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Infectious Complications of Bites [keywords]
- Vipera berus bites in Eastern Poland--a retrospective analysis of 15 case studies. [Journal Article]
- Ann Agric Environ Med 2012; 19(4):793-7.
The common European adder (Vipera berus) is the only venomous snake that is found naturally in Poland. This study presents the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of V.berus bites in Eastern Poland and describes the methods of poisoning treatment.Medical documentation of 15 patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections of the Medical University of Bialystok between 1998-2010 because of V.berus bite was analyzed retrospectively.Most of the snakebites were accidental (86.7% of the cases). The bites usually took place in forests (66.7% of the cases). The majority of patients were bitten in the lower extremity (8 cases, 53.3%), most often in the area of ankle joint. The severity of poisoning was usually minor to moderate. The most common local symptom was oedema (93.3% of the cases) and associated extravasations (73.3% of the cases). One patient experienced shock. Transient hypertension was observed in 3 cases. Mild coagulation disorders were present in 4 cases. In 4 cases, leukocytosis was observed. 86.7% of patients received the specific antivenom. No fatal outcome and no adverse reactions after antivenom administration were reported.In the majority cases of poisoning with V.berus venom, the poisoning takes a mild course, limited to local oedema, but sometimes it may lead to severe complications. The only specific method of the treatment is antivenom administration.
- [Clinical presentation of "new" tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2012; 84(11):34-41.
The objective of this study was to confirm the role of B. miyamotoi in the etiology of ITBB-WOEM in Udmurtia and to investigate in detail the clinical presentation of this "new" disease.50 adult patients with ITBB-WOEM treated in Republic Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Udmurtia, in 2010-2011 had PCR-confirmed infection by B. miyamotoi. The laboratory evidence of co-infection by other pathogens, including tick-borne encephalitis virus, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, E. chaffeensis, and E. muris, were absent.All patients had a tick bite from 10 to 18 days before the acute disease onset. The main clinical signs were high fever, fatigue, headache, chill, and sweat. Clinical, biochemical, and instrumental investigations also showed the signs of functional impairment of various organs: the liver (in about half of the patients), kidney (in 10 patients), heart (6 patients), etc. In contrast, acute ITBB with erythema migrans was usually a localized infection without a pronounced intoxication syndrome and impairments of the organs.ITBB-WOEM caused by B. miyamotoi is a systemic disease that is clinically closer to relapsing fevers transmitted by argasid ticks than to Lyme borreliosis. The number of B. miyamotoi infections in Russia may be comparable with that of Lyme disease cases, so the investigations of epidemiology, clinical presentation and therapy of this "new" disease are urgently requested.
- Immunization of mice with recombinant mosquito salivary protein D7 enhances mortality from subsequent West Nile virus infection via mosquito bite. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012; 6(12):e1935.
Mosquito salivary proteins (MSPs) modulate the host immune response, leading to enhancement of arboviral infections. Identification of proteins in saliva responsible for immunomodulation and counteracting their effects on host immune response is a potential strategy to protect against arboviral disease. We selected a member of the D7 protein family, which are among the most abundant and immunogenic in mosquito saliva, as a vaccine candidate with the aim of neutralizing effects on the mammalian immune response normally elicited by mosquito saliva components during arbovirus transmission.We identified D7 salivary proteins of Culex tarsalis, a West Nile virus (WNV) vector in North America, and expressed 36 kDa recombinant D7 (rD7) protein for use as a vaccine. Vaccinated mice exhibited enhanced interferon-γ and decreased interleukin-10 expression after uninfected mosquito bite; however, we found unexpectedly that rD7 vaccination resulted in enhanced pathogenesis from mosquito-transmitted WNV infection. Passive transfer of vaccinated mice sera to naïve mice also resulted in increased mortality rates from subsequent mosquito-transmitted WNV infection, implicating the humoral immune response to the vaccine in enhancement of viral pathogenesis. Vaccinated mice showed decreases in interferon-γ and increases in splenocytes producing the regulatory cytokine IL-10 after WNV infection by mosquito bite.Vector saliva vaccines have successfully protected against other blood-feeding arthropod-transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, the rD7 salivary protein vaccine was not a good candidate for protection against WNV disease since immunized mice infected via an infected mosquito bite exhibited enhanced mortality. Selection of salivary protein vaccines on the bases of abundance and immunogenicity does not predict efficacy.
- [Image of the month. Infectious ulcer after a dog bite]. [Journal Article]
- Rev Med Liege 2012 Sep; 67(9):447-8.
- Direction of association between bite wounds and Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers: implications for transmission. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2012; 7(9):e45584.
Badgers are involved in the transmission to cattle of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a serious problem for the UK farming industry. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between bite wounds and TB infection in badgers which may have implications for M. bovis transmission and control, although the sequence of these two events is unclear. Transmission during aggressive encounters could potentially reduce the effectiveness of policies which increase the average range of a badger and thus its opportunities for interaction with other social groups.Data were obtained on badgers captured during a long term study at Woodchester Park, UK (1998-2006). Many badgers had multiple observations. At each observation, the badger was assigned a "state" depending on presence of bite wounds and/or TB infection. Hence each badger had a "transition" from the previous state to the current state. We calculated the numbers of each type of transition and the time spent in each state. Transition rates were calculated for each transition category, dividing the number of such transitions by the total time at risk. We compared the rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers with that for uninfected badgers and the rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers with that in unbitten badgers.The rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers (0.291 per year) was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.08) times that in uninfected badgers (0.139 per year). The rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers (0.097 per year) was 2.45 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.65) times that in unbitten badgers (0.040 per year).We found strong evidence of both potential sequences of events consistent with transmission via bite wounds and distinctive behaviour in infected badgers. The complex relationship between behaviour and infection must be considered when planning TB control strategies.
- Borrelial lymphocytoma--a case report of a pregnant woman. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2012 Sep; 3(4):257-8.
Borrelial lymphocytoma (BL) is a rare cutaneous manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Epidemiological data show that BL is more common in children than in adults. It presents as a single bluish-red swelling located on the earlobe in children, near the nipple in adults. In our paper, we present a case of a pregnant woman with BL, which appeared after tick bite and disappeared completely after antibiotic therapy. The aim of the paper was to emphasize that in tick-borne disease endemic areas BL should be taken into consideration in cases of skin lesions.
- A human bite. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- BMJ 2012.:e4798.
- [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Mikrobiyol Bul 2012 Apr; 46(2):225-35.
Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. Demographic analysis of the cases revealed that 68% of them lived in the rural area, 75% had rodents at home, 46% used natural water supplies, 53% fed animals, 15% had contact with game animals and 5% had contact with ticks. Clinical samples from the patients were found culture negative for F.tularensis. The diagnosis of the cases was based on the presence of specific F.tularensis antibodies between 1/160-1/1280 titers obtained by microagglutination test. Additionally F.tularensis DNA was demonstrated in three lymph node aspirate samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Water samples were found negative both by culture and PCR assays. However, it was detected that there were problems in the chlorination of water supplies in the two villages where epidemics were seen. All the patients were treated with streptomycin (2 x 1 g, intramuscular, 10 days), and surgical intervention was performed for the patients (n= 12) with extremely large lymph nodes and suppuration. Erythema nodosum developed in two patients following the end of treatment. Death or serious complications such as pneumonia or meningitis were not detected. In conclusion, tularemia should be considered in patients presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, sore throat, fever and unresponsive to previous treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics. For the management of the disease, healthcare personnel and the community should be educated concerning the risk factors and precautions for tularemia.
- Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a review with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Int J Dermatol 2012 May; 51(5):501-8.
Chagas disease, an infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by the Reduuvid insect vector, remains a major cause of morbidity in Central and South America over a century after its discovery in 1909. Though major advances in preventing the spread of this disease have been made in recent decades, millions of individuals remain chronically infected due to prior exposure to T. cruzi and are at risk for future complications from the disease. Dermatologic manifestations of acute infection may include localized swelling at the site of inoculation (chagoma), conjunctivitis (Romaña's sign), and a generalized morbilliform eruption (schizotrypanides). Reactivation of quiescent infection in immunocompromised hosts due to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or organ transplantation can present with fever and skin lesions including panniculitis. The widespread emigration of chronic carriers of T. cruzi to North America, Europe, and Australia makes it imperative that dermatologists worldwide be familiar with this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
- Two dog-related infections leading to death: overwhelming Capnocytophaga canimorsus sepsis in a patient with cystic echinococcosis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Medicina (Kaunas) 2012; 48(2):112-5.
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, capnophilic, fusiform, and filamentous gram-negative rod. It is part of the normal oral flora of dogs and cats and can cause an infection in humans, but is of generally low virulence in healthy individuals. A case of fatal sepsis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a 46-year-old woman with clinically silent cystic echinococcosis discovered postmortem is present. She had been bitten by a dog 3 days before the symptoms appeared. The family had owned the dog for 4 years. A preliminary diagnosis of septic shock of unknown etiology with multisystem organ failure was established. Despite all the efforts, the patient died on the seventh day of hospitalization. Laboratory findings received postmortem showed Capnocytophaga canimorsus isolated from the blood culture after 7 incubation days. Autopsy showed a cyst in the liver with a fibrotic wall and necrotic eosinophilic interiors containing fragments of Echinococcus granulosus scolices. In conclusion, an interaction possibly established long ago between the host and Echinococcus granulosus conditioned immunosuppression mechanisms developed by the parasite in this case, which can explain such an aggressive course of the infection with Capnocytophaga. Two dog-related infections were fatal in the middle-aged dog owner considered healthy before this hospitalization. Vigilance concerning recent exposure to dogs or cats and potential immunosuppression risk factors must be maintained in a patient presenting with clinical features of fulminant sepsis.