Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
High blood pressure [keywords]
- Office blood pressure measurement practices among community health providers (medical and paramedical) in northern district of India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Indian Heart J 2014 July - August; 66(4):401-407.
Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. Appropriate blood pressure measurement techniques are the cornerstone of clinical acumen. Despite the clear guidelines on BP measurement technique, there seems to be large inter-observer variations.A prospective, observational study was done to assess the knowledge and to study the current practices of office BP measurement among the 400 medical and paramedical staff working in various hospitals of a northern district of India. A single observer under the supervision of investigators observed all the participants and a proforma was filled based on AHA guidelines. After observing BP measurement technique scoring was done (≤8 question correct = inaccurate practices, >9 questions correct = accurate practices). Similarly, the knowledge was assessed by giving a pretested questionnaire.5.85 % of the medical staff had excellent knowledge and 80% of the doctors and 62% of the paramedical staff had good knowledge about BPM. Only 1.47% (3 doctors) and 0.5% (1 nurse) had accurate practices. There was no correlation between knowledge and practices.We conclude that the right technique and knowledge of blood pressure measurement among community health providers is inadequate and warrants further interventions to improve.
- β-T594M epithelial sodium channel gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in individuals of Indo-Aryan ancestry in Northern India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Indian Heart J 2014 July - August; 66(4):397-400.
The T594M variant of the β-subunit of the sodium epithelial channel (ENaC) gene may contribute to hypertension in individuals of Indo-Aryan origin.Present study was performed to assess the role of the ENaC gene variant as an independent risk factor for hypertension in subjects of Indo-Aryan ancestry. A total of 150 patients of recently detected essential hypertension and 150 matched controls were genotyped for the T594M polymorphism of the ENaC gene by PCR-RFLP method.β-T594M mutation was found to be non-polymorphic. There was major genotype call in both the groups i.e. cases and controls. Other phenotypic parameters like age, sex and body mass index were also similar among hypertensive patients and controls (P > 0.05). Hypertensive patients had significantly higher total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with controls (P < 0.0001).These results do not suggest an important role for the T594M variant of the ENaC gene contributing to either the development or severity of hypertension in subjects of Indo-Aryan ancestry.
- Left ventricular dysfunction after mitral valve repair-the fallacy of "normal" preoperative myocardial function. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Jul 31.
A proportion of patients experience a decrease in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) after mitral valve repair; however, predictors and long-term consequences remain unclear.A study of 1705 patients with severe, degenerative mitral valve regurgitation and normal preoperative EF (>60%) undergoing mitral valve repair from 1993 to 2012 was performed. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the predictors of early postoperative LV dysfunction (EF < 50%) and long-term survival, respectively.Postoperative outcomes were comparable between patients; however, those with an EF of <50% (n = 314, 18.4%) had significantly greater enlargement in systolic dimension (left ventricular end-systolic diameter, -0.6 vs 4.3 mm; P < .001) and decrease in right ventricular systolic pressure (-2.7 vs -7.8 mm Hg; P < .001) immediately after repair. On longitudinal follow-up, early LV impairment persisted, with EF recovering to preoperative levels (>60%) in only one third of patients with postrepair EF <50% versus two thirds of those with an EF of ≥50% (P < .001). The overall survival at 5, 10, and 15 years of follow-up was 95%, 85%, and 70.8%, respectively. Although early postoperative EF < 50% was not a significant determinant of late survival, when adjusting for older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09), hypertension (HR, 1.38), New York Heart Association class III or IV (HR, 1.71), and preoperative atrial fibrillation (HR, 2.33), postoperative EF < 40% conferred a 70% increase in the hazard of late death (HR, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.92; P = .037). A preoperative right ventricular systolic pressure >49 mm Hg and left ventricular end-systolic diameter >36 mm were independently associated with a 4.4- and 6.5-fold increased risk of developing a postoperative EF < 40% (P < .001, for both).De novo postoperative LV dysfunction is not uncommon in patients with "normal" preoperative EF undergoing mitral valve repair. LV dysfunction can persist, impairing recovery of LV size, function, and survival. The consideration of mitral repair before the onset of excessive LV dilation or pulmonary hypertension, even in those with preserved EF, seems warranted.
- Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders and Future Renal Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Hypertens Rep 2014 Oct; 16(10):484.
Hypertensive pregnancy disorders affect approximately 6 to 8 % of otherwise normal pregnancies. A growing body of evidence links these disorders with the future development of hypertension, coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Larger studies associating hypertensive pregnancy to future development of renal disease have been lacking until recently, with publication of several compelling studies in the last 5 years. In this review, we will focus on the recent evidence associating hypertensive pregnancy disorders with the future development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as well as the development of microalbuminuria. We will also attempt to answer whether these renal risks are due to direct effects of hypertension during pregnancy, or whether they are due to shared environmental and genetic risk factors.
- [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Enferm Clin 2014 Aug 26.
Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender.An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information.Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p <0.001), primarily among workers in the industry sector. A total of 32% of the workers in the province of Salamanca was exposed to some occupational carcinogen. Women were more exposed in the service sector and men in the agriculture and livestock sector.Nearly one third of the workers belonging to the external prevention services of the province of Salamanca, were exposed to some kind of occupational carcinogens. The most frequent being biological risks, solvent products, and silica, which were above the national mean of exposure. It is important to consider the exposure to occupational carcinogens in the implementation of interventions in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in the work place.
- Reductions in glycemic and lipid profiles in hypertensive patients undergoing the Brazilian Dietary Approach to Break Hypertension: a randomized clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nutr Res 2014 Jul 10.
Hypertensive patients often have an unfavorable lipid and glucose profile. The main goal of dietary treatment for these patients is to achieve adequate control of blood pressure and reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Brazilian Dietary Approach to Break Hypertension (BRADA) based on Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension but with both low sodium and glycemic index foods could reduce lipid and glycemic profiles in hypertensive patients who were seeing primary health care providers in a low-income region of Brazil. A randomized study of 206 individuals were followed up for the duration of 6 months. The experimental group received orientation and planned monthly menus from the BRADA diet. In the control group, counseling was based on standard care and mainly focused on salt intake reduction. Differences in all biochemical parameters were compared at the baseline and at the 6-month follow-up period. The mean age was 60.1 (±12.9) years old, and 156 subjects (119 females) completed the study. An intention-to-treat analysis showed that both groups reduced fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations; however, statistically significant between-group differences were found for these parameters. The mean difference in fasting glucose was -7.0 (P < .01), -0.2 for HbA1c (P < .01), -28.6 for TC (P < .01), and -23.8 for LDL-c (P < .01) for the experimental group compared with the control group. This study showed the efficacy of the BRADA diet to treat hypertension on biochemical parameters tested in a primary health care service setting.
- Losartan ameliorates "upstream" pulmonary vein vasculopathy in a piglet model of pulmonary vein stenosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Aug 1.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a relentless disease with a poor prognosis. Although surgical repair can effectively treat "downstream" (near left atrial junction) PVS, residual "upstream" (deep in lung parenchyma) PVS commonly dictates long-term survival. Our initial studies revealed an association between PVS and transforming growth factor-β signaling, which led us to investigate the effect of losartan on upstream pulmonary vein vasculopathy in a piglet model of PVS.Neonatal Yorkshire piglets underwent sham surgical banding (sham, n = 6), staged bilateral pulmonary vein banding of all pulmonary veins except the right middle pulmonary vein (banded, n = 6), and staged pulmonary vein banding with losartan treatment (losartan, 1 mg/kg/d, n = 7). After 7 weeks, the hemodynamic data were obtained and the piglets killed.Pulmonary vein banding (compared with sham) was associated with continuous turbulent flow in banded pulmonary veins, pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery/systemic blood pressure ratio 0.51 ± 0.06 vs 0.23 ± 0.02, P < .001), and diffuse pulmonary vein intimal hyperplasia in the upstream pulmonary veins (P < .001). Losartan administration decreased the pulmonary artery/systemic blood pressure ratios compared with those in the banded piglets (0.36 ± 0.08 vs 0.51 ± 0.06, P = .007) but it remained greater than those in the sham group (P = .001). Losartan was also associated with diminished pulmonary vein intimal hyperplasia compared with that in the banded piglets (P < .001) but still remained more than that in the sham group (P = .035). Pulmonary vein banding reduced vascular endothelial-cadherin expression, indicative of diminished endothelial integrity, which was restored with losartan.Losartan treatment improved PVS-associated pulmonary hypertension and intimal hyperplasia and might be a beneficial prophylactic therapy for patients at high risk of developing PVS after pulmonary vein surgery.
- Impact of acculturation on cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Mexican Americans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Epidemiol 2014 Aug 1.
Higher levels of acculturation among Latinos have been shown to be associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in some studies of middle-age persons. The association of acculturation and prevalence of CV risk factors in elderly Latinos is less well established.Acculturation was measured using the validated bidimensional Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association of acculturation with prevalence of CV risk factors among 1789 elderly men and women from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging using multivariate linear and logistic regression. We tested for the interaction of acculturation with risk factors by nativity status.Median age was 69.8 years. Higher acculturation was associated with lower systolic blood pressure, lower low-density lipoprotein, higher high-density lipoprotein, and lower prevalence of CV disease after age and sex adjustment. Higher acculturation remained associated with lower level of low-density lipoprotein and higher level of high-density lipoprotein after full adjustment. Nativity status did not affect these results.Contrary to other reports in middle-aged persons, higher levels of acculturation were associated with better lipid profiles and no significant differences in other CV risk factors by acculturation level in elderly Latinos.
- Impaired Cerebral Angiogenesis in the Fetal Lamb Model of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Dev Neurosci 2014 Aug 26.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with increased risk of neuro-developmental impairments. Whether relative fetal hypoxia during evolution of PPHN renders the fetal brain vulnerable to perinatal brain injury remains unclear. We hypothesized that in utero ductal constriction, which induces PPHN also impairs cerebral angiogenesis.Fetal lambs with PPHN induced by prenatal ligation of the ductus arteriosus were compared to gestation matched twin controls. Freshly collected or fixed brain specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR.Cortical capillary density was decreased in PPHN lambs compared to controls (Glut-1, Isolectin B-4 and Factor VIII, n=6, p<0.05). Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were decreased in cortical cell lysates of PPHN lambs. PPHN increased angiopoetin-1 (Ang-1) and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor (Tie-2) protein expression while angiopoetin-2 (Ang-2) protein levels were decreased (n=6, p<0.05). PPHN did not change mRNA levels of these proteins significantly (n=6).PPHN decreased cortical capillary density in fetal lamb brain. PPHN decreased the expression of proteins involved in angiogenesis. These findings suggest that PPHN is associated with impaired cortical angiogenesis.