim to examine the etiopathogenetic factors of PPD retrospectively.Demographic characteristics, history of co-morbid disorders and drug usage, hepatitis markers, levels of serum lipids, findings of Doppler ultrasonography in lower extremities, and patch test results of the 24 patients of PPD were examined retrospectively. The patch test results, history of drug use, and co-morbid disorders of the patients were compared with those of the control groups.The male-to-female ratio was 1 : 2, and 83.3% of the patients had Schamberg disease. Seventeen patients had co-morbid disorders and 16 used various drugs, but there was no statistically significant difference between the controls and patients. One patient was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and 1, for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody. Nine had elevated total cholesterol levels, and 5 had elevated triglyceride levels. Further, 30% of them were positive for at least 1 allergen, while 16% of the control subjects were positive for at least 1 allergen, but statistically significant difference was not found between the 2 groups. Variable degrees of venous insufficiency were detected in 75% of the patients on Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities.Venous insufficiency and hypercholesterolemia might be the basic predisposing factors for PPD. Further studies are needed to show if diabetes mellitus and hypertension may cause perivascular inflammation in PPD.
- Inflammation-related carcinogenesis: current findings in epidemiological trends, causes and mechanisms. [Journal Article, Review]
- Yonago Acta Med 2014 Jun; 57(2):65-72.
Inflammation is a definite cancer-causing factor as revealed by cumulative basic, clinical and epidemiological studies. It is mostly induced by infectious agents. For instance, infection with papillomaviruses associates with anogenital cancers, especially cervical cancers; Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach tends to increase the risk of stomach cancer; chronic hepatitis B & C viruses and fluke infections of the liver increase liver cancers; autoimmune diseases, e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases, associate with development of colorectal cancer, and aerial irritants (foreign bodies) such as asbestos or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in outdoor air increase malignant pleural mesotheliomas or lung cancers. These are typical examples of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. It is apparent that the pathogens to induce inflammatory reactions in specific organs are not related to each other. However, the underlying pathogenesis in common is to induce and/or sustain inflammation. In this article, I would like to review the up-to-date findings of epidemiological trends, causes and mechanisms of inflammation-related carcinogenesis.
- Assessment of HBV Preventive Services in a Medically Underserved Asian and Pacific Islander Population Using Provider and Patient Data. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gen Intern Med 2014 Oct 17.
Hepatitis B (HBV) represents a significant health disparity among medically underserved Asian and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (API) populations. Studies evaluating adherence to HBV screening and vaccination guidelines in this population are limited.The purpose of this study was to evaluate HBV screening and vaccination practices using both provider self-report and patient records.Medical records for 20,574 API adults were reviewed retrospectively and primary care providers were surveyed to evaluate rates and adherence to HBV screening and vaccination guidelines.The study included primary care providers and their adult API patients in the San Francisco safety-net healthcare system.Patient, practice, and provider factors, as well as HBV screening and vaccination practices, were assessed using provider survey constructs and patient laboratory and clinical data. Generalized linear mixed models and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with recommended HBV screening and vaccination.The mean age of patients was 52 years, and 63.4 % of patients were female. Only 61.5 % underwent HBV testing, and 47.4 % of HBV-susceptible patients were vaccinated. Of 148 (44.8 %) responding providers, most were knowledgeable and had a favorable attitude towards screening, but 43.2 % were unfamiliar with HBV guidelines. HBV screening was positively associated with favorable provider attitude score (OR per unit 1.80, 95 % CI 1.18-2.74) and negatively associated with female patient sex (OR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.73-0.92), a higher number of clinic patients per week (OR per 20 patients 0.46, 95 % CI 0.28-0.76), and provider barrier score (OR per unit 0.45, 95 % CI 0.24-0.87). HBV vaccination was negatively associated with provider barrier score (OR per unit 0.48, 95 % CI 0.25-0.91).Rates of HBV screening and vaccination of API patients in this safety-net system are suboptimal, and provider factors play a significant role. Efforts to cultivate positive attitudes among providers and expand healthcare system resources to reduce provider barriers to HBV care are warranted.
- Screening for serum biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis B with hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance, following pegylated interferon alpha therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Med Rep 2014 Oct 16.
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the most common infectious disease worldwide and a leading cause of death. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has previously been proven to be a steady biomarker that may be used to predict clinical outcomes. The amount of circulating HBsAg has been reported to reflect the number of infected hepatocytes. An advantage of pegylated interferon alpha (peg‑IFN‑α) is that as a finite course of therapy, it can potentially lead to sustained disease remission in subsequent decades. HBsAg seroclearance can reportedly be achieved in some hepatitis B patients treated with peg‑IFN‑α; this is a major advantage of IFN‑α, as compared with nucleoside analogue treatment. In the present study, a random phage display peptide library was used to screen for potential serum peptide biomarkers in predicting which patients with CHB would exhibit HBsAg seroclearance, following 48 weeks of peg‑IFN‑α therapy. A total of 30 patients with CHB who achieved HBsAg seroclearance following peg‑IFN‑α therapy and an additional 30 age‑, gender‑, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status‑ and hepatitis B virus genotype‑matched patients with CHB without HBsAg seroclearance following peg‑IFN‑α therapy, were enrolled as a discovery cohort. In the discovery/screening phase, 17/20 of the randomly selected phage clones, exhibited a specific reaction with purified sera immunoglobulin G from the HBsAg clearance group, and 13/17 positive phage clones came from the same phage clone, with the inserted peptide sequence ETCRASCINESA (named IFNC1). In the validation phase, phage‑ELISA results showed that the positive reaction rate of the IFNC1 peptide phage clone was 92.0% with the HBsAg seroclearance group (n=50), which was significantly higher, as compared with the randomly selected HBsAg non‑clearance group (12.0%, n=50) and the healthy control group (8.0%, n=50). In conclusion, the newly identified mimic peptide IFNC1 showed a high predictive validity HBsAg seroclearance in patients with CHB, following peg‑IFN‑α therapy. Therefore IFNC1 may be a potential serum biomarker, which could be used to predict the treatment outcomes of peg‑IFN‑α therapy.
- Prevalence of Mutations in Basal Core Promoter and Precore Region of Hepatitis B Virus in Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Individuals of the Aboriginal Nicobarese Tribe of Car Nicobar Island, India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Intervirology 2014 Oct 15; 57(6):357-364.
The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of basal core promoter (BCP) and precore gene (PC) mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates among the Nicobarese tribe and their relationship with genotypes and HBeAg status. A total of 726 blood samples were collected from two villages of the Car Nicobar Island where mass vaccination was performed in the year 2000. HBV DNA was isolated and the BCP and PC regions were amplified and sequenced directly. The samples positive for HBV DNA were tested for HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe. Among the 211 and 515 samples collected from vaccinated and nonvaccinated persons, 16 and 82 were positive for HBV DNA, respectively. Among the vaccinated individuals, only 1 had a mutation in both the BCP and PC gene. Among the nonvaccinated subjects, 3 (4.5%) had an A1762T mutation, 8 (12.1%) had a G1764A mutation, 11 (16.7%) had a G1896A mutation and 4 (6.1%) had a G1899A mutation. The HBeAg-negative subjects had a significantly higher frequency of BCP and PC mutations than the HBeAg-positive subjects. The prevalence of a PC mutation was higher than that of a BCP mutation. The present study stresses the need for the continuous surveillance of subjects with BCP and PC mutations, as the mutations may contribute to the progression of liver disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Function of interleukin‑17 and ‑35 in the blood of patients with hepatitis B‑related liver cirrhosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Med Rep 2014 Oct 16.
Intrahepatic T helper (Th)17 cytokine and serum interleukin (IL)‑17 levels in patients with hepatitis B are positively correlated with the progression of liver cirrhosis (LC). IL‑35 can significantly inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells and the synthesis of IL‑17. The present study aimed to investigate the function and expression of IL‑17 and IL‑35 in the blood of patients with hepatitis B‑related LC. The levels of IL‑17 and IL‑35 in the peripheral blood of 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 79 with LC, 14 with chronic severe hepatitis B (CSHB), and 20 normal controls were detected by ELISA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate Epstein‑Barr virus‑induced gene 3 (EBI3), forkhead box (FOX)P3 and IL‑17 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Western blotting was used to determine protein expression. The liver function of patients and normal controls was measured. EBI3, IL‑17 and FOXP3 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs from patients with LC, CHB and CSHB were higher than those in cells from the controls. IL‑17 mRNA levels differed significantly according to the Child‑Pugh classification and exhibited an upward trend over time in contrast to a downward trend for EBI3 and FOXP3 mRNA. The changes in protein expression in the peripheral blood were consistent with the changes in mRNA expression. Serum IL‑17 levels were positively correlated with total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Child‑Pugh grade, and were negatively correlated with albumin. These observed differences were significant. Serum IL‑35 levels were negatively correlated with albumin, but not with Child‑Pugh grade, ALT and TBIL. IL‑17 and IL‑35 may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B‑related LC.