Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Obstruction in a breathing circuit. [Case Reports, Letter]
- Anaesthesia 2013 Apr; 68(4):429.
- Anaesthetic, procedure and complications management of serial whole-lung lavage in an obese patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: case report. [Journal Article]
- Rev Bras Anestesiol 2012 Nov-Dec; 62(6):869-77.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The first case of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) was described by Rose in 1958, but it is still a rare disorder. PAP is characterized by deposition of lipoproteinaceous material secondary to abnormal processing of surfactant by macrophages. Patients may suffer from progressive dyspnea and cough that at times is accompanied by worsening hypoxia and its course can vary from progressive deterioration to spontaneous improvement. Many therapies have been used to treat PAP including antibiotics, postural drainage, and intermittent positive pressure breathing with aerosolized Acetylcysteine, heparin and saline. At present, the mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage (WLL). Although generally well tolerated, WLL can be associated with some complications.
CASE REPORT:We report a case of severe PAP through the anaesthetic, procedure and complications management of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in one patient who has undergone multiple, alternating, single-lung lavages over the past seven years, the last three in our hospital, with improvements in her symptoms following each therapy.
- Incentive spirometry for preventing pulmonary complications after coronary artery bypass graft. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012.:CD004466.
Incentive spirometry (IS) is a treatment technique that uses a mechanical device to reduce pulmonary complications during postoperative care. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007.Update the previously published systematic review to compare the effects of IS for preventing postoperative pulmonary complications in adults undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).We searched CENTRAL and DARE on The Cochrane Library (Issue 2 of 4 2011), MEDLINE OVID (1948 to May 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 20 2011), LILACS (1982 to July 2011) , the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (1980 to July 2011), Allied & Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985 to May 2011), CINAHL (1982 to May 2011).Randomised controlled trials comparing IS with any type of prophylactic physiotherapy for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in adults undergoing CABG.Two reviewers independently evaluated trial quality using the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and extracted data from included trials. For continuous outcomes, we used the generic inverse variance method for meta-analysis and for dichotomous data we used the Peto Odds Ratio.This update included 592 participants from seven studies (two new and one that had been excluded in the previous review in 2007. There was no evidence of a difference between groups in the incidence of any pulmonary complications and functional capacity between treatment with IS and treatment with physical therapy, positive pressure breathing techniques (including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) and intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) or preoperative patient education. Patients treated with IS had worse pulmonary function and arterial oxygenation compared with positive pressure breathing. Based on these studies there was no improvement in the muscle strength between groups who received IS demonstrated by maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure .Our update review suggests there is no evidence of benefit from IS in reducing pulmonary complications and in decreasing the negative effects on pulmonary function in patients undergoing CABG. In view of the modest number of patients studied, methodological shortcomings and poor reporting of the included trials, these results should still be interpreted cautiously. An appropriately powered trial of high methodological rigour is needed to determine if there are patients who may derive benefit from IS following CABG.
- Efficacy of preoxygenation with non-invasive low positive pressure ventilation in obese patients: crossover physiological study. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2012 Sep; 31(9):e161-5.
The impact of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), which is a combination of inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), on the effectiveness of preoxygenation in obese patients was evaluated.Randomized, controlled, double blinded, crossover study comparing NIPPV vs. tidal volume breathing (TVB) with regard to the expiratory O(2) fraction (FeO(2)).Thirty participants with body mass index (BMI) greater or equal to 30 kg/m(2) scheduled for elective surgery were included. Patients with facial hair, and airway anomalies were excluded. Each patient underwent 3 minutes 100% O(2) preoxygenation with the two following methods in a random order: 1: TVB; 2: NIPPV (4 cmH(2)O IPAP+4 cmH(2)O PEEP). Primary outcome was FeO(2) after 3 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the number of patients reaching FeO(2) greater or equal to 90%, tidal volume, respiratory rate, and patient comfort on a 4-point scale.No differences between methods were found regarding the FeO(2) change with time or after 3 minutes (89 ± 6% with TBV vs. 91 ± 4% with NIPPV). FeO(2) greater or equal to 90% was reached more frequently with NIPPV (80%) than with TVB (60%) (P=0.008). Tidal volume (m ± SD) was larger throughout preoxygenation with TBV (837 ± 440 mL) than with NIPPV (744 ± 368 mL), (P=0.0005). Respiratory rate did not differ between regimens. Patient comfort was good and similar.This study suggests that providing a positive pressure of 4 cmH(2)O throughout inspiration and expiration during preoxygenation in obese patients provided benefits with regard to the FeO(2).
- Clipping for the prevention of immediate bleeding after polypectomy of pedunculated polyps: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- Clin Endosc 2012 Mar; 45(1):84-8.
Immediate postpolypectomy bleeding (IPPB) increases the procedure time and it may disturb performing a safe polypectomy. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether clipping before snare polypectomy of large pedunculated polyps is useful for the prevention of IPPB.This is a single arm, pilot study. We enrolled patients with pedunculated colorectal polyps that were 1 cm in size or more from 4 university hospitals between June 2009 and June 2010. Clips were applied at the stalk and snare polypectomy was then performed. The complications, including IPPB, were investigated.Fifty six pedunculated polyps in 47 patients (Male:Female=36:11; age, 56±11 years) were included. The size of the polyp heads was 17±8 mm. Tubular adenoma was most common (57%). The number of clips used before snare polypectomy was 2±0.5. The procedure was successful in all cases. IPPB occurred in 2 cases (3.6%), and both of these were managed by additional clipping. Delayed bleeding occurred in another one case (1.8%), which improved with conservative treatment. No perforation occurred.We suggest that clipping before snare polypectomy of pedunculated polyps may be an easy and effective technique for the prevention of IPPB, and this should be confirmed in large scale, prospective, controlled studies.
- Low oxygen saturation target range is associated with increased incidence of intermittent hypoxemia. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Pediatr 2012 Dec; 161(6):1047-52.
To test the hypothesis that preterm infants randomized to a low vs high O(2) saturation target range have a higher incidence of intermittent hypoxemia.A subcohort of 115 preterm infants with high resolution pulse oximetry enrolled in the Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial were randomized to low (85%-89%) or high (91%-95%) O(2) saturation target ranges. Oxygen saturation was monitored until 36 weeks postmenstrual age or until the infant was breathing room air without respiratory support for ≥72 hours.The low target O(2) saturation group had a higher rate of intermittent hypoxemia (≤80% for ≥10 seconds and ≤3 minutes) prior to 12 days and beyond 57 days of life (P < .05). The duration shortened (P < .0001) and the severity increased (P < .0001) with increasing postnatal age with no differences between target saturation groups. The higher rate of intermittent hypoxemia events in the low target group was associated with a time interval between events of <1 minute.A low O(2) saturation target was associated with an increased rate of intermittent hypoxemia events that was dependent on postnatal age. The duration and severity of events was comparable between target groups. Further investigation is needed to assess the role of intermittent hypoxemia and their timing on neonatal morbidity.
- Adaptive servoventilation for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Chest 2012 Nov; 142(5):1211-21.
Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) has demonstrated efficacy in treating sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with heart failure (HF), but large randomized trials are lacking. We, therefore, sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data.A systematic search of the PubMed database was undertaken in March 2012. Publications were independently assessed by two investigators to identify studies of ≥ 1-week duration that compared ASV to a control condition (ie, subtherapeutic ASV, continuous or bilevel pressure ventilation, oxygen therapy, or no treatment) in adult patients with SDB and HF. Mean, variability,and sample size data were extracted independently for the following outcomes: apneahypopnea index (AHI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey; Medical Outcomes Trust), 6-min walk distance, peak oxygen consumption ( VO 2 ) % predicted, and ventilatory equivalent ratio for CO 2 ( VE / Vco 2 ) slope measured during exercise. Random effects meta-analysis models were applied.Fourteen studies were identified (N = 538). Comparing ASV to control conditions, the weighted mean difference in AHI ( -14.64 events/h; 95% CI, -21.03 to - 8.25) and LVEF (0.40;95% CI, 0.08-0.71) both significantly favored ASV. ASV also improved the 6-min walk distance,but not peak O 2 % predicted, VE / VCO 2 slope, or quality of life, compared with control conditions.In patients with HF and SDB, ASV was more effective than control conditions in reducing the AHI and improving cardiac function and exercise capacity. These data provide a compelling rationale for large-scale randomized controlled trials to assess the clinical impact of ASV on hard outcomes in these patients.
- Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g) without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- BMC Pediatr 2012.:63.
The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe) bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD) in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate.In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW) were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65), 2001 to 2005 (n = 178) and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172).Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden) with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor®) attached to the newborn's right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger). In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12-24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG). The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus was performed when two courses of indomethacin or ibuprofen were not sufficient to close it.Mild BPD were defined by a supplemental oxygen requirement at 28 days of life and moderate BPD if breathing room air or a need for <30% oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age or discharge from the NICU, whichever came first. Severe BPD was defined by a supplemental oxygen requirement at 28 days of life and a need for greater than or equal to 30% oxygen use and/or positive pressure support (IPPV or nCPAP) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age or discharge, whichever came first. Moderate and severe BPD have been considered together as "significant BPD". The goal of pulse oximetry was to maintain a hemoglobin saturation of between 88% and 93%. Patients were considered to not need oxygen supplementation when it could be permanently withdrawn. The distribution of the variables was not normal based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p < 0.05 in all cases). Therefore, quantitative variables were expressed as the median and interquartile range (IQR; 25th-75th percentile). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using nonparametric techniques (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test). A chi-square analysis was used to analyze qualitative variables. Potential confounding variables were those possibly related to BPD in survivors (p between 0.05 and 0.3 in univariate analysis). Logistic regression analysis was performed with variables related to BPD in survivors (p < 0.05) and potential confounding variables. The forward stepwise method adjusted for confounding factors was used to select the variables, and the enter method using selected variables was used to obtain the odds ratios.There was an increase in the rate of SWsBPD (1997 to 2000: 58.5%; 2001 to 2005: 74.2%; and 2006 to 2009: 75.0%; p = 0.032). In survivors, the occurrence of significant BPD decreased after 2001 (9.5% vs. 2.3%; p = 0.013). The factors associated with improved SWsBPD were delivery by caesarean section, a reduced endotracheal intubation rate and a reduced duration of mechanical ventilation.While the mortality of ELBW infants has not changed since 2001, the frequency of SWsBPD has significantly increased (75.0%) in association with increased caesarean sections and reductions in the endotracheal intubation rate, as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation.
- Randomized crossover study of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in preterm infants. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pediatr 2012 Nov; 161(5):808-13.
To determine whether neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), a new method of mechanical ventilation that delivers pressure assistance that is proportional to the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), could lower the inspiratory pressure and respiratory muscle load in preterm infants supported with ventilators.Twenty-six mechanically ventilated preterm infants were randomized to crossover ventilation with NAVA and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) with pressure support (PS) for 4 hours each in a randomized order. A 1-hour interval for washout was provided between the 2 modes of ventilation. The ventilator settings were adjusted to maintain similar levels of end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). The ventilator parameters, vital signs, and gas exchange effects under the 2 ventilatory modes were compared.Nineteen infants completed the 9-hour crossover comparison protocol. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), work of breathing, and peak EAdi with NAVA were lower than those in SIMV with PS. Calculated tidal volume to peak EAdi ratio and PIP to peak EAdi ratio were higher with NAVA. There were no significant differences in mean airway pressure, inspiratory oxygen fraction, and blood gas values. The measurements of vital signs did not differ significantly between the 2 modes.NAVA lowered PIP and reduced respiratory muscle load in preterm infants at equivalent inspiratory oxygen fraction and partial pressure of CO(2) of capillary blood in comparison with SIMV with PS.