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- A patient who experienced thyroid storm complicated by rhabdomyolysis, deep vein thrombosis, and a silent pulmonary embolism: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Res Notes 2013 May 20; 6(1):198.
BACKGROUND:Thyroid storm is a serious condition of thyrotoxicosis. Hyperthyroidism often presents with thrombotic events, especially at cerebral sites; however, the possible association between a lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT) and thyroid storm has not been previously reported. We encountered a patient who developed thyroid storm, associated with rhabdomyolysis, followed by LEDVT and a small silent pulmonary embolism (PE). The case is discussed with references to the pertinent literature.
CASE PRESENTATION:A 50-year-old woman with no past medical history was referred to our hospital because of severe diarrhea, muscle weakness in her lower limbs (manual muscle testing: MMT 3), and disturbances of consciousness. She was diagnosed as having Graves' disease based on the presence of struma, exophthalmos, and hyperthyroidism with TSH receptor antibody positivity; we further determined that the patient was experiencing thyroid storm based on the results of the Burch-Wartofsky scoring system and a Japanese diagnostic criteria. Treatment with steroids, iodine potassium, methimazole, and propranolol was initiated. Severe watery diarrhea continued, and the laboratory data revealed hypokalemia (2.0 meq/L). On day 14, a blood analysis showed a sudden elevation in her creatinine kinase (CK) level, leading to a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Thereafter, the muscle weakness in her lower limbs advanced to a degree of MMT 1. Seven days after the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, pitting edema began to appear in bilateral lower extremities. Contrast-enhanced CT scans revealed a LEDVT involving the left common iliac vein, bilateral femoral veins, and left popliteal vein. Furthermore, a small PE was identified. Hyperthyroidism often presents with thrombotic events, especially at cerebral sites, but few reports of PE or LEDVT have been made.
CONCLUSION:This case suggests that the occurrence of thyroid storm may be associated with a risk of LEDVT and/or PE. We suggest that DVT preventive measures are undertaken, and that a lower limb venous echo or contrast-enhanced CT examination would be considered if LEDVT is suspected.
- Reninoma: a rare cause of curable hypertension. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
A 25-year-old lady presented with hypertensive encephalopathy. She also had chronic refractory hypertension for the past 7 years. Workup revealed persistent hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis suggesting hyperaldosteronism. Hyperaldosteronic states such as renal artery stenosis, Conn's syndrome and Liddle's syndrome were ruled out. Her plasma renin activity was high. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen showed a 1.9×2 cm heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the anterior aspect of the right kidney suggesting a possibility of reninoma. The benign tumour was resected by a nephron-sparing surgery. Histopathology suggested a juxtaglomerular cell tumour. Anti-hypertensive drugs were completely withdrawn postoperatively.
- Hypokalemic periodic paralysis and distal renal tubular acidosis associated with renal morphological changes. [Journal Article]
- Indian Pediatr 2013 Mar 8; 50(3):336-7.
We report an unusual case of 5-yrs-old girl presenting with recurrent episodic weakness with documented hypokalemia, polyuria and failure to thrive. The child was finally diagnosed as having distal renal tubular acidosis. Imaging studies revealed associated hypoechoic spaces in renal medulla. Long term treatment with alkali and maintenance of normokalemia lead to regression of these morphological changes.
- Primary distal renal tubular acidosis in children in the South of Tunisia: Study of 15 cases. [Journal Article]
- Tunis Med 2013 Apr; 91(4):258-62.
Background:primary distal renal tubular acidosis in children (RTA) is characterized by metabolic acidosis due to defect in urinary excretion of hydrogen (H+) in the distal tubular. aim: To report the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary of distal RTA in our patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all cases of distal RTA collected in the department of pediatrics of Hedi Chaker University hospital in the south of Tunisia, during a period of 23 years (1988-2010). We studied the epidemiological, clinical, biological, evolutionary and therapeutic data. results: During the study period 15 cases of distal RTA were collected. The average age was 6 months (1 month -2 years). Most common presenting symptoms were vomiting (8cases), failure to thrive (4cases), lack of appetite, polyuria-polydipsia syndrome (1case) and urinary infection (2cases). The clinical examination showed staturoponderal delay (9 cases), dehydration (6 cases), signs of rickets (3 cases) and polyuria (10 cases). Biological data showed high urine pH in the presence of metabolic acidosis in 11 cases, hypokalaemia in 10 cases and hypercalciuria in all cases. Urine acidification test with ammonium chloride was performed in 4 cases, the urinary pH was always higher than 5.5 in all cases. Ammoniuria performed in 9 cases was less than 40mmol/l. Radiological investigation objectified a nephrocalcinosis in fourteen patients and signs of rickets in three cases. Deafness was found in three patients. Genetic study performed in two cases showed mutation of ATP6V1B1 gene. The medical treatment involved an alkali load. Long-term outcome was favorable in 7 cases.
Conclusion:The distal renal tubular acidosis is a rare pathology in our country but probably under diagnosed. The clinical gravity of this disease and the risk of evolution towards the terminal renal insufficiency justify an antenatal diagnosis to establish a neonatal management or propose a therapeutic interruption of the pregnancy if the distal RTA is associated with a severe pathology.
- Life-threatening hypokalemia following rapid correction of respiratory acidosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Heart Lung 2013 May 11.
A 56-year-old woman with a history of paraplegia and chronic pain due to neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) was admitted to a spinal cord injury unit for management of a sacral decubitus ulcer. During the hospitalization, she required emergency transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of progressive deterioration of respiratory muscle function, severe respiratory acidosis, obtundation and hypotension. Upon transfer to the ICU, arterial blood gas revealed severe acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH 7.00, PCO2 120 mm Hg, PO2 211 mm Hg). The patient was immediately intubated and mechanically ventilated. Intravenous fluid boluses of normal saline (10.5 L in about 24 h) and vasopressors were started with rapid correction of hypotension. In addition, she was given hydrocortisone. Within 40 min of initiation of mechanical ventilation, there was improvement in acute respiratory acidosis. Sixteen hours later, however, the patient developed life-threatening hypokalemia (K(+) of 2.1 mEq/L) and hypomagnesemia (Mg of 1.4 mg/dL). Despite aggressive potassium supplementation, hypokalemia continued to worsen over the next several hours (K(+) of 1.7 mEq/L). Urine studies revealed renal potassium wasting. We reason that the recalcitrant life-threatening hypokalemia was caused by several mechanisms including total body potassium depletion (chronic respiratory acidosis), a shift of potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space (rapid correction of respiratory acidosis with mechanical ventilation), increased sodium delivery to the distal nephron (normal saline resuscitation), hyperaldosteronism (secondary to hypotension plus administration of hydrocortisone) and hypomagnesemia. We conclude that rapid correction of respiratory acidosis, especially in the setting of hypotension, can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels must be monitored closely in these patients, as failure to do so can lead to potentially lethal consequences.
- Therapeutic Hypothermia for Refractory Status Epilepticus in a Child with Malignant Migrating Partial Seizures of Infancy and SCN1A Mutation: A Case Report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag 2012 Sep; 2(3):144-149.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common indication for neurocritical care and can be refractory to standard measures. Refractory SE (RSE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Unconventional therapies may be utilized in certain cases, including therapeutic hypothermia (TH), bumetanide, and the ketogenic diet. However, the literature describing the use of such therapies in RSE is limited. Details of a case of TH for RSE in an infant with malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy were obtained from the medical record. A 4-month-old child developed SE that was refractory to treatment with concurrent midazolam, phenobarbital, fosphenytoin, topiramate, levetiracetam, folinic acid, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate. This led to progressive implementation of three unconventional therapies: TH, bumetanide, and the ketogentic diet. Electrographic seizures ceased for the entirety of a 43-hour period of TH with a target rectal temperature of 33.0°C-34.0°C. No adverse effects of hypothermia were noted other than a single episode of asymptomatic hypokalemia. Seizures recurred 10 hours after rewarming was begun and did not abate with reinstitution of hypothermia. No effect was seen with administration of bumetanide. Seizures were controlled long-term within 48 hours of institution of the ketogenic diet. TH and the ketogenic diet may be effective for treating RSE in children.
- Drug-associated adverse events and their relationship with outcomes in patients receiving treatment for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63057.
Treatment-related outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are poor. However, data about the type, frequency and severity of presumed drug-associated adverse events (AEs) and their association with treatment-related outcomes in patients with XDR-TB are scarce.Case records of 115 South-African XDR-TB patients were retrospectively reviewed by a trained researcher. AEs were estimated and graded according to severity [grade 0 = none; grade 1-2 = mild to moderate; and grade 3-5 = severe (drug stopped, life-threatening or death)].161 AEs were experienced by 67/115(58%) patients: 23/67(34%) required modification of treatment, the offending drug was discontinued in 19/67(28%), reactions were life-threatening in 2/67(3.0%), and 6/67(9.0%) died. ∼50% of the patients were still on treatment at the time of data capture. Sputum culture-conversion was less likely in those with severe (grade 3-5) vs. grade 0-2 AEs [2/27(7%) vs. 24/88(27%); p = 0.02]. The type, frequency and severity of AEs was similar in HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Capreomycin, which was empirically administered in most cases, was withdrawn in 14/104(14%) patients, implicated in (14/34) 41% of the total drug withdrawals, and was associated with all 6 deaths in the severe AE group (renal failure in five patients and hypokalemia in one patient).Drug-associated AEs occur commonly with XDR-TB treatment, are often severe, frequently interrupt therapy, and negatively impact on culture conversion outcomes. These preliminary data inform on the need for standardised strategies (including pre-treatment counselling, early detection, monitoring, and follow-up) and less toxic drugs to optimally manage patients with XDR-TB.
- Feasibility and dose discovery analysis of zoledronic acid with concurrent chemotherapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Cancer 2013 May 7.
AIM:Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma (OS) have a poor outcome with conventional therapies. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a third-generation bisphosphonate that reduces skeletal-related events in many adult cancers, and pre-clinical data suggest a possible benefit in OS. This study assessed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the feasibility of ZA when combined with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic OS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with a histological diagnosis of OS were eligible if they were <40years of age, had initially metastatic disease and met organ function requirements. Treatment combined surgery and a conventional chemotherapy regimen. ZA was given concurrent with chemotherapy for a total of eight doses over 36weeks. Three dose levels of ZA were tested: 1.2mg/m(2) [max 2mg], 2.3mg/m(2) [max 4mg] and 3.5mg/m(2) [max 6mg]. The MTD was determined during induction. Six patients were to be treated at each dose level, with an additional six patients treated with the MTD to help assess post-induction feasibility.
RESULTS:Twenty-four patients (median age 13.5years [range, 7-22]; 16 females) were treated. Five patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during induction, including three patients treated with 3.5mg/m(2). DLTs included hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, mucositis, limb pain and limb oedema. There were no reports of excessive renal toxicity or osteonecrosis of the jaw. The MTD was defined as 2.3mg/m(2) (max 4mg).
CONCLUSIONS:ZA can be safely combined with conventional chemotherapy with an MTD of 2.3mg/m(2) (max 4mg) for patients with metastatic osteosarcoma.
- Hydrochlorothiazide compared to chlorthalidone in reduction of urinary calcium in patients with kidney stones. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Urolithiasis 2013 May 10.
Prevention of recurrent calcium stone disease includes treatment with thiazide and thiazide-type diuretics to reduce urinary calcium (UCa) levels, with the reduction in UCa correlating with risk of stone recurrence. There has been a recent trend of using lower doses of these medications and change from chlorthalidone (CTL) use to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) use. It is unknown whether low doses of HCTZ are effective in lowering UCa levels to target levels. We hypothesize that HCTZ is associated with less reduction in UCa than is CTL when comparing currently used doses. Retrospective observational study of stone-formers was seen in metabolic stone clinic during a 3 years period. Data included patient demographics, co-morbidities, and 24 h urine electrolyte composition. Primary outcome was the change in 24 h UCa. 322 patients were identified with 112 meeting criteria and used in analysis. The majority were placed on HCTZ (n = 42) or CTL (n = 47) 25 mg QD. Patients on CTL 25 mg had a greater reduction in UCa (164 mg; 41 %) than those on HCTZ (85 mg; 21 %), p = 0.01. Neither CTL nor HCTZ at 12.5 mg QD significantly lowered UCa. There was a decrease in serum [K] of 0.5 Meq/L (p = 0.001) in patients on CTL 25 mg daily, but no significant difference in severe hypokalemia or arrhythmia compared to HCTZ. Our data show that CTL is associated with greater reduction in 24 h UCa compared to similarly dosed HCTZ.
- Nebulized salbutamol for asthma: Effects on serum potassium and phosphate levels at the 60min. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Port Pneumol 2013 May 6.