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- Therapeutic effects of total alkaloids of Fructus Hordei Germinatus in hyperprolactinemis rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pak J Pharm Sci 2014 Nov; 27(6 Suppl):2087-2093.
Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. However, its active composition of curing hyperprolactinemia remains unclear. This study investigates the activity of total alkaloids of F. H. Germinatus (AFH) in hyperprolactinemia rats. High-dose, middle-dose and low-dose AFH were administered into the stomach of hyperprolactinemia rats for 30 days. It revealed that high-dose AFH had obvious curative effect in treating hyperprolactinemia. It could regulate serum E2, P, PRL, FSH, LH levels to normal, decrease the pituitary prolactin positive cell number, mRNA expression level and inhibit the hyperplasia of mammary gland in hyperprolactinemia model rats effectively. The F. H. Germinatus contained total alkaloids 42. 74±0. 08mg hordenine equivalent (HE)/g the sample using acid dye colorimetry method. F. H. Germinatus should be developed as an anti-hyperprolactinemia product deeply.
- Hyperprolactinaemia: A cause of severe postoperative complication after reduction mammaplasty. [Journal Article]
- J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2014 Dec; 48(6):421-2.
Abstract Galactorrhoea is a rare complication of wound healing after breast reduction and its association with necrosis of the areolar skin in women with no recent history of breast feeding has to our knowledge never been described. Galactorrhoea is common and there are many differential diagnoses. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral reductions of the breast and developed hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea six weeks postoperatively. Subsequently she developed dry necrosis of both areolas. All radiographic and laboratory findings were within the reference ranges except for of prolactin.
- Risk factors of systemic lupus erythematosus flares during pregnancy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Immunol Res 2014 Nov 13.
This review examines the risk factors for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flares during pregnancy. In preconception, anti-DNA, hypocomplementemia, previous thrombosis, triple antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody positivity, active lupus nephritis and discontinuation of medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azathioprine are factors associated with pregnancy failure. During pregnancy, SLE flares are associated with aPL antibodies, synergic changes of pregnancy on Th1 and TH2 cytokines, other cytokines and chemokines that interact with hormones such as estrogen and prolactin that amplify the inflammatory effect. From the clinical point of view, SLE activity at pregnancy onset, thrombocytopenia, lupus nephritis, arterial hypertension, aPL syndromes, preeclampsia is associated with lupus flares and fetal complications. In puerperium, the risk factors of flares are similar to pregnancy. Hyperactivity of immune system, autoantibodies, hyperprolactinemia, active lupus nephritis, decrease in TH2 cytokines with increase in TH1 cytokines probably participate in SLE flare. The SLE flares during pregnancy make the difference between an uncomplicated pregnancy and pregnancy with maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors leads the best treatment strategies to reduce flares and fetal complications in SLE patients.
- Hyperprolactinemia due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosurg 2014 Nov 7.:1-6.
OBJECT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an increasingly recognized cause of headaches. Pituitary enlargement and brain sagging are common findings on MRI in patients with this disorder. The authors therefore investigated pituitary function in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. METHODS Pituitary hormones were measured in a group of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. For patients with hyperprolactinemia, prolactin levels also were measured following treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed prior to and following treatment. RESULTS The study group consisted of 27 women and 15 men with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 52.2 ± 10.7 years (mean ± SD; range 17-72 years). Hyperprolactinemia was detected in 10 patients (24%), ranging from 16 ng/ml to 96.6 ng/ml in men (normal range 3-14.7 ng/ml) and from 31.3 ng/ml to 102.5 ng/ml in women (normal range 3.8-23.2 ng/ml). In a multivariate analysis, only brain sagging on MRI was associated with hyperprolactinemia. Brain sagging was present in 60% of patients with hyperprolactinemia and in 19% of patients with normal prolactin levels (p = 0.02). Following successful treatment of the spontaneous intracranial hypotension, hyperprolactinemia resolved, along with normalization of brain MRI findings in all 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a previously undescribed cause of hyperprolactinemia. Brain sagging causing distortion of the pituitary stalk (stalk effect) may be responsible for the hyperprolactinemia.
- Serial 3 T magnetic resonance imaging during cabergoline treatment of macroprolactinomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurol Res 2014 Nov 7.:1743132814Y0000000457.
Objective: Cabergoline is the treatment of choice for prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary adenomas, because of its efficacy in normalizing PRL levels, and inducing tumor shrinkage. The clinical use of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for neuroimaging has rapidly expanded in recent years. In particular, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) provides high anatomical and contrast resolution. Patients and methods: In this study, serial 3 T MRI with T2WI was utilized during cabergoline treatment of 10 patients with macroprolactinomas. Cabergoline was started at a standard weekly dosage and incrementally adjusted on individual posttreatment PRL values. Results: MRI confirmed tumor shrinkage in all patients during cabergoline treatment. Cabergoline normalized hyperprolactinemia in all but one patient. In six of 10 patients, distinct low-signal-intensity areas were evident throughout the adenomas on T2WI. In four of those six patients, massive low-signal-intensity areas appeared at 1-4 months, after which tumors decreased in size by over 80%. These findings in the early phase of prolactinoma treatment predicted pronounced regression or near-complete disappearance of the tumor. Reduction of T2 intensity possibly reflected dehydration due to diffuse hemorrhage in the adenomas. Conclusion: T2-weighted 3 T MR images are valuable for assessing and monitoring cabergoline treatment of macroprolactinomas.
- Treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose subgroup analysis of patients treated with extended-release quetiapine fumarate or risperidone. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2014 Oct 29.
The present analysis assessed the efficacy of extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) versus risperidone in patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score≥20 and a HAM-D item 1 score≥2]. This was a subanalysis of patients with schizophrenia from a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study (NCT00640562) that also enrolled patients with schizoaffective disorder. The primary endpoint of this noninferiority study was change from baseline to week 12 in Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score (per protocol population). Overall, 114 patients received quetiapine XR (n=60; 400-800 mg/day) or risperidone (n=54; 4-6 mg/day). Change in Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score was greater for quetiapine XR than for risperidone [least squares means: -7.2 vs. -4.8; treatment difference 2.4 (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.6; P<0.05)]. Adverse events (≥3%) among patients receiving quetiapine XR were sedation, somnolence, and dry mouth, and among those receiving risperidone were anxiety, insomnia, asthenia, hyperprolactinemia, and somnolence. Abnormally high prolactin levels were reported for 57.6 and 8.1% of patients receiving risperidone and quetiapine XR, respectively. Quetiapine XR was superior to risperidone at reducing depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
- IGSF1 variants in boys with familial delayed puberty. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pediatr 2014 Oct 30.
The immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene encodes a plasma membrane glycoprotein mainly expressed in pituitary and testes. Loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism (CeH), macroorchidism, and delayed puberty (delayed rise of testosterone, but normal timing of testicular growth). As this syndrome was discovered in patients with CeH, it is unknown whether IGSF1 mutations might also cause delayed puberty without CeH. We therefore determined the prevalence of IGSF1 sequence variants in 30 patients with an apparent X-linked form of constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). In four families, we discovered three novel variants of unknown clinical significance (VUCSs), with possible pathogenicity predicted by in silico analysis. However, the genotype did not fully cosegregate with CDGP, all three VUCSs showed normal plasma membrane expression in transfected HEK293 cells, and no other features of the IGSF1 deficiency syndrome were observed in family members carrying the VUCSs. The observation of hyperprolactinemia in two carriers remains unexplained. Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the three observed VUCSs in IGSF1 are associated with CDGP, making it unlikely that IGSF1 mutations are a prevalent cause of CDGP.
- Prolactin and Natural Killer Cells: Evaluating the Neuroendocrine-immune Axis in Women with Primary Infertility and Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Reprod Immunol 2014 Oct 24.
An association between serum prolactin (PRL) and peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells has been described in healthy women. We explored for the first time the PRL response to the thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) test and the association between PRL and NK cells in women with reproductive failure.A total of 130 women [31 primary infertility, 69 recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and 30 fertile women] were evaluated by a TRH test to analyze the following: basal PRL (bPRL), peak-time PRL, PRL absolute and relative increase, decline-time PRL. Hyperprolactinaemia (HPRL) was defined as bPRL ≥15 ng/mL. NK cells were characterized by immunophenotyping.Significantly higher bPRL levels were found in the infertile women than in controls. Both the infertile and the RSA women showed significantly elevated NK levels. bPRL levels correlated with NK cells in HPRL-infertile women.In patients with HPRL, an association between NK cell and bPRL results. The dynamic test in the infertile women would help in the management of the pregnancy impairment.
- [Secondary hypogonadism after traumatic brain injury: a case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Przegl Lek 2014; 71(6):352-4.
In the light of the recent studies it seems that traumatic brain injury-induced pituitary hormones deficiency occurs much more frequently than previously thought. Anterior pituitary hormone dysfunction may be an important feature of long-term morbidity in survivors of traumatic brain injury. The most common alterations appear to be somatotropin and gonadotropin deficiency, followed by corticotropin and thyrotropin deficiency. Clinical signs of hypopituitarism are, however, often subtle and may be masked by sequalae of traumatic brain injury, causing that the partial or complete insufficiency of anterior pituitary secretion may be underrecognized. Patients suffering from this condition may benefit from appropriate hormone replacement therapy. The authors report a case of a young male patient who developed hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia several months after an accident. This case illustrates the need for clinical awareness of pituitary dysfunction in patients after traumatic brain injury.
- Integral indicator of oxidative stress in human blood. [Journal Article]
- Bull Exp Biol Med 2014 Oct; 157(6):715-7.
Here we performed individual evaluation of the oxidative stress index that serves as an integral criterion for the balance of LPO-antioxidant defense system in women with endocrine pathology (type 1 diabetes mellitus and infertility with hyperprolactinemia). The state of the LPO-antioxidant defense system was estimated from blood levels of LPO substrates with conjugated double bonds, conjugated dienes, ketodienes, conjugated trienes, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, retinol, α-tocopherol, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and SOD activity. The use of this oxidative stress index allowed us to diagnose oxidative stress in female patients with endocrine pathology.