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Hypoglycemia Diabetic [keywords]
- Relationship between metabolic control and neurocognitive functions in children diagnosed with type I diabetes mellitus before and after 5 years of age. [Journal Article]
- Turk J Pediatr 2012 Jul-Aug; 54(4):352-61.
We aimed to investigate the effects of age onset of diabetes, glycemic control and frequency of hypoglycemia on neurocognitive functions in type I diabetic children. Sixty type I diabetic children with diagnosis before (Group 1) or after (Group 2) five years of age and 40 healthy children were tested. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R), Stroop Test, and Visual Auditory Digit Span Test Form B were applied to all children in the two groups. Neurocognitive functions such as visual perception, short-term memory and selective attention were seen to be negatively affected at a significant level. Group 1 patients with poor glycemic control were found to have significant dysfunction in verbal, performance and general intelligence. Neurocognitive functions were negatively affected by early onset of diagnosis, poor glycemic control and frequent hypoglycemia in children with type I diabetes mellitus. We suggest that negative effects on neurocognitive functions in type I diabetes should be considered in the follow-up of these patients.
- Unintentional Use of Mistaken Insulin Products: A Retrospective Review of Poison Center Data. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Emerg Med 2013 May 14.
BACKGROUND:There are no guidelines for the management of accidental insulin administration. We hypothesized that home monitoring of asymptomatic patients (pts) was safe following unintentionally insulin administration.
METHODS:Retrospective review of poison center (PCC) charts from 1/1/2000-12/31/2010 looking for accidental insulin administrations. Inclusion criteria: pt must be prescribed insulin. Information recorded from charts: pt age/gender, "intended" and "mistaken" insulin formulations/doses, use of oral diabetic agents, management site, Emergency Department (ED) referral, symptoms, blood glucose values, and treatments. Defined outcomes: symptoms (e.g., altered sensorium); hypoglycemia (<60 mg/dL); management site; health care facility (HCF) admission; and death. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine outcome predictors.
RESULTS:652 charts met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 56.4 years; most (58.5%) were women. Most (89%) calls originated from home, 10.7% from a HCF, 0.3% from Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Overall, 397 (60.9%) pts were managed at home. Two pts managed at home were later evaluated by EMS; neither required admission. Symptoms developed in 56 (8.6%) pts. There were no deaths. Only 40 (6.1%) pts were admitted to a HCF; 18 (45%) pts were hypoglycemic. The development of hypoglycemia (odds ratio [OR] 5.94; p < 0.001) and amount of insulin accidentally administered (OR 1.04; p < 0.001) predicted HCF referral. The type and dose of insulin administered did not predict symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS:Based on a retrospective analysis of a single PCC's cases, home observation of asymptomatic patients after unintentional administration of a wrong insulin formulation appears safe.
- Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chin Med 2013 May 17; 8(1):11.
BACKGROUND:Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
METHODS:Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemia and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured. Similarly, glucose concentrations were measured after 1 and 14 days of extract treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Glucose absorption by isolated everted intestine and glucose uptake by isolated abdominal muscle were tested after treatment with seed extracts. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed on PE of S. macrophylla seeds to identify the compounds responsible for its activity.
RESULTS:None of the extracts had a significant effect on the blood glucose levels of 60 randomly selected normoglycaemic (normal) and diabetic rats undergoing hypoglycaemia tests. PE, however, significantly reduced blood glucose levels in 30 randomly selected normoglycaemic rats undergoing IPGTT tests 30--120 minutes after glucose administration. Repeated doses of 1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg PE to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days did not reduce blood glucose levels significantly. PE did not reduce significantly reduce the intestinal absorption of glucose, but significantly increased glucose uptake by abdominal muscle in the absence or presence of insulin. GC-MS analysis indicated thatditerpenes, triterpenoids, fatty acid methyl esters, aldehydes and phytosterols may be responsible for the glucose lowering effects of PE.
CONCLUSION:PE extracts of S. macrophylla seeds PE showed anti-hyperglycaemic activity on IPGTTs . GC-MS analysis on the PE revealed that several compounds, including fucosterol and beta-sitosterol, may be responsible for these anti-hyperglycaemic properties.
- Pregnancy outcome and glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes: A retrospective comparison between CSII and MDI treatment. [Journal Article]
- Diabetes Metab Syndr 2013 Apr-Jun; 7(2):68-71.
Present study was aimed to evaluate glycemic control and maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant type 1 diabetic patient treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI).A retrospective observational study included thirty-four pregnant type 1 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into two group, CSII treated group (n=14) and MDI treated group (n=20). The HbA1c level and maternal-fetal outcome were evaluated in both the treatment group. Outcome parameters such as glycemic control (HbA1c), hypoglycemic events, time and mode of delivery and labor results (abortion, premature labor, perinatal mortality, neonatal weight, Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycaemia, presence of congenital abnormalities) were analyzed.Pregnancy outcome and glycemic control in pregnant type 1 diabetic patients treated with CSII and MDI were evaluated and compared. Two groups were compared for their epidemiological parameters, although patients on CSII treatment had longer duration of diabetes compared to MDI treated group. Reduction in HbA1c level was higher in CSII treated patients at first (CSII: 0.9% vs MDI: 0.46%), second (CSII: 1.58% vs MDI: 0.78%) and third trimester (CSII: 1.74% vs MDI: 1.09%) of pregnancy compared to MDI treated patients. Duration of pregnancy and new born baby weight were founded similar in both group. Moreover, the rate of abortion, preterm labor, cesarean section and hypoglycemia in new born were founded less in CSII treated group compared to MDI treated group and Apgar score was significantly (p<0.05) higher in CSII treated group compared to MDI treated group.Results of present study revealed that the CSII gives better glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in pregnant type 1 diabetic patients compared to MDI treatment. CSII also decreases the daily insulin requirement compared MDI.
- Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 Apr 28; 19(16):2529-36.
To evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) in patients with hepatitis C not eligible for interferon (IFN)-α.Thirty patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, who were not eligible for IFN/ribavirin therapy, were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria included: patients with HCV with or without cirrhosis, who had a contraindication to IFN-α therapy, or had refused or had a financial constraint to IFN-α therapy. Exclusion criteria included: patients on IFN-α therapy, infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis I virus, hepatocellular carcinoma, other malignancies, major severe illness, or treatment non-compliance. Various parameters, including clinical parameters, complete blood count, liver function, renal function, plasma glucose, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and polymerase chain reaction, were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Clinical assessment included: hepato and/or splenomegaly, jaundice, palmar erythema, flapping tremors, spider naevi, lower-limb edema, and ascites. N. sativa was administered for three successive months at a dose of (450 mg three times daily). Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study.N. sativa administration significantly improved HCV viral load (380808.7 ± 610937 vs 147028.2 ± 475225.6, P = 0.001) and TAC (1.35 ± 0.5 vs 1.612 ± 0.56, P = 0.001). After N. sativa administration, the following laboratory parameters improved: total protein (7.1 ± 0.7 vs 7.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.001), albumin (3.5 ± 0.87 vs 3.69 ± 0.91, P = 0.008), red blood cell count (4.13 ± 0.9 vs 4.3 ± 0.9, P = 0.001), and platelet count (167.7 ± 91.2 vs 198.5 ± 103, P = 0.004). Fasting blood glucose (104.03 ± 43.42 vs 92.1 ± 31.34, P = 0.001) and postprandial blood glucose (143.67 ± 72.56 vs 112.1 ± 42.9, P = 0.001) were significantly decreased in both diabetic and non-diabetic HCV patients. Patients with lower-limb edema decreased significantly from baseline compared with after treatment [16 (53.30%) vs 7 (23.30%), P = 0.004]. Adverse drug reactions were unremarkable except for a few cases of epigastric pain and hypoglycemia that did not affect patient compliance.N. sativa administration in patients with HCV was tolerable, safe, decreased viral load, and improved oxidative stress, clinical condition and glycemic control in diabetic patients.
- Teneligliptin: a DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2013.:187-95.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new class of antidiabetic that show favorable results in improving glycemic control with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Teneligliptin, a novel DPP-4 inhibitor, exhibits a unique structure characterized by five consecutive rings, which produce a potent and long-lasting effect. Teneligliptin is currently used in cases showing insufficient improvement in glycemic control even after diet control and exercise or a combination of diet control, exercise, and sulfonylurea- or thiazolidine-class drugs. In adults, teneligliptin is orally administered at a dosage of 20 mg once daily, which can be increased up to 40 mg per day. Because the metabolites of this drug are eliminated via renal and hepatic excretion, no dose adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The safety profile of teneligliptin is similar to those of other available DPP-4 inhibitors. However, caution needs to be exercised when administering teneligliptin to patients who are prone to QT prolongation. One study has reported that the postprandial blood glucose-lowering effects of teneligliptin administered prior to breakfast were sustained throughout the day, and the effects observed after dinner were similar to those observed after breakfast or lunch. Thus, although clinical data for this new drug are limited, this drug shows promise in stabilizing glycemic fluctuations throughout the day and consequently suppressing the progression of diabetic complications. However, continued evaluation in long-term studies and clinical trials is required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the drug as well as to identify additional indications for its clinical use.
- [Comparison of the effectivity of two internationally recommended screening methods for the recognition of gestational diabetes]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Orv Hetil 2013 May 1; 154(20):776-83.
Introduction: Early diagnosis and adequate care of gestational diabetes is of great importance for both the mother and her fetus. Although several national and international guidelines are known on the methodology for screening gestational diabetes, a not negligible part of the cases remain unrecognized when applying even the most widely used criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1st recommendation). A connection has been found between the maternal blood glucose values and the prevalence of still-birth, preeclampsia and large for gestational age neonates in several studies, from which the Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes study has come into prominence. According to conclusions of this study the International Association of Diabetic Pregnancy Study Groups suggested new numeric criteria for the evaluation of the 75-gramm oral glucose tolerance test (2nd rercommendation), which differs from the evaluation used in the afore mentioned screening system.
Aims:The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of the two screening systems by evaluation of the pregnancy outcomes.
Methods:By following non-twin pregnancies of 1107 pregnant mothers (831 with normal glucose tolerance, 276 with gestational diabetes based on any of the applied screening methods) the maternal (pre- and postterminal birth, caesarean section, toxaemia) and newborns pregnancy outcomes (infants small and large for gestational age, hypoglycaemia) were analysed.
Results:With the exception of the prevalence of large for gestational age infants - which was higher among women screened by the new evaluation - no substantial difference in the efficacy of the two investigated methods was found.
Conclusion:The decision whether the screening of gestational diabetes using the new criteria results in safer recognition of the disturbances of glucose metabolism during pregnancy requires further investigations including a large number of cases. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 776-783.
- Aqueous Extracts of Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) Lower the Levels of Plasma Glucose by Activating the Cholinergic Nerve in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. [Journal Article]
- Int J Med Mushrooms 2013; 15(3):277-86.
In our previous research, Cordyceps militaris (CM) had a hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. In this study we wanted to elucidate whether CM also had an effect on diabetic rats. Twelve rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were separated randomly into 2 groups. First, aqueous extracts of CM 10 mg/kg (CM group) or saline (control group) was fed to the rats; then the plasma glucose levels were assayed. Second, the signaling proteins IRS-1 and GLUT-4 collected from the muscle were detected. Finally, another 2 groups of rats were injected with atropine 0.1 mg/kg intraperitoneally just before the CM/saline feeding, and the assays mentioned above were repeated. Blood glucose decreased 7.2% in the CM group but only 1.5% in the control group (P < 0.05). The IRS-1 signal was 2.9-fold higher than actin in the CM group but only 0.8-fold higher in the control group (P < 0.005). In GLUT-4 signal, the difference was 1.7- vs. 0.6-fold, respectively, compared with actin (P < 0.05). However, atropine injection made CM-induced hypoglycemia or elevation of IRS-1 and GLUT-4 not significant. In conclusion, CM had a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and atropine blocked it. Therefore, the cholinergic activation also was considered to be involved in the hypoglycemic effect of CM in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
- Leptin administration enhances islet transplant performance in diabetic mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diabetes 2013 May 8.
Islet transplantation is an effective method to obtain long-term glycemic control for patients with type 1 diabetes, yet its widespread use is limited by an inadequate supply of donor islets. The hormone leptin has profound glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing action in type 1 diabetic rodent models. We hypothesized that leptin administration could reduce the dose of transplanted islets required to achieve metabolic control in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. We first performed a leptin dose response study in C57Bl/6 mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes to determine a leptin dose insufficient to reverse hyperglycemia. Subsequently, we compared the ability of suboptimal islet transplants of 50 or 125 syngeneic islets to achieve glycemic control in STZ-diabetic C57Bl/6 mice treated with or without this dose of leptin. The dose response study revealed that leptin reverses STZ-diabetes in a dose-dependent manner. Supraphysiological leptin levels were necessary to restore euglycemia, but simultaneously increased risk of hypoglycemia, and also lost efficacy after 12 days of administration. In contrast, 1 µg/day leptin only modestly reduced blood glucose, but maintained efficacy throughout the study duration. We then administered 1 µg/day leptin to diabetic mice transplanted with 50 or 125 islets. While these islet doses were insufficient to ameliorate hyperglycemia alone, co-administration of leptin with islet transplantation robustly improved control of glucose and lipid metabolism, without increasing circulating insulin levels. This study reveals that low-dose leptin administration can reduce the number of transplanted islets required to achieve metabolic control in STZ-diabetic mice.
- Safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 in a Bangladeshi subgroup of type 2 diabetic patients switched from biphasic human insulin 30: A sub-analysis of the A1chieve study. [Journal Article]
- Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013 Apr.:S30-4.
To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) therapy in Bangladeshi type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) as a sub-analysis of the A1chieve study.Bangladeshi patients switched from BHI to BIAsp 30 at the discretion of their physicians were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemia. Secondary outcomes comprised changes from baseline to Week 24 in the number of hypoglycaemic events, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), systolic blood pressure and body weight. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated at baseline and Week 24 using the EQ-5D questionnaire.A total of 82 patients (mean age ± SD: 52.3±12.2 years; body mass index: 25.6±3.3kg/m(2)) with a mean diabetes duration of 9.5±5.5 years and mean duration on insulin of 2.5±2.4 years were included. The mean BIAsp 30 dose was 0.49±0.20 U/kg at baseline and 0.47±0.17 U/kg at Week 24. No SADRs were reported. No events of hypoglycaemia (overall, major, minor or nocturnal) were reported at Week 24. Mean HbA1c, FPG and PPPG levels improved by -2.5±1.3%, -65.0±31.8 mg/dL and -119.3±48.7 mg/dL, respectively, over 24 weeks. QoL also improved (mean change from baseline: +28.5±12.9 points).Switching from BHI to BIAsp 30 therapy improved blood glucose control and was well-tolerated in this Bangladeshi subgroup.