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High blood pressure [keywords]
- Effect of huanglian jiedu decoction on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014.:565784.
Objective.Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders with high mortality. Here we explored the antihypertension effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Methods. A rat model of spontaneous hypertension was used. The gene change profile of thoracic aorta after JHD treatment was assessed by GeneChip(GC) analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray.
Results.Hypertension induced 441 genes upregulated and 417 genes downregulated compared with the normal control group. Treatment of HJD resulted in 76 genes downregulated and 20 genes upregulated. GC data analysis showed that the majority of change genes were involved in immune system process, developmental process, and cell death.
Conclusion.Hypertension altered expression of many genes that regulate various biological functions. HJD significantly reduced hypertension and altered the gene expression profiles of SHR rats. These changing genes were involved in many cellular functions such as regulating smooth muscle contraction, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and NO pathway. This study provides the potential novel insights into hypertension and antihypertension effects of HJD.
- Effectiveness of Stimulation of Acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (Moxa) for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. [REVIEW]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014.:187484.
Objective. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials has been performed to assess the effectiveness of stimulation of acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (the Japanese name is moxa) to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. Methods and Findings. Articles published from 1980 to August 2013 in databases of CENTRAL, Pubmed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched. Studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs); moxibustion-type intervention on KI 1 compared with antihypertensive drugs; meta-analysis showed superior effects of moxibustion plus antihypertensive drugs on systolic blood pressure (WMD: -4.91 [-7.54, -2.28]; P = 0.0003) but no superior effects on diastolic blood pressure (WMD: -6.38 [-17.17, 4.41]; P = 0.25). Conclusions. Our systematic review of the current literature shows a beneficial effect of using moxibustion interventions on KI 1 to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. However, the results are influenced by the existing differences in design of the current trials.
- The non-anticoagulation costs of atrial fibrillation management: findings from an observational study in NHS Primary Care. [Journal Article]
- Drugs Context 2014.:212254.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) management represents a significant burden on the UK NHS. Understanding this burden will be important in informing future health care planning and policy development.To describe the non-anticoagulation costs associated with AF management in routine UK clinical practice.A retrospective observational study of 825 patients with AF undertaken in eight UK primary care practices. Data collected from routine clinical and prescribing records of all eligible, consenting patients, for a period of up to 3 years. The first 12 weeks following diagnosis was defined as the 'initiation phase'; the period after week 12 was defined as the 'maintenance phase'.Mean (SD) total cost of AF management was £941 (£1094) per patient in the initiation phase and £426 (£597) per patient-year in the maintenance phase. AF-related inpatient admissions contributed most to total costs; the mean (SD) total cost per patient in the initiation phase was £2285 (£900) for admitted and £278 (£252) for non-admitted patients. Mean maintenance phase costs per year were £1323 (£755) and £168 (£234), respectively, for admitted and non-admitted patients. Significant patient variables contributing to high cost in the initiation phase were hypertension and younger patient age, although only accounting for 6% of cost variability. Significant variables in the maintenance phase (18% of cost variability) were the presence of congestive heart failure, structural heart disease or diabetes and the frequency of day case admissions, ECGs and hospitalisations in the initiation phase.Inpatient admissions contributed most to total AF management costs. Given the burden of hospital care, future work should focus on evaluating the appropriateness and reasons for hospitalisation in patients with AF and the factors affecting length of stay, with the aim of identifying opportunities to safely reduce inpatient costs. A number of significant patient characteristics and initiation phase variables were identified, which accounted for 18% of the variability in total maintenance phase costs. However, none of these could adequately predict high maintenance phase costs.
- Efficacy and Safety Profile of Combining Sorafenib with Chemotherapy in Patients with HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Breast Cancer 2014 Mar; 17(1):61-8.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining sorafenib with chemotherapy in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer.MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, American Society for Clinical Oncology abstracts, and European Society for Medical Oncology abstracts were searched. Randomized clinical trials that compared the efficacy and safety of sorafenib plus chemotherapy in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer with placebo plus chemotherapy were eligible. The endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), duration of response (DOR), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefits, and adverse effects. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2.6 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre), and the fixed-effect model weighted by the Mantel-Haenszel method was used. When considerable heterogeneity was found (p<0.1), further analysis (subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, or random-effect model) was performed to identify the potential cause. The results are expressed as hazard ratios or risk ratios, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.The final analysis included four trials comprising 844 patients. The results revealed longer PFS and TTP, and higher ORR and clinical benefit rates in patients receiving sorafenib combined with chemotherapy compared to those receiving chemotherapy and placebo. OS and DOR were similar in the two groups. Meanwhile, the incidence of some adverse effects, including hand-foot skin reaction/hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, rash, and hypertension, were significantly higher in the sorafenib arm.Sorafenib combined with chemotherapy may prolong PFS and TTP. This treatment was associated with manageable toxicities, but frequent dose interruptions and reductions were required.
- Activation of Toll-Like Receptors and Inflammasome Complexes in the Diabetic Cardiomyopathy-Associated Inflammation. [REVIEW]
- Int J Endocrinol 2014.:847827.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as a ventricular dysfunction initiated by alterations in cardiac energy substrates in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance are major inducers of the chronic low-grade inflammatory state that characterizes the diabetic heart. Cardiac Toll-like receptors and inflammasome complexes may be key inducers for inflammation probably through NF-κB activation and ROS overproduction. However, metabolic dysregulated factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and sirtuins may serve as therapeutic targets to control this response by mitigating both Toll-like receptors and inflammasome signaling.
- Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors. [REVIEW]
- Int J Endocrinol 2014.:470592.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.
- Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014 Jan; 18(1):14-8.
Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis.A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)).PATIENTS WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS ACCORDING TO THE PERIODONTAL CHARACTERISTICS FOUND: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45), 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42), 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1) kg/m(2) . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score.It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases.
- Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food. [REVIEW]
- Mediators Inflamm 2014.:139873.
Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension). In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.
- Treatment of atherosclerotic renovascular hypertension: review of observational studies and a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Apr 16.
Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. We herein review the observational and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing medical and endovascular treatment for control of hypertension and renal function preservation. Using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) strategy, we identified the relevant studies and performed a novel meta-analysis of all RCTs to determine the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment when compared with medical therapy. The following outcomes were examined: baseline follow-up difference in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), serum creatinine, number of drugs at follow-up, incident events (heart failure, stroke, and worsening renal function), mortality, cumulative relative risk of heart failure, stroke, and worsening renal function. Seven studies comprising a total of 2155 patients (1741 available at follow-up) were considered, including the recently reported CORAL Study. Compared with baseline, diastolic BP fell more at follow-up in patients in the endovascular than in the medical treatment arm (standard difference in means -0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.342 to -0.078, P = 0.002) despite a greater reduction in the mean number of antihypertensive drugs (standard difference in means -0.201, 95% CI: -0.302 to -0.1, P < 0.001). At variance, follow-up changes (from baseline) of systolic BP, serum creatinine, and incident cardiovascular event rates did not differ between treatment arms. Thus, patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis receiving endovascular treatment required less anti-antihypertensive drugs at follow-up than those medically treated. Notwithstanding this, they evidenced a better control of diastolic BP.
- Development of hypertension within 2 weeks of initiation of sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma is a predictor of efficacy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Clin Oncol 2014 Apr 18.
Sorafenib is an agent that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor and is associated with onset or worsening of hypertension in some patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of whether the development of hypertension during sorafenib treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma could be a predictor of anti-cancer efficacy.The study included 38 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had received sorafenib for at least 1 month between January 2010 and December 2012. A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of sorafenib was conducted by dividing the patients into two groups-a hypertension group, presenting with grade 2 or higher hypertension according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCTE) version 4.0; and a non-hypertension group, which included all other patients. This study evaluated the occurrence of hypertension within 2 weeks of initiation of therapy in order to avoid any treatment duration bias. Images were evaluated using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The response rate, time to progression, and overall survival were assessed.Twenty-two patients (58 %) developed grade 2 or higher hypertension within 2 weeks of initiation of therapy. The response rate was significantly higher in the hypertension group. Median time to progression was 153 days in the hypertension group versus 50.5 days in the non-hypertension group, which was significantly longer in the hypertension group. Moreover, median overall survival was 1,329 days in the hypertension group versus 302 days in the non-hypertension group, which was significantly longer in the hypertension group.Hypertension within 2 weeks of initiation of therapy may be a predictor of the anti-cancer efficacy of sorafenib when used for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.