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- Iminodibenzyl class antipsychotics for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of carpipramine, clocapramine, and mosapramine. [Journal Article]
- Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014.:2339-51.
We conducted a meta-analysis of the iminodibenzyl antipsychotics carpipramine, clocapramine, and mosapramine, which are classified as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for schizophrenia treatment.We searched data that had been published in PubMed, the Cochrane Library databases, PsycINFO, CiNii, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society up to August 29, 2014. Randomized controlled trials that compared iminodibenzyl antipsychotics with other antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia were included. Odds ratios and standardized mean differences were evaluated.We included four randomized controlled trials on carpipramine (number of patients [n]=290), six on clocapramine (n=1,048), and five on mosapramine (n=986) in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences in the response rates or in the discontinuation rates either between carpipramine and the other pooled antipsychotics or between clocapramine and the other pooled antipsychotics. On the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, mosapramine's positive subscale scores were superior to those of the other pooled antipsychotics (standard mean of difference =-0.22); however, on that same scale, there were no significant differences in total scores, negative scores, general subscale scores, response rates, or the discontinuation rates between mosapramine and the other pooled antipsychotics. Furthermore, the incidences of extrapyramidal symptoms and of hyperprolactinemia were significantly greater with mosapramine than with the other pooled antipsychotics.The pharmacological profiles of carpipramine and clocapramine, which are classified as SGAs, were similar to those of first-generation antipsychotics because there were no significant differences in efficacy and safety outcomes. However, mosapramine was associated with a greater risk of extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia than the other SGAs were, although it may be beneficial for the improvement of positive symptoms.
- Sex-specific factors for bone density in patients with schizophrenia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2014 Dec 17.
Patients with schizophrenia are susceptible to low bone mineral density (BMD). Many risk factors have been suggested. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. In addition, the study of bone density in men is neglected more often than that in women. This study aims to examine specific risk factors of low BMD in different sexes. Men (n=80) and women (n=115) with schizophrenia, similar in demographic and clinical characteristics, were enrolled in three centers. Clinical and laboratory variables (including blood levels of prolactin, sex and thyroid hormones, cortisol, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase) were collected. BMD was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer. Men had lower BMD than women. Predictors for BMD in men included hyperprolactinemia (B=-0.821, P=0.009), body weight (B=0.024, P=0.046), and Global Assessment of Functioning score (B=0.027, P=0.043); in women, BMD was associated with menopause (B=-1.070, P<0.001), body weight (B=0.027, P=0.003), and positive symptoms (B=0.094, P<0.001). In terms of the effect of psychotic symptoms, positive symptoms were related positively to BMD in women, but not in men. The findings suggest that sex-specific risk factors should be considered for an individualized intervention of bone loss in patients with schizophrenia. Physicians should pay particular attention to bone density in men with hyperprolactinemia and postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies in other populations are warranted to confirm these findings.
- Emotionally induced galactorrhoea in a non-lactating female -"Pseudo- Lactation"? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Endocr Disord 2014 Dec 17; 14(1):98.
Bacground: Galactorrhoea is a common clinical problem in endocrinology. Visual and auditory cues from the newborn are known to stimulate prolactin secretion in lactating women. However, hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea in a non-lactating female due to visual and auditory stimuli from an unrelated newborn has not been reported in the past. We report the first such case of 'pseudo-lactation'.An 18-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with galactorrhoea. Apparently Galactorrhoea was preceded seeing the baby, hearing her cries or when remembering her memories. Her menstrual cycles were normal and did not complain of any headache or visual disturbances. She was only on metformin and insulin. Symptoms have rapidly resolved after the newborn was shifted to another location. Examination revealed scanty nipple discharge with gentle pressure. Investigations revealed an elevated serum prolactin of 62.5 ng/mL (2717.4 pmol/L) and fasting plasma glucose of 142 mg/dL (7.9 mmol/L) and HbA1c of 7.6%. Her thyroid function was normal and MRI at the time of galactorrhoea was not available. At 3 months prolactin was normal and MRI revealed only a slight asymmetry of the pituitary without evidence of microadenoma.The strong temporal relationship between her symptoms and emotional attachment to the newborn with exclusion of other causes on clinical, biochemical and radiological evidence, raises the possibility that transient hyperprolactinaemia was due to a transient lactotroph hyperplasia and hyper function which had been triggered by the stimulatory cues from the newborn. Emotionally induced "pseudo lactation" may be a rare but important cause for transient hyperprolactinaemia in a non-lactating female.
- "First do no harm." A systematic review of the prevalence and management of antipsychotic adverse effects. [REVIEW]
- J Psychopharmacol 2014 Dec 16.
We aim to identify the prevalence and management strategies of nine clinically important categories of antipsychotic adverse effects, namely: extrapyramidal symptoms; sedation; weight gain; type II diabetes; hyperprolactinaemia; metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular effects.Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are common, with a potential negative impact on adherence and engagement. Despite this, the scientific study of the prevalence or management of adverse antipsychotic effects is a neglected area.A systematic review was undertaken using pre-defined search criteria and three databases, with hand searching of citations and references. Inclusion was agreed on by two independent researchers after review of abstracts or full text. Quality analysis of included studies was conducted using pre-agreed criteria.In total, 53 studies met inclusion criteria, revealing the following: (1) antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with increased frequency of adverse effects, and (2) a longer duration of treatment is associated with greater severity (e.g. higher BMI); (3) clozapine was more strongly associated with metabolic disturbance than other antipsychotics in three studies and olanzapine was associated with the most weight gain in three studies; (4) hyperprolactinaemia was more common in women than men, but 50% men noted sexual dysfunction versus 25-50% in women; (5) despite clinical guideline recommendations there is a low rate of baseline testing for lipids and glucose; and (6) seven studies described adverse effect management strategies, but only two examined their efficacy - one found a significant reduction in weight with non-pharmacological group therapy and the other found a significant reduction in dyslipidaemia with statins.Antipsychotic adverse effects are diverse and frequently experienced, but are not often systematically assessed. There is a need for further scientific study concerning the management of these side effects.
- Prolactin variations during risperidone therapy in a sample of drug-naive children and adolescents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2014 Dec 15.
The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate the variations of serum prolactin hormone (PRL) in a sample of 34 drug-naive patients (mean age 13 years) who started risperidone therapy assuming that several factors may favor the increase in serum PRL. Serum PRL and hyperprolactinemia clinical signs were examined at baseline (T0) and after almost 3 months of treatment (T1). We considered sex, pubertal status, risperidone dosage, psychiatric diagnosis, and any personal/family history of autoimmune diseases. The mean serum PRL value increased between T0 and T1 (P=0.004). The mean serum PRL was higher in females in the pubertal/postpubertal stage and for risperidone dosage up 1 mg/day. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 20% of patients at T0 and in 38% of patients at T1 (P=0.03). The mean serum PRL increase was greater in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients compared with no-early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients (P=0.04). The increase in PRL was higher in patients with a personal and a family history of autoimmune diseases. This study suggests that the increase in serum PRL in patients treated with risperidone may be linked not only to the drug and its dosage but also to several risk factors such as sex, pubertal stage, psychiatric disease, and autoimmune disorders.
- Clinical experiences and success rates of acromegaly treatment: the single center results of 62 patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Endocr Disord 2014 Dec 16; 14(1):97.
This study aimed to report the clinical and outcome data from a large cohort of patients diagnosed with acromegaly and treated at our institution over a 20-year period.Sixty-two acromegaly patients (32 women and 30 men) treated and monitored at the endocrinology polyclinic between 1984 and 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical features and patients' treatment outcomes were evaluated. A level of growth hormone (GH) of <2.5 ng/ml was considered as the criterion for remission, and the normal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) range was based on gender and age. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 38.8 +/- 1.4 years, the time to diagnosis was 4.5 +/- 0.3 years, and the follow-up duration was 7.3 +/- 0.8 years.Among patients' symptoms, growth in hands and feet and typical facial dysmorphism were the most prominent (92%). The number of patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperprolactinemia were 22 (35%), 13 (21%) and 13 (21%), respectively. Microadenomas and macroadenomas were found in eight and 54 patients, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the initial tumor diameters and GH levels (p = 0.002). The mean GH and IGF-1 levels were 39.18 +/- 6.1 ng/ml and 993.5 +/- 79 ng/ml, respectively. Visual field defect was found in 16 patients (32%). Thirty-one patients were treated by transsphenoidal surgery. Four of these were cured, 10 patients developed postoperative anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, and one patient developed diabetes insipidus. Twenty patients were treated by transcranial surgery, of which two were cured, while 17 patients developed postoperative anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. In total, five of the patients who were not cured after surgery were given conventional radiotherapy, of which two were cured. Four of 15 patients, on whom Gamma Knife radiosurgery was performed, were cured. Biochemical remission was achieved in 32 of 52 patients who received octreotide treatment, and in two of five patients who received lanreotide treatment.The rate of surgical success in our patients was found to be low. This could be explained by an absence of experienced pituitary surgical centers or surgeons in our region, and the fact that most patients presented late at the macroadenoma stage.
- Retrospective Analysis of Cushing's Disease with or without Hyperprolactinemia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Endocrinol 2014.:919704.
Objective.We compared the characteristics of patients with Cushing's disease alone with those of patients with Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia. Methods. Eighty-four patients were enrolled between 2002 and 2011, in a hospital in China. Clinical, endocrinological, and histopathological data, MRI scans, and surgical outcomes were reviewed throughout the follow-up period.
Results.Patients with Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia had a younger age at diagnosis (30.28 ± 14.23 versus 36.08 ± 10.91 years; P = 0.037) and a larger adenoma maximal diameter (2.44 ± 1.32 versus 1.44 ± 1.05 cm; P < 0.001) than patients with Cushing's disease alone. Menstrual disorders (P = 0.027) and visual field defects (P = 0.021) were more common and progressive obesity (P = 0.009) and hypertension (P < 0.001) were less common in patients with Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia. The rate of normalization of hormonal levels was lower (41.7% versus 91.7%; P < 0.001) and the recurrence rate was higher (36.1% versus 8.3%; P < 0.001) in patients with Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia.
Conclusions.Careful long-term follow-up is needed of patients with Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia.
- Jasmine flower extract lowers prolactin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Trop Doct 2014 Dec 11.
Antipsychotic drugs frequently cause amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. Jasmine flowers used topically were as effective as oral Bromocriptine in suppressing puerperal lactation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal jasmine flower extract (JFE) to reduce prolactin levels of patients on stable doses of antipsychotic drugs.This is a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial. An aqueous-ethanol extract of jasmine flowers was prepared and used as nasal drops. A decrease in serum prolactin of ≥25 ng/mL was considered a significant response.Ten out of 35 women had a significant drop in the serum prolactin while on the JFE. The non-responders to JFE were on higher doses of antipsychotic drugs. The main side effect was a transient and mild burning sensation in the nose. A cost analysis favoured JFE over dopamine agonists.JFE contains a prolactin-lowering substance which needs further characterisation.
- Multiple sclerosis and hyperprolactinemia: a case-control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Neurol Belg 2014 Dec 14.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of central nervous system which is characterized with demyelination. Prolactin, synthesized in the anterior pituitary cells, has a role in maturation of immune cells, suggesting its possible implication in autoreactivity. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of hyperprolactinemia in MS. Twenty-two MS patients with hyperprolactinemia diagnosed with pituitary adenoma and 66 MS patients without hyperprolactinemia were enrolled in our case-control study. They were matched with regard to age, gender, and MS subtypes. Patients with other concomitant autoimmune diseases and pregnancy were excluded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS (SPSS statistic package, version 21.0.0) statistical software. The Pearson Chi-square test and the t test were used to determine whether there were any significant differences. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Greater value of relapse rate among hyperprolactinemic MS patients in comparison to non-hyperprolactinemic MS patients was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of EDSS was observed (case group vs. control: 1.3 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). The correlation between MS duration and duration of hyperprolactinemia was significant in the case group (p < 0.05, R = 0.752). No statistically significant difference was found between two groups regarding duration of MS. This study suggested a protective role of prolactin in demyelinating procedure of MS.
- Current drug withdrawal strategy in prolactinoma patients treated with cabergoline: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2014 Dec 12.
Cabergoline is a recommended first-line dopamine agonist for prolactinoma treatment, which is withdrawable for some cases. However, the optimal withdrawal strategy and the accurate recurrence rate associated with cabergoline withdrawal remains uncertain.To assess the current recurrence rate of hyperprolactinemia and possible favorable factors associated with cabergoline withdrawal in prolactinoma patients.The databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched up to May 2014 to identify studies containing data of recurrent hyperprolactinemia in prolactinoma patients after cabergoline withdrawal. Meta-analysis, including sensitivity analysis, meta-regression analysis, and subgroup analysis were performed.When the patients who received cabergoline withdrawal were pooled, it was found that the hyperprolactinemia recurrence rate was 65 % by a random effects meta-analysis [95 % confidence interval 55-74 %]. In a random effects meta-regression adjusting for optimal withdrawal strategies, CAB dose reduced to the lowest level before withdrawal was associated with treatment success (p = 0.006), whereas CAB treatment longer than 2 years showed no trend of effect (p = 0.587). Patients who received the lowest CAB dose and presented a significant reduction in tumor size before withdrawal were more likely to achieve the best success (p < 0.001).Our meta-analysis shows that hyperprolactinemia recurs after cabergoline withdrawal in a majority of patients. The probability of success favors patients who have achieved normoprolactinemia and considerable reduction in tumor size by low dose of cabergoline treatment. In addition, our study further suggests that a beneficial strategy is associated with tapering CAB dose before withdrawal but not with CAB treatment duration longer than 2 years.