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High blood pressure [keywords]
- Pilot trial of a licensed practical nurse intervention for hypertension and depression. [Journal Article]
- Fam Med 2013 May; 45(5):323-9.
Depression is a risk factor for hypertension, and risk of depression is increased substantially in patients with hypertension. Our objective was to examine whether an intervention carried out by Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) integrating depression treatment into care for hypertension improved blood pressure control and depressive symptoms.In all, 60 patients ages 41 to 92 years with hypertension and depressive symptoms at a large primary care practice in Philadelphia were randomly assigned to an integrated care intervention carried out by LPNs (n=30) or usual care (n=30). Intervention and control groups did not differ statistically on baseline measures. Outcomes assessed at baseline and 12 weeks included standard laboratory procedures to measure blood pressure control and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression.Patients in the integrated care intervention had lower diastolic blood pressure (intervention 74.2 mmHg versus usual care 82.0 mmHg) and fewer depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 mean scores, intervention 2.4 versus usual care 7.1) compared with patients in the usual care group at 12 weeks after adjustment for baseline values. Patients in the integrated care intervention also had lower systolic blood pressure (intervention 130.0 mmHg versus usual care 140.6 mmHg) compared with patients in the usual care group at 12 weeks although the results approached but did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Conclusion: Training existing primary care practice office staff will facilitate implementation in real world practices with limited resources and competing demands.
- Exercise Capacity Affects Quality of Life in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lung 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of exercise capacity, mental disorders, and hemodynamics on quality-of-life (QoL) parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
METHODS:Sixty-three patients with invasively diagnosed PAH (n = 48) or CTEPH (n = 15) underwent a broad panel of assessments, including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), and assessment of hemodynamics. QoL was evaluated by the 36-item Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Exercise capacity, hemodynamics, age, gender, and mental disorders (anxiety and depression) were assessed for association with QoL subscores by uni- and multivariate regression analyses.
RESULTS:Exercise capacity, WHO-FC, oxygen therapy, symptoms of right heart failure, right atrial pressure, and mental disorders were significantly associated with QoL (p < 0.05). In the stepwise backward selection multivariate analysis, depression remained an independent parameter in seven of eight subscales of the SF-36. Furthermore, peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) during CPET, 6-MWD, anxiety, long-term oxygen therapy, right heart failure, and age remained independent factors for QoL. Hemodynamic parameters at rest did not independently correlate with any domain of the SF-36 QoL subscores.
CONCLUSIONS:Mental disorders, exercise capacity, long-term oxygen therapy, right heart failure, and age play important role in the quality of life in patients with PAH and CTEPH.
- [Endoleaks - when is treatment necessary?] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Radiologe 2013 May 18.
Currently the majority of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs are endovascular procedures using a stent graft. This method continues to be questioned due to an up to 50 % incidence of endoleaks, i.e. the postinterventional persistence of blood flow outside the graft and within the aneurysm sac, potentially bearing the risk of a further increase of the aneurysm diameter and aneurysm rupture. Currently a total of five different endoleak types can be distinguished. Multiphase computed tomography (CT) is the standard imaging method for the detection and classification of endoleaks or alternatively contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used. The different types of endoleak have very different therapeutic implications. In direct endoleaks (types I and III) the systemic blood pressure is directly transferred to the aneurysm wall which carries a high risk of rupture and in general an immediate intervention is indicated. Indirect endoleaks (types II, IV and V) take a more benign course and in the majority of cases treatment is only necessary when further aneurysm expansion occurs.
- Twenty-four hour efficacy with preservative free tafluprost compared with latanoprost in patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Ophthalmol 2013 May 16.
AIM:To compare 24 h intraocular pressure (IOP) control obtained with preservative free (PF) tafluprost 0.0015% versus branded preservative containing latanoprost 0.005% administered as first choice monotherapy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT).
METHODS:This prospective, observer-masked, crossover study included consecutive newly diagnosed patients with POAG or OHT, and baseline IOP between 24 and 33 mm Hg. Qualifying patients underwent baseline untreated 24 h IOP monitoring in habitual positions, with Goldmann tonometry at times 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00, and Perkins supine tonometry at times 02:00 and 06:00. They were then randomised to either latanoprost or tafluprost, administered in the evening, for 3 months and then switched to the opposite therapy for another 3 months. 24 h monitoring was repeated at the end of each treatment period.
RESULTS:38 patients completed the study. Mean untreated 24 h IOP (24.9 mm Hg) was significantly reduced with both prostaglandins (p<0.001). Tafluprost demonstrated similar mean 24 h efficacy compared with latanoprost (17.8 vs 17.7 mm Hg; p=0.417). Latanoprost demonstrated significantly better 24 h trough IOP (15.9 vs 16.3 mm Hg; p=0.041) whereas tafluprost provided significantly lower 24 h IOP fluctuation (3.2 vs 3.8 mm Hg; p=0.008). No significant difference existed between the two prostaglandins for any adverse event.
CONCLUSIONS:PF tafluprost achieved similar 24 h IOP reduction to branded latanoprost. The current study highlights the importance of complete assessment of efficacy over 24 h. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01162603.
- Erectile dysfunction may be the first clinical sign of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in young men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Res Cardiol 2013 May 17.
OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible underlying pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED) without well-known etiology in young men under the age of 40 years.
METHODS:192 patients and 33 normal controls were enrolled. ED was evaluated by using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, hormone levels, and vascular parameters were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).
RESULTS:Patients with ED had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), high Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compared with controls. The brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) values were significantly lower in ED patients. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, FMD, SBP, Hs-CRP and HOMA-IR were significantly associated with ED. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, FMD was a significant predictor of ED (area under the curve (AUC) 0.933, p < 0.001). The cutoff value of FMD <10.4 % had sensitivity of 81.3 % and specificity of 100 %. HOMA-IR was also proven to be predictor of ED (AUC of HOMA-IR 0.759, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:ED may be the first clinical sign of endothelial dysfunction and a clinical marker of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Subclinical endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may be the underlying pathogenesis of ED in young patients without well-known etiology. Measurement of FMD, HOMA-IR can improve our ability to predict and treat ED, as well as subclinical cardiovascular disease early in young men.
- Clinical Impact of a 6-Week Preoperative Very Low Calorie Diet on Body Weight and Liver Size in Morbidly Obese Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obes Surg 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) may be a technically challenging surgical technique when features such as thick abdominal wall and increased liver volume are present. Very low calorie diets in the form of liquid meal replacements given 6 weeks prior to surgery have proven to decrease liver volume. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a 6-week preoperative low calorie/regular diet on liver volume and body weight in morbidly obese patients.
METHODS:A pilot study was carried out in 20 morbidly obese patients with an 800-kcal diet for 6 weeks. They were followed weekly to ensure proper compliance. CT scan was used for determining liver volume every 2 weeks in order to assess the impact of the diet. Baseline values were taken as controls for every patient as tied measures. Statistical analysis was suitable to variable scaling and performed using SPSS v. 20.0. Parametric and non-parametric test for tied measures were done. Any p value lesser than 0.05 or 5 % was considered as statistically significant.
RESULTS:Twenty patients adhered to the diet intervention for 6 weeks prior to LRYGB. Median ± SD age was 34.5 ± 11.5 years and 17 were female (85 %). Heart rate and blood pressure did not vary across the study. Initial median ± SD BMI was 46.02 ± 5.29 kg/m(2) (range 38.7-54.8). Repeated and tied measurements across the 6 weeks of treatment within individuals resulted statistically significant for reducing BMI (p < 0.0001). CT scan assessed liver volume initially as a control and in weeks 2, 4 and 6. Parametric and non-parametric assessment for multiple measurements also showed statistical significance among these values (p < 0.0001). Diet tolerability was additionally evaluated with a questionnaire showing more than 80 % of acceptability with discrete rates of nausea (15 %) and diarrhoea (15 %).
CONCLUSIONS:Based on our results, we demonstrated that a very low calorie diet with home ingredients is capable for effectively reducing body weight and liver size in morbidly obese patients. This relatively short intervention (4 to 6 weeks) was accomplished in all our patients with a high frequency of compliance and a low rate of secondary effects.
- Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea and rhinorrhea in idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients. [Journal Article]
- J Neuroophthalmol 2013 Jun; 33(2):113-6.
: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage may occur in patients with normal or increased intracranial pressure (ICP). We describe herein spontaneous CSF leakage as a result of chronic increased ICP in 4 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Although rhinorrhea previously has been described in IIH patients, to our knowledge this is the first report of otorrhea in these patients.: Four patients with spontaneous CSF leakage were examined between 2001 and 2011; 3 presented with rhinorrhea and 1 with otorrhea. Clinical settings and manifestations were analyzed.: All patients were found to have IIH. Three had been diagnosed with IIH several years earlier and had been noncompliant with their medical treatment, whereas in 1 patient, CSF rhinorrhea was the presenting symptom of IIH.: CSF leak is a rare complication in IIH patients. We have shown that rhinorrhea can be the presenting sign in these patients and that rhinorrhea and otorrhea can be a late sign of the disease.
- Recruitment of CCR6-expressing Th17 cells by CCL20 secreted from plasmin-stimulated macrophages. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2013 May 16.
In the present study, monocyte-derived human macrophages were differentiated from buffy coats. Naïve CD4(+) T-cells enriched from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using anti-CD4 magnetic beads and the autoMACS separation system were polarized under T-helper 17 (Th17)-promoting conditions for 6 days to get Th17 cells. The frequency of Th17 cell differentiation and the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) on Th17 cells were investigated by flow cytometry. Plasmin-triggered induction of macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/C-C chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) genes in macrophages was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and secreted protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Th17 cell migration induced by CCL20 secreted from plasmin-stimulated macrophages was tested in vitro by chemotaxis using a transwell system. These results demonstrate that plasmin triggers the expression of chemokine CCL20 messenger RNA and the release of CCL20 protein in human monocyte-derived macrophages, which critically depend on the proteolytic activity of plasmin and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways. Expression of CCR6 was detected on 87.23 ± 8.6% of Th17 cells in vitro. Similar to chemotaxis triggered by recombinant human CCL20, supernatants collected from plasmin-stimulated macrophage-induced chemotactic migration of Th17 cells, which could be inhibited by an anti-CCL20 neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that plasmin generated in inflamed tissues might elicit production of chemokine CCL20 by human macrophages leading to the recruitment of CCR6 positive Th17 cells to the inflammatory sites.
- Validation of the fully automated A&D TM-2656 blood pressure monitor according to the British Hypertension Society Protocol. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood Press Monit 2013 May 15.