Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Infectious disease AND Cholera [keywords]
- Lipopolysaccharide-modifications of a cholera vaccine candidate based on outer membrane vesicles reduce the endotoxicity and reveal the major protective antigen. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Infect Immun 2013 Apr 29.
The causative agent of the life-threatening gastrointestinal infectious disease cholera is the Gram-negative, facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We recently started to investigate the potential of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae as an alternative approach for a vaccine candidate against cholera and successfully demonstrated the induction of a long-lasting, high-titer, protective immune response upon immunization with OMVs using the mouse model. In this study, we present immunization data using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified OMVs derived from V. cholerae, which allowed us to improve and identify the major protective antigen of the vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that reduction of endotoxicity can be achieved without diminishing the immunogenic potential of the vaccine candidate by genetic modification of the lipid A. Although the protective potential of anti-LPS antibodies has been suggested many times, this is the first comprehensive study, which uses defined LPS-mutants to characterize the LPS-directed immune response of a cholera vaccine candidate in more detail. Our results pinpoint the O antigen to be the essential immunogenic structure and provide a protective mechanism based on inhibition of motility, which prevents a successful colonization. In a detailed analysis using defined antisera, we can demonstrate that only anti-O antigen antibodies, but not antibodies directed against the major flagellar subunit FlaA or the most abundant outer membrane protein OmpU, are capable to effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum and provide protection in a passive immunization assay.
- Algae-produced cholera toxin-Pfs25 fusion proteins as oral vaccines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appl Environ Microbiol 2013 Apr 19.
Infectious diseases disproportionately affect indigent regions and are the greatest cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Practical, low-cost vaccines for use in these countries are paramount to reducing disease burdens and concomitant poverty. Algae are a promising low-cost system for producing vaccines that can be orally delivered, thereby avoiding expensive purification and injectable delivery. We engineered the chloroplast of the eukaryotic alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to produce a chimeric protein consisting of the 25kDa Plasmodium falciparum surface protein (Pfs25) fused to the β subunit of the cholera toxin (CtxB) to investigate an algae-based whole cell oral vaccine. Pfs25 is a promising malaria transmission blocking vaccine candidate that has been difficult to produce in traditional recombinant systems due to its structurally complex tandem repeats of epidermal growth factor-like domains. The non-catalytic CtxB domain of the cholera holotoxin assembles into a pentameric structure and acts as a mucosal adjuvant by binding GM1 ganglioside receptors on gut epithelial cells. We demonstrate that CtxB-Pfs25 accumulates as a soluble, properly-folded and functional protein within algal chloroplasts and is stable in freeze-dried algae cells at ambient temperatures. In mice, oral vaccination using freeze-dried CtxB-Pfs25 expressing algae elicited CtxB specific serum IgG antibodies and both CtxB and Pfs25 specific secretory IgA antibodies. These data suggest that algae are a promising system for production and oral delivery of vaccine antigens, but as an orally delivered adjuvant, CtxB is best-suited for eliciting secretory IgA antibodies for vaccine antigens against pathogens that invade mucosal surfaces using this strategy.
- [Heath history and health challenges in the Union of Comoros in 2012]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Sante Trop 2012 Oct-Dec; 22(4):346-54.
Located in the Mozambican Channel in the southwestern Indian Ocean, near Africa, the islands that form the Union of the Comoros present, despite improved health and social progress, epidemiological features still dominated by communicable diseases, primarily malaria, diarrheal diseases, respiratory diseases, and gastrointestinal parasites. The archipelago is the regional gateway to vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and arboviruses, and to cholera. The prevalence of AIDS is 0.025%. The Union is facing a major upsurge in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Natural hazards (cyclones, floods, volcanoes and tsunamis) also threaten these islands.
- Using routine surveillance data to estimate the epidemic potential of emerging zoonoses: application to the emergence of US swine origin influenza A H3N2v virus. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS Med 2013 Mar; 10(3):e1001399.
Prior to emergence in human populations, zoonoses such as SARS cause occasional infections in human populations exposed to reservoir species. The risk of widespread epidemics in humans can be assessed by monitoring the reproduction number R (average number of persons infected by a human case). However, until now, estimating R required detailed outbreak investigations of human clusters, for which resources and expertise are not always available. Additionally, existing methods do not correct for important selection and under-ascertainment biases. Here, we present simple estimation methods that overcome many of these limitations.Our approach is based on a parsimonious mathematical model of disease transmission and only requires data collected through routine surveillance and standard case investigations. We apply it to assess the transmissibility of swine-origin influenza A H3N2v-M virus in the US, Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh, and also present a non-zoonotic example (cholera in the Dominican Republic). Estimation is based on two simple summary statistics, the proportion infected by the natural reservoir among detected cases (G) and among the subset of the first detected cases in each cluster (F). If detection of a case does not affect detection of other cases from the same cluster, we find that R can be estimated by 1-G; otherwise R can be estimated by 1-F when the case detection rate is low. In more general cases, bounds on R can still be derived.We have developed a simple approach with limited data requirements that enables robust assessment of the risks posed by emerging zoonoses. We illustrate this by deriving transmissibility estimates for the H3N2v-M virus, an important step in evaluating the possible pandemic threat posed by this virus. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
- A brief history of vaccines: smallpox to the present. [Biography, Historical Article, Journal Article]
- S D Med 2013.:33-7.
Modern vaccine history began in the late 18th century with the discovery of smallpox immunization by Edward Jenner. This pivotal step led to substantial progress in prevention of infectious diseases with inactivated vaccines for multiple infectious diseases, including typhoid, plague and cholera. Each advance produced significant decreases in infection-associated morbidity and mortality, thus shaping our modem cultures. As knowledge of microbiology and immunology grew through the 20th century, techniques were developed for cell culture of viruses. This allowed for rapid advances in prevention of polio, varicella, influenza and others. Finally, recent research has led to development of alternative vaccine strategies through use of vectored antigens, pathogen subunits (purified proteins or polysaccharides) or genetically engineered antigens. As the science of vaccinology continues to rapidly evolve, knowledge of the past creates added emphasis on the importance of developing safe and effective strategies for infectious disease prevention in the 21st century.
- [The cholera epidemic in Latin America: reemergence, morbidity, and mortality]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Panam Salud Publica 2013 Jan; 33(1):40-6.
To determine morbidity and mortality from cholera during different segments of the period 1991-2011 in the countries of Latin America.Using information sources from a nonsystematic literature search for works on cholera epidemics, a mixed ecological study was conducted aimed at a time series analysis of morbidity, mortality, and case-fatality in cholera-related health events between 1991 and 2011 in 18 Latin American countries.During the period 1991-2011, 1 839 037 cases of cholera were reported in Latin America, with 19 538 deaths and a case fatality rate of 1.06%. The most affected countries were Peru between 1991 and 2002-with a maximum annual cumulative incidence of 1 452.72 cases per 100 000 population but a low case fatality rate (0.72%)-and Haiti between 2010 and 2011, with a maximum annual cumulative incidence of 3 319.13 per 100 000 population and a case fatality rate of 1.32%.The cholera epidemic has resulted in high morbidity, mortality, and case fatality in some Latin American countries, due largely to basically socioeconomic and climatic factors. The reemergence of this disease and the many factors related to how cholera outbreaks evolve call for the development and strengthening of regional prevention and control strategies in the countries as well as a study on the determinants that influence the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in Latin America.
- Host Cell Contact Induces Expression of Virulence Factors and VieA, a Cyclic di-GMP Phosphodiesterase, in Vibrio cholerae. [Journal Article]
- J Bacteriol 2013 May; 195(9):2004-10.
Vibrio cholerae, a noninvasive bacterium, colonizes the intestinal epithelium and secretes cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin that causes the severe fluid loss characteristic of the disease cholera. In this study, we demonstrate that adherence of V. cholerae to the intestinal epithelial cell line INT 407 strongly induces the expression of the major virulence genes ctxAB and tcpA and the virulence regulatory gene toxT. No induction of toxR and tcpP, which encode transcriptional activators of toxT, was observed in adhered bacteria, and the adherence-dependent upregulation of toxT expression was independent of ToxR and TcpP. A sharp increase in the expression of the vieA gene, which encodes a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterase, was observed in INT 407-adhered V. cholerae immediately after infection. Induction of toxT, ctxAB, and tcpA in INT 407-adhered vieA mutant strain O395 ΔvieA was consistently lower than in the parent strain, although no effect was observed in unadhered bacteria, suggesting that VieA has a role in the upregulation of toxT expression specifically in host cell-adhered V. cholerae. Furthermore, though VieA has both a DNA binding helix-turn-helix domain and an EAL domain conferring c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity, the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity of VieA is necessary and sufficient for the upregulation of toxT expression.
- Modeling Cholera Outbreaks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2013 Feb 15.
Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.
- Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA₂:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Vaccine 2013 Mar 1; 31(11):1458-63.
ETEC strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of porcine post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD continues causing significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. Vaccines effectively protecting against PWD are needed. Our recent study revealed that a tripartite adhesin-toxin monomer (FaeG-FedF-LT(A2-B)) elicited protective antibodies. In this study, we constructed a new adhesin-toxoid fusion, expressed it as a 1A:5B holotoxin-structured antigen (1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B)) in an avirulent Escherichia coli strain, and evaluated its vaccine potential in pig challenge studies. Piglets orally inoculated with this live strain showed no adverse effects but developed systemic and mucosal antibodies that neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence of K88 and F18 fimbriae in vitro. Moreover, the immunized piglets, when were challenged with ETEC strain 3030-2 (K88ac/LT/STb), had significant fewer bacteria colonized at small intestines and did not develop diarrhea; whereas the control piglets developed severe diarrhea and died. These results indicated the 1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B) fusion antigen induced protective antiadhesin and antitoxin immunity in pigs, and suggested a live attenuated vaccine can be potentially developed against porcine ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases.
- Rise of the microbes. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Virulence 2013 Apr 1; 4(3):213-22.
Infectious diseases continue to plague the modern world. In the evolutionary arms race of pathogen emergence, the rules of engagement appear to have suddenly changed. Human activities have collided with nature to hasten the emergence of more potent pathogens from natural microbial populations. This is evident in recent infectious disease outbreaks, the events that led to their origin, and lessons learned: influenza (2009), meningitis (Africa, 2009), cholera (Haiti, 2010), E. coli (Germany, 2011) and Salmonella (USA, 2012). Developing a comprehensive control plan requires an understanding of the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of emergent pathogens for which humans have little or no pre-existing immunity. As we plot our next move, nature's genetic lottery continues, providing the fuel to transform the most unlikely infectious disease scenarios into reality.