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Huntingtonâs Disease [keywords]
- Assessing the Global Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease: Part 1: Methods for a Systematic Review of the Global Epidemiology of Ischemic Heart Disease in 1990 and 2010. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Glob Heart 2012 Dec 1; 7(4):315-329.
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study (GBD 2010 Study) conducted a systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature from 1980 to 2008 to inform estimates of the burden on IHD in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010.The disease model of IHD for the GBD 2010 Study included IHD death and 3 sequelae: myocardial infarction, heart failure, and angina pectoris. Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched for IHD epidemiology studies in GBD high-income and low- and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008 using a systematic protocol validated by regional IHD experts. Data from included studies were supplemented with unpublished data from selected high-quality surveillance and survey studies. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were incidence, prevalence, case fatality, and mortality.Literature searches yielded 40,205 unique papers, of which 1,801 met initial screening criteria. Upon detailed review of full text papers, 137 published studies were included. Unpublished data were obtained from 24 additional studies. Data were sufficient for high-income regions, but missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa.A systematic review for the GBD 2010 Study provided IHD epidemiology estimates for most world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IHD will require improved IHD surveillance programs in all world regions.
- Neuromodulation for cephalgias. [Journal Article]
- Surg Neurol Int 2013; 4(Suppl 3):S136-50.
Headaches (cephalgias) are a common reason for patients to seek medical care. There are groups of patients with recurrent headache and craniofacial pain presenting with malignant course of their disease that becomes refractory to pharmacotherapy and other medical management options. Neuromodulation can be a viable treatment modality for at least some of these patients. We review the available evidence related to the use of neuromodulation modalities for the treatment of medically refractory craniofacial pain of different nosology based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2(nd) edition (ICHD-II) classification. This article also reviews the scientific rationale of neuromodulation application in management of cephalgias.
- Five different types of framing effects in medical situation: a preliminary exploration. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):161-5.
Considerable reports concerned the framing effect in medical situations. But quite few of them noticed to explore the differences among the various kinds of framing effects.In the present study, five different types of framing effects were examined and the effect sizes of them were compared.Medical decision making problems concerning medicine effect evaluation, patient's compliance, treatment and doctor options selection were established. All the problems were described in both positive and negative frames. 500 undergraduates as participants were randomly divided into ten groups. Participants from each group were asked to finish one decision making task.ALL THE FRAMES THAT WERE EXAMINED LEADED TO SIGNIFICANT FRAMING EFFECTS: When the Asia Disease Problem was described in a positive frame, the participants preferred the conservative frame than the risky one, while if in a negative frame, the preference reversed (P < 0.01). If the drug effect was described as "of 100 patients taking this kind of medicine, 70 patients became better", people tended to make more positive evaluations, compared with described as "of 100 patients taking this kind of medicine, 30 patients didn't become better" (P < 0.01). Doctors' advices were respectively described in a baneful or beneficial frame and the former one resulted in a better compliance (P < 0.05). If treatment options were described with a survival rate, people tended to choose risky option, while if described with a mortality rate, people tended to choose conservative option (P < 0.05). The number sized framing effect was also tested to be significant (P < 0.01). The five types of framing effects were small to big in effect size.Medical decision making can be affected by frame descriptions. Attentions should be paid on the standardization of description in medical practice.
- Fixed Cut-Off for FEV1/FEV6 and FEV6 in Detection of Obstructive and Restrictive Patterns. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):152-6.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) have been defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as irreversible conditions which are diagnosed by fixed cut-off points of FEV1/FVC.The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off points for FEV1/FEV6 ratio and FEV6 as alternatives for FEV1/FVC and FVC in detection of airway obstruction and lung restriction, respectively.A total of 318 Spiro metric examinations of subjects referred to Shariati hospital were analyzed. A subject was considered to have obstruction if FEV1/FVC was lower than 70%. The restriction was defined as FVC < 80% in the absence of obstruction. The Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FEV1/FEV6 and FEV6 were calculated.This study shows that the current cut-off points used to detect obstruction and restriction can be replaced by FEV1/FEV6 < 71% and FEV6 < 83%, respectively. FEV1/FEV6 had sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 99.4%; the PPV and NPVs were 99.3% and 96.3%. The prevalence of obstruction was 49.4%. For restrictive pattern, FEV6 had sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 79.5% with PPV of 18% and NPV of 99.5%. The prevalence of restriction was 6.3%.The FEV1/FEV6 ratio can be used as a valid surrogate for FEV1/FVC in the diagnosis of airway obstruction, especially for screening purposes in high-risk populations for COPD. Moreover, FEV6 is an acceptable alternative for FVC in detection of restrictive pattern.
- FISH Analysis for del6q21 and del17p13 in B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Iranians. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):107-12.
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world. Major progress has been made in assessing typical chromosomal abnormalities and recognition of the correlation of these chromosomal abnormalities with laboratory features and clinical course of the disease. The most frequent genomic changes are deletions at 13q14, 11q22-23 and 17p13 and trisomy of chromosome 12.The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in B-CLL patients' peripheral blood and/or bone marrow using a molecular cytogenetic method, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) and to evaluate the correlation between these genomic changes and clinical findings.I-FISH analyses were performed on bone marrow and blood samples of 66 B-CLL patients.Deletion of 17p13 was found in 11 (16.6%) and deletion 6q21 was present in 5 (7.5%). Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the correlation of these molecular-cytogenetic findings with family history, Rai staging and CD38 marker. No clear differences in distribution was noted for del17p13 and del6q21 among patients with and without family history, and no direct correlation was noted between these genomic changes and CD38 marker, but the correlation of del17p13 and Rai stage was significant. There was a high frequency of Rai stage II within del17p13 patients.It was demonstrated that the presence of del6q21 in B-CLL patients indicates poor prognosis and on the contrary, presence of del17p13 points at the good prognostic value of the disease.
- Twenty years of experience on stem cell transplantation in iran. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):93-100.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a new window to therapy of many diseases. From March 1991 through April 2011, a total of 3237 HSCT were performed in the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Here we report 20 years experience of HSCT.Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Cord Blood Bank (ICBB) and development of the first Iranian Stem Cell Donor Program (ISCDP), and improvement the researches in new therapeutic fields.Totally, 3237 patients were undergone HSCT. Of these transplants, 2205 were allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 1016 autologous and 16 syngeneic. Among 2205 patients who were undergone allogenic-HSCT, 34 received cord blood stem cells as stem cell source for transplantation. It is important to point out that cord blood bank at our center provides reliable storage of cord blood stem cells for our patients. Stem cell transplantation was performed for treatment of various diseases such as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, beta-thalassemia major, sickle- cell thalassemia, sickle- cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. Also, we had 220 cellular therapies for post-myocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, Diabetes Mellitus and GvHD treatment. 45 patients were undergone retransplantation in this center.About 78.2% of the patients (2530 of 3237) remained alive between one to 211 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly, 21.8% (707) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The main causes of death were relapse, infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft-versus- host disease and etc.In Iran, HSCT has been successfully adapted in routine clinical care. Recently, new methods such as double cord blood and haploidentical transplantation have been used to treat many life-threatening diseases.
- Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials: New insights on Cardiovascular Disease from Additional Years of Follow up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 2013 Jun 1; 7(3):196-202.
Debate and controversy surrounding the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease has continued in the decade since the cessation of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy interventions. As a result, many women and their physicians have been reluctant to turn to MHT for relief of vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. However, several follow-up studies of WHI participants provide additional insight into clinical characteristics of women who are more likely to have favorable outcomes and lower rates of adverse events associated with MHT. This report focuses on those studies that identify characteristics and biomarkers helpful in stratifying risk for an individual. Incorporation of these factors into a benefit:risk model could assist in patient-oriented decision making regarding use of MHT. Personalizing treatment offers the potential to minimize risk and improve health outcomes.
- Optimal management of patients receiving cabazitaxel-based chemotherapy. [Journal Article]
- Can Urol Assoc J 2013 Jan; 7(2 Suppl 1):S18-24.
The emergence of chemotherapy as a survival-improving treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has focused attention on the need for effective prevention and management of side effects. The most recent chemotherapeutic agent in this setting is cabazitaxel, licensed for use when the disease progresses on or after docetaxel-based treatment. Experience with cabazitaxel shows that, as with docetaxel, its side effects are largely predictable and manageable using methods that are already well-known to oncology teams. Patient education, clear instructions for when and how patients should seek advice, and properly implemented local policies on side effect management are essential to optimal patient care.
- Post-docetaxel options for further survival benefit in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Questions of choice. [Journal Article]
- Can Urol Assoc J 2013 Jan; 7(2 Suppl 1):S11-7.
There are currently two medical treatments approved in Canada that offer survival benefits for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progresses on or after docetaxel-based chemotherapy, and evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of further interventions in this setting. The current and emerging strategies are based on a variety of mechanisms (cytotoxicity, hormonal inhibition, radiopharmacy and immunotherapy) and there is nothing to suggest that patients will be unable to benefit from several or even all of these agents when used sequentially. Given the possibility of multiple lines of treatment for patients whose disease progresses on or after docetaxel, the challenge for clinicians will be to determine the optimum treatment pathway for each individual. That challenge is already being faced, albeit on a limited scale, now that both cabazitaxel (chemotherapy) and abiraterone (hormonal agent) are available for use post-docetaxel.
- Improving learning about familial risks using a multicomponent approach: the GRACE program. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Per Med 2013 Jan 1; 10(1):35-44.
To enhance learning (knowledge, attitudes and practices) about the importance of family health history (FHH) information and familial risks.A pre-post design with one group was employed in this study. Five learning sessions were conducted with a community-based sample (n = 75) recruited from five counties in Texas, USA. Each learning session included: a short online video; enactive instructions on how to use the online Surgeon General FHH tool; and a presentation on how to assess familial risks. Participants completed the pre-post knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaires and the study's satisfaction survey, and participated in a short focus group interview.Participants' average age was 48.1 ± 13.3 years. Over half of the participants (79%) were female, and 55% described themselves as non-Hispanic White. Our findings showed significant changes (p < 0.05) in participants' specific knowledge about factors that affect their familial risks. Similarly, significant changes (p < 0.05) in participants' attitudes toward familial risks assessment for common disease complications and confidence in controlling these risks have been documented. Participants' reported a high level of satisfaction in using online FHH tools, yet no significant change (p > 0.05) was detected in their reported practices regarding sharing FHH information with their providers or relatives. Focus group interviews revealed that participants were uncertain about providers' or relatives' reactions to sharing FHH information.Using different learning styles may have a significant impact on improving knowledge and attitudes about familial risks.