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- Osteoporosis associated with antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Endocrinol 2013.:167138.
Schizophrenia is one of the most common global mental diseases, with prevalence of 1%. Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis, than the normal. In comparison with the metabolic syndrome, for instance, there are little reports about osteoporosis which occurs secondary to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. There are extensive recent works of literature indicating that osteoporosis is associated with schizophrenia particularly in patients under psychotropic medication therapy. As osteoporotic fractures cause significantly increased morbidity and mortality, it is quite necessary to raise the awareness and understanding of the impact of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia on physical health in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will review the relationship between schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, hyperprolactinaemia, and osteoporosis.
- Macroprolactinemia in women with hyperprolactinemia: a 10-year follow-up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2013 May 20; 34(3):207-211.
OBJECTIVES:To determine the frequency of macroprolactinemia in a cohort of hyperprolactinemic women, describing 1) the association of macroprolactinemia with clinical variables and morphological changes in the pituitary gland and 2) clinical status and prolactin levels after 10 years of follow-up.
DESIGN:Blood samples were obtained from 32 patients for hormonal assessment. Treatment with cabergoline or bromocriptine was interrupted 3 months before the determination of serum prolactin and macroprolactin. Macroprolactin was measured using the polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method. Computed tomography was performed in all patients.
RESULTS:The frequency of macroprolactinemia was 28.1%. In 19 patients prolactin remained elevated (persistent hyperprolactinemia). In 13, prolactin returned to normal (former hyperprolactinemia). Nine patients with PEG recovery between 40 and 50%, and the only two macroprolactinemic patients with previous hyperprolactinemia were excluded from the analysis of clinical outcomes. Only one of seven macroprolactinemic patients had an abnormal pituitary image (empty sella). None had galactorrhea. MAIN
FINDINGS:Classic symptoms of hyperprolactinemia and abnormal imaging findings are not common in patients in whom macroprolactin is the predominant form of PRL.
CONCLUSIONS:Women with hyperprolactinemia, especially if asymptomatic, should be routinely screened for macroprolactinemia. Macroprolactinemia remains stable in the long term.
- Metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia effects on the pituitary and uterine prolactin receptor expression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013 May 14.
- Sexual dysfunction as a side effect of hyperprolactinemia in methadone maintenance therapy. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2013; 67(1):48-50.
Although endocrine abnormalities are recognized in opiate users, very little is known about the range of hormones affected, their pathophysiology and their clinical relevance. various endocrine abnormalities have been reported in these patients including, increased prolactin levels and abnormalities in sexual hormone. Path physiological mechanism postulated does explain these findings including direct action of heroin or methadone at the hypothalamic pituitary level. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of heroin and methadone maintenance treatment on the plasma prolactin levels and sexual function. Material and methods: We evaluated 20 male narcotic addicts maintained of methadone more than 3 years on oral high dose methadone 60-120 mgr/day. Patients taking neuroleptic therapy were excluded from the study because neuroleptic-included hyperprolactinemia. We also evaluated group of twenty male heroin addicts on the street heroin .The prolactin plasma levels were assayed using the chemiluminescent immunometric essay (CLIA)--high sensitive methods. The normal range of prolactin levels was 1,5-17 ng/ml (53-360 nmol/l) for men and 1,90-25,0 ng/ml for women. The sexual function was assessed using a Questionnaire: International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) with 15 items in four levels of sexual function. The differences between two examination groups were determined by a students t test. The results show that street heroin addicts (55% of them have high level of prolactin) have significantly higher plasma prolactin levels (p = 0.006) then the group of methadone maintenance patients (only 15% of them have high prolactin level). In our study, when we compared sexual dysfunction in examination groups in some domains, we did not find statistical significant results (sexual desire p = 0.52 and overall satisfaction p = 0.087). But in domains of erectile function p = 0.011 and orgasm function p = 0.033 we got statistical significant results.
- Correlation between hyperprolactinemia, MRI of hypophysis and clinical presentation in infertile patients. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2013; 67(1):22-4.
The aim of the study was to investigate symptoms of hyperprolactinemia such as oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and correlation between hyperprolactinemia and MRI of hypophysis in infertile women.During the 10 years period, we have studied 87 patients investigated for infertility causes and with hyperprolactinemia findings, in our patients we have controled the serum prolactin levels, performed MRI of hypophysis, evaluated menstrual cycle disturbances and galactorrhea. Patients were between 20-43 of age.MRI of hypophysis confirmed prolactinoma (microadenoma) in 75.86% of our patients, while 24.14% had a normal MRI. Galactorrhea was demonstrated in 56.32% of patients. Oligomenorrhoea occured in 25.29%, and secondary amenorrhea in 14.94% of patients with hyperprolactinemia and infertility. The results show statistically significant difference in the average findings of serum prolactin levels on the day 8 and 21 of menstrual cycle in patients with or without microadenoma.Menstrual cycle disturbancies (oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea) in patients with hyperprolactinemia and infertility occured in 40.33% of patients. We have noted statisctically significant correlation between the serum prolactin levels on the day 8 of menstrual cycle and the microadenoma size, which was not found on the 21 day of menstrual cycle.
- Endocrinology and physiology of pseudocyesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013 May 14; 11(1):39.
This literature review on pseudocyesis or false pregnancy aims to find epidemiological, psychiatric/psychologic, gynecological and endocrine traits associated with this condition in order to propose neuroendocrine/endocrine mechanisms leading to the emergence of pseudocyetic traits. Ten women from 5 selected studies were analyzed after applying stringent criteria to discriminate between cases of true pseudocyesis (pseudocyesis vera) versus delusional, simulated or erroneous pseudocyesis. The analysis of the reviewed studies evidenced that pseudocyesis shares many endocrine traits with both polycystic ovarian syndrome and major depressive disorder, although the endocrine traits are more akin to polycystic ovarian syndrome than to major depressive disorder. Data support the notion that pseudocyetic women may have increased sympathetic nervous system activity, dysfunction of central nervous system catecholaminergic pathways and decreased steroid feedback inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Although other neuroendocrine/endocrine pathways may be involved, the neuroendocrine/endocrine mechanisms proposed in this review may lead to the development of pseudocyetic traits including hypomenorrhea or amenorrhea, galactorrhea, diurnal and/or nocturnal hyperprolactinemia, abdominal distension and apparent fetal movements and labor pains at the expected date of delivery.
- A boy with prepubertal gynecomastia, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013; 26(3-4):357-60.
Abstract Non-physiologic prepubertal gynecomastia with an identifiable cause is an uncommon condition. Hyperprolactinemia due to hypothyroidism is known to result in gynecomastia in adults, but this observation has not been reported in children. We discuss here a boy who developed gynecomastia after the first year of age and was later diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism.
- Hypothalamitis: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pituitary 2013 May 3.
To report an unusual case of biopsy-proven autoimmune hypophysitis with predominant hypothalamic involvement associated with empty sella, panhypopituitarism, visual disturbances and antipituitary antibodies positivity. We present the history, physical findings, hormonal assay results, imaging, surgical findings and pathology at presentation, together with a 2-year follow-up. A literature review on the hypothalamic involvement of autoimmune hypophysitis with empty sella was performed. A 48-year-old woman presented with polyuria, polydipsia, asthenia, diarrhea and vomiting. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a clear suprasellar (hypothalamic) mass, while the pituitary gland appeared atrophic. Hormonal testing showed panhypopituitarism and hyperprolactinemia; visual field examination was normal. Pituitary serum antibodies were positive. Two months later an MRI documented a mild increase of the lesion. The patient underwent biopsy of the lesion via a transsphenoidal approach. Histological diagnosis was lymphocytic "hypothalamitis". Despite 6 months of corticosteroid therapy, the patient developed bitemporal hemianopia and blurred vision, without radiological evidence of chiasm compression, suggesting autoimmune optic neuritis with uveitis. Immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine was then instituted. Two months later, an MRI documented a striking reduction of the hypothalamic lesion and visual field examination showed a significant improvement. The lesion is stable at the 2-year follow-up. For the first time we demonstrated that "hypothalamitis" might be the possible evolution of an autoimmune hypophysitis, resulting in pituitary atrophy, secondary empty sella and panhypopituitarism. Although steroid treatment is advisable as a first line therapy, immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine might be necessary to achieve disease control.
- Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Endocrine Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Semin Thromb Hemost 2013 Apr 30.
Endocrine diseases have been associated with cardiovascular events. Both altered coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and thrombotic disorders have been described in several endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the evidence on the influence of thyroid diseases, cortisol excess and deficiency, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, hyperprolactinemia, and growth hormone excess and deficiency; on parameters of hemostasis; and on arterial and venous thrombotic events. All these endocrine diseases do have, or may have, influence either on hemostasis or on the risk of thrombotic events. Future studies are needed to establish the clinical relevance of these associations.
- Hyperprolactinemia is not associated with hyperestrogenism in noncycling African elephants (Loxodonta africana). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013 Apr 24.:7-14.
African elephants in US zoos are not reproducing at replacement levels. This is in part due to physiological problems, one of which is abnormal ovarian cyclicity that has been linked to increased prolactin secretion (hyperprolactinemia). A relationship between increased estrogen production (hyperestrogenism) and hyperprolactinemia has been found in other species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if elevated prolactin was associated with increased estrogen concentrations in non-cycling African elephants. In cycling elephants (n=12), prolactin secretion followed a normal cyclic pattern, with higher concentrations observed during the follicular phase; overall mean concentration was ∼18ng/ml and baseline prolactin was ∼6ng/ml. Non-cycling females (n=18) were categorized into three groups: (1) low prolactin (<15ng/ml; n=3); (2) moderate hyperprolactinemia (16-30ng/ml; n=7); and marked hyperprolactinemia (>31ng/ml; n=8). Mean urinary estrogen conjugate concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 41.4ng/mg Crt, and were similar between normal cycling (15.4±1.5ng/mg Crt) and non-cycling, low prolactin elephants (18.4±7.3ng/mg Crt), but were lower in moderate (9.4±1.3ng/mg Crt) and marked hyperprolactinemic (9.8±1.1ng/mg Crt) groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, African elephants appear to be sensitive to alterations in prolactin production, with both low (e.g., a non-cycling pattern) and high prolactin secretion being associated with abnormal ovarian activity. However, hyperestrogenism was not related to hyperprolactinemia in the non-cycling females.