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Hyperuricemia, endogenous [keywords]
- Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS Comput Biol 2012; 8(10):e1002750.
Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.
- A perspective on diet and gout. [Journal Article, Review]
- Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2012 Nov; 19(6):392-7.
The epidemiology of gout has changed dramatically over the past century. Once thought of as a disease of the nobility, it is now an egalitarian disease that affects patients across the socioeconomic spectrum. The incidence of gout has also risen in recent years, to the point that we are now seeing what is regarded by some as a "second epidemic" of gout. This change coincides with a significant dietary shift for many Americans - in particular, the advent of high-fructose corn syrup as the most prominent sweetener in the modern American diet and what may be a related rise in obesity. Fructose is a powerful driver of ATP catabolism that, in turn, leads to the production of uric acid. The new epidemic of gout is likely secondary in significant part to the rise in fructose consumption, as well as to the increase in obesity, the endurance of other dietary and non-dietary gout risk factors such as consumption of meat and alcohol, the continued use of culprit medications and potentially to the under-recognition of the benefits of certain foods and drinks (such as dairy products and coffee). Though the exact reasons for the rise in gout are yet unproven, this reopens the opportunity for dietary control of hyperuricemia through restraints that curtail not only exogenous but also endogenous pathways of purine production.
- Metabolite target analysis of human urine combined with pattern recognition techniques for the study of symptomatic gout. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mol Biosyst 2012 Nov; 8(11):2956-63.
Recurrent attacks and irregularity are two important characteristics of gout disease. Uric acid as a single evaluation indicator for clinical diagnosis is insufficient considering the versatile properties of gout. The aim of this work is to identify several endogenous metabolites from urine samples for the elucidation and prediction of gout disease. Metabolite target analysis was established for human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The targeted metabolites selected included hippuric acid, uracil, phenylalanine, tryptophan, uric acid and creatinine as well as nine purine compounds. Useful information was extracted from multivariate data through Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and Orthogonal Signal Correction Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OSC-PLS-DA). Uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthosine, guanosine, inosine and tryptophan were identified as important metabolites among the acute and chronic gout and controls. Based on OSC-PLS-DA models, the regression equations obtained could discriminate gout from the controls as well as the acute from chronic. The recognition and prediction ability is respectively 100% and 85.0% for the gout, 100% and 83.3% for the acute, and 90.91% and 89.9% for the chronic. Metabolic dysfunction of tryptophan and excessive metabolism of xanthosine and hypoxanthine to xanthine were confirmed for gout disease. Metabolic dysfunction of tryptophan was also proven to be induced by allopurinol in case of Kunming mice with hyperuricemia. Potential biomarkers can be used not only to distinguish gout patients from healthy people, but also to evaluate the disease state.
- Extra-renal elimination of uric acid via intestinal efflux transporter BCRP/ABCG2. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2012; 7(2):e30456.
Urinary excretion accounts for two-thirds of total elimination of uric acid and the remainder is excreted in feces. However, the mechanism of extra-renal elimination is poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism and the extent of elimination of uric acid through liver and intestine using oxonate-treated rats and Caco-2 cells as a model of human intestinal epithelium. In oxonate-treated rats, significant amounts of externally administered and endogenous uric acid were recovered in the intestinal lumen, while biliary excretion was minimal. Accordingly, direct intestinal secretion was thought to be a substantial contributor to extra-renal elimination of uric acid. Since human efflux transporter BCRP/ABCG2 accepts uric acid as a substrate and genetic polymorphism causing a decrease of BCRP activity is known to be associated with hyperuricemia and gout, the contribution of rBcrp to intestinal secretion was examined. rBcrp was confirmed to transport uric acid in a membrane vesicle study, and intestinal regional differences of expression of rBcrp mRNA were well correlated with uric acid secretory activity into the intestinal lumen. Bcrp1 knockout mice exhibited significantly decreased intestinal secretion and an increased plasma concentration of uric acid. Furthermore, a Bcrp inhibitor, elacridar, caused a decrease of intestinal secretion of uric acid. In Caco-2 cells, uric acid showed a polarized flux from the basolateral to apical side, and this flux was almost abolished in the presence of elacridar. These results demonstrate that BCRP contributes at least in part to the intestinal excretion of uric acid as extra-renal elimination pathway in humans and rats.
- Uric acid excretion in healthy subjects: a nomogram to assess the mechanisms underlying purine metabolic disorders. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Metabolism 2012 Apr; 61(4):512-8.
The reference range for urinary uric acid excretion has not been precisely defined. Different urinary variables have been proposed to determine the renal contribution to increased or decreased serum urate concentrations. We examined which urinary variable best indicates uric acid excretion over a wide range of serum urate concentrations. Purine metabolism was studied in 10 healthy male subjects (aged 26-58 years) both at their endogenous normal serum urate levels (normouricemic state) and after the oral administration of allopurinol (300 mg/24 h for 5 days) and ribonucleic acid (4 g/8 h for 4 days) to decrease (hypouricemic state) and increase (hyperuricemic state) serum urate concentrations, respectively. The results from patients with several conditions known to affect uric acid synthesis and/or the renal excretion of uric acid were used to validate a constructed nomogram. Over a wide range of mean serum urate levels (from 2.7 to 9.5 mg/dL) and mean 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion (171 to 1368 mg/[24 h 1.73 m(2)]), the highest correlation coefficient between serum urate and uric acid excretion was obtained for the 24-hour uric acid determination (r = 0.928; P < .001). The constructed nomogram allowed the definition of the mechanism underlying hyperuricemia and hypouricemia in patients with a myriad of diseases known to affect purine metabolism. The urinary variable that best correlates with a wide range of serum urate concentrations is 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion. The constructed nomogram allows the identification of the kidney contribution to a given purine metabolic abnormality.
- Increased reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by monocytes are associated with elevated levels of uric acid in pre-eclamptic women. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Reprod Immunol 2011 Dec; 66(6):460-7.
To evaluate associations between hyperuricemia and increases in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in pre-eclamptic pregnancies.This study investigated serum uric acid levels, monocyte production of TNF-α, superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in erythrocytes from 30 women with pre-eclampsia (PE) compared with 30 normotensive (NT) pregnant women in the last trimester of pregnancy.Serum uric acid levels (6.1 versus 2.8 mg/dL) as well as endogenous O(2)(-) (2.2 versus 1.6 nm), H(2)O(2) (1.8 versus 1.4 nm) and TNF-α (91.6 versus 40.4 pg/mL) released from monocytes were significantly higher in the pre-eclamptic group than in the NT group (P < 0.05). SOD activity in erythrocytes was also significantly elevated in the PE group (5969.2 versus 4834.7 U/g Hb). No significant difference between groups was observed in relation to CAT activity.Elevated serum uric acid levels are correlated with higher O(2)(-) and TNF-α production by monocytes in women with PE. This may contribute to the enhanced oxidative and inflammatory state characteristic of this disorder.
- A designer network coordinating bovine artificial insemination by ovulation-triggered release of implanted sperms. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Control Release 2011 Feb 28; 150(1):23-9.
Synthetic biology has been successfully used to program novel metabolic function in mammalian cells and to design the first-generation of prosthetic networks that have shown the potential for the treatment of obesity, hormone-related disorders and hyperuricemia in small-animal model systems. By functionally rewiring luteinizing hormone receptor signaling to CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1)-mediated transgene expression via the common cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) second messenger pool we have designed an artificial insemination device which enables lutropin-triggered in-utero release of sperms protected inside cellulose-based implants. Swiss dairy cows treated with such in-utero implants containing spermatozoa and mammalian cells transgenic for luteinizing hormone receptor and CREB1-inducible expression of an engineered cellulase showed ovulation-triggered implant degradation and sperm release leading to successful fertilization of the animals. Synthetic devices plugged into endogenous control circuitry enable the body to automatically control spatio-temporal metabolic activities that could improve the economics of cattle breeding and provide novel opportunities for future therapeutic interventions.
- Boosting endogenous neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis: the ASsociation of Inosine and Interferon beta in relapsing- remitting Multiple Sclerosis (ASIIMS) trial. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mult Scler 2010 Apr; 16(4):455-62.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are effective on relapses, but neuroprotective agents to prevent disability are still unavailable. Uric acid has neuroprotective effects in experimental models including encephalomyelitis and appears to be involved in multiple sclerosis. Oral administration of inosine, a precursor of uric acid, increases serum uric acid levels and is well tolerated. Our objective was to test the possibility that a combination therapy associating an anti-inflammatory drug (interferon beta) and an endogenous neuroprotective molecule (uric acid) would be more effective than interferon beta alone on the accumulation of disability. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis on interferon beta for at least 6 months were randomized to interferon beta + inosine or interferon beta + placebo for 2 years. The dose of inosine was adjusted to maintain serum uric acid levels in the range of asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (<or=10 mg/dl). The primary end points were percentage of patients with progression of disability and time to sustained progression (Kaplan-Meier analysis). The combination of interferon beta and inosine was safe and well tolerated but did not provide any additional benefit on accumulation of disability compared with interferon beta alone. We conclude that endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms recently identified in multiple sclerosis are complex and uric acid does not reflect the entire story.
- Recent insights into the pathogenesis of hyperuricaemia and gout. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Hum Mol Genet 2009 Oct 15; 18(R2):R177-84.
Gout is a common rheumatic disease in humans which is characterized by elevation in serum uric acid levels, and deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint. Hyperuricaemia is the primary risk factor for the development of gout and primates have uniquely high levels of serum uric acid due to missense mutations in the uricase gene. Levels of serum uric acid are known to be highly heritable, and mutations in genes which encode enzymes in the purine salvage pathway have long been recognized as rare causes of gout. Until recently, however, little has been known about the genetic determinants of urate metabolism and susceptibility to gout in the general population. Over recent months, a series of large scale genome wide association studies have been performed which have shed new light on the genes which regulate serum uric acid levels and susceptibility to gout. Most of these genes seem to be involved in regulating the renal excretion of uric acid which underscores the importance of reduced urate excretion as opposed to increased endogenous production as a cause of gout. Further work will now be required to investigate the mechanisms by which these genetic variants regulate urate excretion and serum urate levels. However, it seems likely that the genes so far identified will represent new molecular targets for the design of drugs to enhance urate excretion and the genetic variants that predispose to gout might be of value as genetic markers of susceptibility to gout.
- Uric acid attenuates trophoblast invasion and integration into endothelial cell monolayers. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009 Aug; 297(2):C440-50.
Hyperuricemia develops as early as 10 wk of gestation in women who later develop preeclampsia. At this time the invasive trophoblast cells are actively remodeling the uterine spiral arterioles, integrating into and finally replacing the vascular endothelial lining. In the nonpregnant population uric acid has several pathogenic effects on vascular endothelium. We therefore sought to examine the effects of uric acid (0-7 mg/dl) on trophoblast cell invasion through an extracellular matrix using an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. We also assessed trophoblast integration into a uterine microvascular endothelial cell monolayer in a trophoblast-endothelial cell coculture model. Additionally, we addressed the importance of redox signaling and trophoblast-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Uric acid elicited a concentration-dependent attenuation of trophoblast invasion and integration into a uterine microvascular endothelial cell monolayer. The attenuated trophoblast integration appeared to be the result of reduced trophoblast-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, likely through the intracellular antioxidant actions of uric acid. In a test of relevance, pooled serum (5% vol/vol) from preeclamptic women attenuated the ability of trophoblast cells to integrate into the endothelial cell monolayers compared with pooled serum from healthy pregnant controls, and this response was partially rescued when endogenous uric acid was previously removed with uricase. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that elevations in circulating uric acid in preeclamptic women contribute to the pathogenesis of the disorder, in part, through attenuation of normal trophoblast invasion and spiral artery vascular remodeling.