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Hepatitis and Youth in Correctional Settings [keywords]
- Primary health care: applying the principles within a community-based participatory health research project that began in a Canadian women's prison. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Glob Health Promot 2009 Dec; 16(4):43-53.
the purpose of this research was to determine the feasibility of engaging incarcerated women in community-based participatory research and to identify, by and with the women, the health concerns to be addressed.the integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion and transformative action research guided the overall design of this study.Incarcerated women, correctional centre staff and academic researchers participated collaboratively. Setting. The study was conducted in the main short sentence (two years or less) minimum/medium security women's correctional centre in a Canadian province.In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 incarcerated women; in-depth group interviews were facilitated with 16 correctional centre staff. Twenty-one themes, which emerged from participatory, inductive and content analysis of the data, were presented at a face-to-face meeting attended by 120 incarcerated women, 10 correctional centre staff and 5 academic researchers. Underlying values and principles for the project were identified prior to a discussion of the results. During the course of this meeting, the themes were converged into five major categories: addictions and mental health; HIV, hepatitis and infections; health care in prison; life skills and re-entry into society (including homelessness and housing); and children, family and relationships. Numerous suggestions for health interventions and participatory projects were generated, each relating to one of the five major categories.this study was unique in that, to our knowledge, no other studies have utilized community-based participatory research methods in which incarcerated women played a role in designing the research questions and tools, collecting the data, analyzing the data, interpreting the data and authoring the publications and presentations. This study demonstrated that it is feasible for incarcerated women to engage in developing and utilizing community-based participatory research methods and that these methods can be grounded in a settings approach to whole prison health promotion.
- New opportunities for the management and therapy of hepatitis C in correctional settings. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Public Health 2010 Jan; 100(1):13-7.
Hepatitis C in prison populations is now a major public health problem, and large numbers of correctional facilities have no comprehensive management program, often because of formidable projected costs and tightening budget constraints. The North Dakota Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation has operated a management and therapy program since 2002 using consensus interferon and ribavirin with 45% cost savings. The program has provided excellent sustained viral responses: 54.2% for genotype 1 hepatitis C, 75% for genotypes 2 and 3, and 63.6% overall.
- HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk behaviors of young men before and after incarceration. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- AIDS Care 2009 Feb; 21(2):235-43.
High rates of HIV, STD and hepatitis and associated risk behaviors have been documented among persons entering correctional facilities. However, there is a paucity of data on risk behaviors after release from custody. This study documents risk behaviors and informs intervention development targeting young men leaving incarcerated settings. We enrolled and interviewed 106 men from five prisons up to 60 days prior to their release from prison and interviewed them again four times after their release (at 1-week, 1-, 3- and 6-months). At enrollment, men were 18-29 years of age. Nearly 54% identified as African American, while 27% identified as White, 10% identified as Hispanic/Latino and 10% identified as "other". Approximately 83% had been incarcerated multiple times, 37% reported a prior STD diagnosis and their mean lifetime number of sex partners was 36 (median = 20). Many reported multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use after release. A significant decrease in condom use during vaginal sex with primary committed female partners and in oral sex with both committed and casual female partners after release from prison were reported from 1-6 months. These young men are at sexual risk of HIV, STD and hepatitis infection after release from prison. Interventions are needed to prevent this population from acquiring and transmitting HIV, STD and hepatitis.
- Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. [Journal Article, Practice Guideline]
- MMWR Recomm Rep 2006 Sep 22; 55(RR-14):1-17; quiz CE1-4.
These recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing are intended for all health-care providers in the public and private sectors, including those working in hospital emergency departments, urgent care clinics, inpatient services, substance abuse treatment clinics, public health clinics, community clinics, correctional health-care facilities, and primary care settings. The recommendations address HIV testing in health-care settings only. They do not modify existing guidelines concerning HIV counseling, testing, and referral for persons at high risk for HIV who seek or receive HIV testing in nonclinical settings (e.g., community-based organizations, outreach settings, or mobile vans). The objectives of these recommendations are to increase HIV screening of patients, including pregnant women, in health-care settings; foster earlier detection of HIV infection; identify and counsel persons with unrecognized HIV infection and link them to clinical and prevention services; and further reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. These revised recommendations update previous recommendations for HIV testing in health-care settings and for screening of pregnant women (CDC. Recommendations for HIV testing services for inpatients and outpatients in acute-care hospital settings. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-2]:1-10; CDC. Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:1-62; and CDC. Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:63-85). Major revisions from previously published guidelines are as follows: For patients in all health-care settings HIV screening is recommended for patients in all health-care settings after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Persons at high risk for HIV infection should be screened for HIV at least annually. Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Prevention counseling should not be required with HIV diagnostic testing or as part of HIV screening programs in health-care settings. For pregnant women HIV screening should be included in the routine panel of prenatal screening tests for all pregnant women. HIV screening is recommended after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Repeat screening in the third trimester is recommended in certain jurisdictions with elevated rates of HIV infection among pregnant women.
- Prevention and control of infections with hepatitis viruses in correctional settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Guideline, Journal Article, Practice Guideline]
- MMWR Recomm Rep 2003 Jan 24; 52(RR-1):1-36; quiz CE1-4.
This report consolidates previous recommendations and adds new ones for preventing and controlling infections with hepatitis viruses in correctional settings. These recommendations provide guidelines for juvenile and adult correctional systems regarding 1) identification and investigation of acute viral hepatitis; 2) preexposure and postexposure immunization for hepatitis A and hepatitis B; 3) prevention of hepatitis C virus infection and its consequences; 4) health education; and 5) release planning. Implementation of these recommendations can reduce transmission of infections with hepatitis viruses among adults at risk in both correctional facilities and the outside community. These recommendations were developed after consultation with other federal agencies and specialists in the fields of corrections, correctional health care, and public health at a meeting in Atlanta, March 5-7, 2001. This report can serve as a resource for those involved in planning and implementing health-care programs for incarcerated persons.
- The burden of infectious disease among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 1997. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Am J Public Health 2002 Nov; 92(11):1789-94.
This study developed national estimates of the burden of selected infectious diseases among correctional inmates and releases during 1997.Data from surveys, surveillance, and other reports were synthesized to develop these estimates.During 1997, 20% to 26% of all people living with HIV in the United States, 29% to 43% of all those infected with the hepatitis C virus, and 40% of all those who had tuberculosis disease in that year passed through a correctional facility.Correctional facilities are critical settings for the efficient delivery of prevention and treatment interventions for infectious diseases. Such interventions stand to benefit not only inmates, their families, and partners, but also the public health of the communities to which inmates return.
- Hepatitis B vaccination practices in state and federal prisons. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Public Health Rep 2001 May-Jun; 116(3):203-9.
Incarcerated populations are a group at high risk for hepatitis B. About 30% of people experiencing acute hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) have a history of incarceration. Offering routine HBV vaccinations to incarcerated individuals could have a significant effect on public health. The objective of this study is to identify current vaccine practices and the perceived feasibility of routine vaccinations for hepatitis B within correctional settings.The authors surveyed the medical directors of state correctional facilities in all 50 states and the federal prison system regarding current HBV vaccine practices. Surveys were faxed or mailed between July 1 and September 1, 2000.Thirty-five states and the federal system responded (response rate = 70.6%). These systems account for 77% of all inmates in federal or state prisons and jails. Two states give hepatitis B vaccine routinely, nine states offer no hepatitis B vaccine, and 26 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons offer hepatitis vaccine to some inmates. Most states do not spend enough money to vaccinate even those prisoners at highest risk. Under the Vaccine for Children program, 19,520 youths could receive vaccine immediately. According to the respondents, if vaccine were available at no-cost, 25 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons would routinely offer vaccination to all inmates.Most correctional systems do not routinely offer vaccine to their incarcerated populations, but would if funds were available. There exists now a unique public health opportunity to prevent a significant proportion of new hepatitis B infections.
- Using a jail-based survey to monitor HIV and risk behaviors among Seattle area injection drug users. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Urban Health 2001 Jun; 78(2):264-78.
Routine monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) is difficult outside drug treatment settings. We developed and implemented a survey of recently arrested IDUs to describe the prevalence of HIV, drug use, and sexual behaviors among them. A probability sampling survey was instituted in the King County Correctional Facility in Seattle, Washington, to sample recently arrested IDUs at the time of booking and in the jail health clinic between 1998 and 1999. Following HIV risk assessment and blood draw, additional information on drug use practices was gathered using a standardized questionnaire. Potential participants who were released from jail early could complete the study at a nearby research storefront office. Of the 4,344 persons intercepted at booking, 503 (12%) reported injection drug use, and 201 of the IDUs (40%) participated in the study. An additional 161 IDUs were enrolled in the study from the jail health clinic. Among the 348 unduplicated subjects, HIV prevalence was 2%; in the past 6 months, 69% reported two or more shooting partners, 72% used a cooker after someone else, 60% shared a syringe to divide up drugs, and 62% injected with used needles. Only 37% reported being hepatitis C seropositive, and 8% reported hepatitis B vaccination. It was feasible to conduct a jail-based survey of recently arrested IDUs that yielded useful information. The high prevalence of reported risky drug use practices warrants ongoing monitoring and illustrates the need for improving prevention programs for HIV and hepatitis B and C in this population, including expansion of hepatitis C screening and provision of hepatitis B vaccination at the jail health clinic.