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Infectious disease AND Esophagitis, infectious [keywords]
- GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Gastroenterol 2013.:12.
Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD); pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40 mg) for 4 weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48 hours, wireless pH metry.All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ) and acid exposure was determined by 48 hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO). In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg q.d. for 4 weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40 mg b.i.d.31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48 hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71%) had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%). Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40 mg q.d. after 4 weeks (88%). Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms.Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.
- [Eosinophilic esophagitis. Role of the pathologist in the diagnosis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Pathologe 2012 Nov.:228-30.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated esophageal disease with clinical symptoms and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnosis of EoE is therefore complex. It is not reflux or infectious or drug-induced. Histological cases with a high number of eosinophils are not a diagnostic problem. However, limits are of necessity in borderline cases. These must be based on the high power field (HPF) size and the percentage of squamous epithelium covering an HPF, which may greatly vary. Also, it must be considered that EoE is patchy in nature. In order to establish a reliable diagnosis a minimal number of biopsies is essential. Alongside the number of eosinophils further histological features associated with EoE, such as abcesses of eosinophils or basal layer enlargement, may be of diagnostic help in borderline cases.
- Role of tight junction proteins in gastroesophageal reflux disease. [Journal Article]
- BMC Gastroenterol 2012.:128.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function that is regulated by cell-cell contacts. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression pattern of selected components involved in the formation of tight junctions in relation to GERD.Eighty-four patients with GERD-related symptoms with endoscopic signs (erosive: n = 47) or without them (non-erosive: n = 37) as well as 26 patients lacking GERD-specific symptoms as controls were included. Endoscopic and histological characterization of esophagitis was performed according to the Los Angeles and adapted Ismeil-Beigi criteria, respectively. Mucosal biopsies from distal esophagus were taken for analysis by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of five genes encoding tight junction components [Occludin, Claudin-1, -2, Zona occludens (ZO-1, -2)].Histopathology confirmed GERD-specific alterations as dilated intercellular spaces in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD compared to controls (P < 0.05). Claudin-1 and -2 were 2- to 6-fold upregulation on transcript (P < 0.01) and in part on protein level (P < 0.015) in GERD, while subgroup analysis of revealed this upregulation for ERD only. In both erosive and non-erosive reflux disease, expression levels of Occludin and ZO-1,-2 were not significantly affected. Notably, the induced expression of both claudins did not correlate with histopathological parameters (basal cell hyperplasia, dilated intercellular spaces) in patients with GERD.Taken together, the missing correlation between the expression of tight junction-related components and histomorphological GERD-specific alterations does not support a major role of the five proteins studied in the pathogenesis of GERD.
- [Chest pain in children and adolescents - the heart?]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Praxis (Bern 1994) 2012 Aug 22; 101(17):1099-103.
Chest pain in children and adolescents is a frequent observation, although potentially relevant disease is rather rare and then found in situations with acute presentation. In children with an inflammatory/infectious clinical context the differential diagnosis is oesophagitis, pleuropneumonia or pericarditis. Potentially dangerous complications may be found in youth with predisposing conditions for aortic dissection, pneumothorax or pulmonary embolism, or even in rare instances for an acute coronary complication. In these cases aggressive diagnostic work-up is mandatory. In the frequent elective outpatient evaluation of teenagers with long-lasting episodes of chest pain, relevant underlying cardiovascular disease only rarely can be found as the cause. In the elective outpatient evaluation for chest pain, usually patient history and clinical examination may be enough to track the problem, the main role of the physician is to provide reassurance with minimal but appropriate testing.
- Travel-associated illness in older adults (>60 y). [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Travel Med 2012 May-Jun; 19(3):169-77.
Older individuals represent a substantial proportion of international travelers. Because of physiological changes and the increased probability of underlying medical conditions, older travelers might be at higher risk for at least some travel-associated diseases.With the aim of describing the epidemiology of travel-associated diseases in older adults, medical data were prospectively collected on ill international travelers presenting to GeoSentinel sites from 1997 to 2009. Seven thousand thirty-four patients aged 60 years and over were identified as older travelers and were compared to 56,042 patients aged 18-45 years, who were used as the young adult reference population.The proportionate morbidity of several etiological diagnoses was higher in older ill travelers compared to younger ill, including notably lower respiratory tract infections, high-altitude pulmonary edema, phlebitis and pulmonary embolism, arthropod bites, severe malaria, rickettsiosis, gastritis, peptic ulcers, esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease, trauma and injuries, urinary tract infections, heart disease, and death. In contrast, acute diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infections, flu and flu-like illnesses, malaria, dengue, genital infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and schistosomiasis proportionate morbidities were lower among the older group.Older ill travelers are more likely to suffer from certain life-threatening diseases and would benefit from reinforcement of specific preventive measures including use of anti-thrombosis compression stockings and sufficient hydration and exercises during long-distance flights, hand hygiene, use of disposable handkerchiefs, consideration of face-masks in crowded conditions, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, progressive acclimatization to altitude, consideration of acetazolamide, and use of repellents and mosquito nets. Antibiotics for the presumptive treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections may be considered, as well as antacid medications. At-risk patients should be referred to a specialist for medical evaluation before departing, and optimal control of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases should be achieved, particularly for high-altitude travel.
- Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is associated with up-regulation of desmosomal components in oesophageal mucosa. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Histopathology 2012 Feb; 60(3):405-15.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function. This study was aimed at investigating the role of desmosomal proteins in relation to GERD.Ninety-five patients with GERD-related symptoms (erosive, n = 51; non-erosive, n = 44) and 27 patients lacking those symptoms were included. Endoscopic and histological characterization of oesophagitis was performed according to the Los Angeles and Ismeil-Beigi criteria, respectively. Multiple biopsies were taken from the oesophageal mucosa of each patient. Gene expression analysis of plakoglobin, desmoglein-1, desmoglein-2 and desmoglein-3 was performed by quantitative real time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in the oesophageal mucosa. Routine histology revealed specific GERD-related alterations, such as dilatation of intercellular spaces (DIS), basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), and elongation of the papillae, in the oesophageal mucosa of patients with GERD, as compared with controls (all parameters: P < 0.05). All four genes and corresponding proteins were found to be up-regulated by between 1.7 and 8.1-fold (transcript level, P < 0.05; protein level, P < 0.05). Induced gene expression levels of plakoglobin, desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-2 correlated significantly with DIS and BCH.Taken together, the uniform up-regulation of desmosomal genes/proteins in the oesophageal mucosa of patients with GERD supports the concept of architectural and molecular changes in the desmosomal compartment in the pathogenesis of GERD.
- Emphysematous gastritis associated with ulcerative esophagitis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2011 Nov; 15(11):1336-8.
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis characterized by gaseous dissection of the stomach wall usually secondary to invasion by gas forming organisms, corrosive ingestion, trauma, or gastric infarction. We report a unique case of emphysematous gastritis secondary to ulcerative esophagitis without an underlying history of trauma, ischemia, or ingestion of corrosive agents. The patient responded well to conservative management. Emphysematous gastritis is a deadly infectious disease. Early recognition and management are crucial as there is no specific approach to treatment despite advances in medical science.
- [The health conditions of prison inmates in Tuscany]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Multicenter Study]
- Epidemiol Prev 2011 Sep-Dec; 35(5-6):297-306.
Investigation of health conditions of prison inmates in Tuscany (Italy) compared with non-institutionalized population and literature data.Cross-sectional descriptive study of a sample recruited for a prospective cohort study. SETTING E PARTICIPANTS: Prison inmates detained in Tuscany on June 15th 2009. Istat data concerning the survey "Aspects of daily life" 2006-2009 has been used for comparison.The measures used for the analysis are prevalence data by age classes and odds ratios obtained through a logistic regression model. Outcome variables are: broad disease groups, in particular infectious and parasitic diseases and psychic disorders.Prison inmates from Northern Africa and Eastern Europe are 40% of the population studied. A high consumption of tobacco is observed, with 70.6% of regular smokers among prisoners vs 33.2% among free citizens. Digestive system diseases are the most frequent diseases (25.1%), followed by infectious and parasitic diseases (15.7%). Among digestive disease,more than half are teeth and oral cavity pathologies that affect 13.7% of prisoners.Other frequently reported disease groups were diseases of the bone-muscular and connective systems (11.0%), of the circulatory system (10.8%), endocrine and metabolic systems (9.2%), traumatisms and poisonings (6.8%), respiratory system diseases (5.9%), and nervous system diseases (4.9%). The prevalence of ischemic heart diseases, diabetes, obesity and esophagitis, gastritis and gastro-duodenal ulcers is significantly higher among prisoners than in the general population. The most frequent infectious and parasitic diseases are Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection with a prevalence of 9.0%, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection (2.2%), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection (1.4%). Hepatitis C, HIV and hepatitis A have a higher prevalence among inmates of Italian nationality, while syphilis is more common among prisoners from Eastern Europe (1.2%). The prevalence of psychic disorders among prison inmates is 33.3% (vs 11.6% in the general population), while it decreases to 29.3% if we exclude the population detained in the Psychiatric Prison.According to previous national and international studies, the cohort is more affected than the general population by physical and psychic disorders, partly associated to the prison inmate's country of origin.
- Update on cytomegalovirus infections of the gastrointestinal system in solid organ transplant recipients. [Journal Article]
- Curr Infect Dis Rep 2012 Feb; 14(1):33-40.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract is the most common manifestation of tissue-invasive CMV disease, and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipient. In addition to the direct effects of the infection, its indirect effects on allograft function, risk for other opportunistic infections, and mortality are significant in this population. The most common clinical syndromes are esophagitis, colitis, and hepatitis; however, infection can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is usually by histopathology or viral culture of tissue specimens; molecular assays also often have a role. Antivirals are the cornerstone of therapy for gastrointestinal tract CMV disease and complications such as recurrent infection and antiviral resistance are not uncommon. Prevention with antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy is important. This review summarizes recent data regarding the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gastrointestinal tract CMV infection in the SOT population.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease--from reflux episodes to mucosal inflammation. [Journal Article, Review]
- Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012 Jan; 9(1):15-22.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects 20-30% of the population in Western countries, and is one of the most common clinical problems in daily practice. GERD-associated functional and structural abnormalities are caused by recurrent exposure of the esophagus to acidic and nonacidic refluxate of gastric contents (containing duodenal and intestinal proteases as well as acid and gastric pepsin) from the stomach. Major progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of GERD-associated mucosal inflammation, suggesting a complex and multifactorial pathogenesis and immune-mediated effects. This Review summarizes the complexity of mucosal pathogenesis, including microscopic changes, mucosal inflammation and GERD-specific molecular mediators, in the context of the clinical features and pathophysiological characteristics of GERD. The abnormal exposure of the esophagus to luminal contents leads to chronic mucosal inflammation that is characterized by the release of IL-8 specifically, as well as other proinflammatory mediators, from the esophageal mucosa. Evidence from animal studies indicates a stepwise inflammatory response by the epithelium, which attracts immune effector cells to infiltrate the mucosa. From bench to bedside, these novel molecular findings might provide new treatment options beyond current acid-suppressive therapy and the principle of inhibition of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation.