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Infectious disease AND Giardiasis [keywords]
- Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Int J Circumpolar Health 2013.
Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.
- Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Public Health 2013.:63.
Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions) in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level) analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis) enteric infections.The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group) were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors.Significant (p≤0.05) associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of 'households in core need' (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing) up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased 'internal mobility' (population moving between communities), and also where the community's primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities, services and professionals). In the campylobacteriosis model, a negative association was found between food prices in communities and risk of infection. There was also a significant interaction between trapping and consumption of traditional foods in communities. Higher rates of community participation in both activities appeared to have a protective effect against campylobacteriosis.These results raise very interesting questions about the role that traditional activities might play in infectious enteric disease incidence in the NWT, but should be interpreted with caution, recognizing database limitations in collection of case data and risk factor information (e.g. missing data). Given the cultural, socioeconomic, and nutritional benefits associated with traditional food practices, targeted community-based collaborative research is necessary to more fully investigate the statistical correlations identified in this exploratory research. This study demonstrates the value of examining the role of social determinants in the transmission and risk of infectious diseases.
- Expatriates ill after travel: results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- BMC Infect Dis 2012.:386.
Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure.We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM) for travel-related illness.Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months), and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM) for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis). Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea) compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue) and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A), and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness.Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.
- Drugs for treating giardiasis. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012.:CD007787.
Giardiasis infection may be asymptomatic, or can cause diarrhoea (sometimes severe), weight loss, malabsorption, and, in children, failure to thrive. It is usually treated with metronidazole given three times daily for five to 10 days.To evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative antibiotic regimens for treating adults or children with symptomatic giardiasis.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 6 2012); MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal (3 July 2012).We included randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing metronidazole administered for five to 10 days with any of the following drugs: metronidazole (single dose), tinidazole, albendazole, mebendazole, and nitazoxanide. The primary outcomes were parasitological and clinical cure.Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, performed the risk of bias assessment, and extracted data. We summarized data using risk ratios and mean differences and we presented the results in forest plots and performed meta-analyses where possible. We assessed heterogeneity using the Chi(2) test, I(2) statistic and visual inspection; and we explored this by using subgroup analyses.We assessed the quality of evidence by using the GRADE approach.We included 19 trials, involving 1817 participants, of which 1441 were children. Studies were generally small, with poor methods reporting. . Most reported parasitological outcomes rather than clinical improvement.Ten trials, from India, Mexico, Peru, Iran, Cuba, and Turkey, compared albendazole (400 mg once daily for five to 10 days) with metronidazole (250 mg to 500 mg three times daily for five to 10 days). This once-daily regimen of albendazole is probably equivalent to metronidazole at achieving parasitological cure (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.03; 932 participants, 10 trials; moderate quality evidence), and improving symptoms (RR 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.04; 483 participants, five trials; moderate quality evidence), but the duration of follow-up was short (two to three weeks). Albendazole probably has fewer side effects than metronidazole (gastrointestinal side effects: RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.63; 717 participants, eight trials; moderate quality evidence; neurological side effects: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.64; 453 participants, five trials; low quality evidence).Five trials from Turkey, Spain and the UK compared mebendazole (200 mg three times daily for five to 10 days) with metronidazole (5 mg/kg (or 250 mg) three times daily for five to 10 days). These trials were small in size, and at high risk of bias. Consequently, reliable conclusions on the relative effectiveness cannot be made (very low quality evidence).Five further trials, from Iran, Spain and Peru, have evaluated shortened regimens of tinidazole (single dose; 179 participants, three trials), metronidazole (single dose; 55 participants, one trial), and nitazoxanide (three days; 55 participants, one trial). Again, these trials were at high risk of bias and too small to reliably detect or exclude important differences (very low quality evidence).Albendazole may be of similar effectiveness to metronidazole, may have fewer side effects, and has the advantage of a simplified regimen. Large, high quality trials, assessing clinical outcomes (such as diarrhoea) will help assess further alternatives.
- Surveillance of travel-associated gastrointestinal infections in Norway, 2009-2010: are they all actually imported? [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Euro Surveill 2012; 17(41):20294.
The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) includes variables related to travel for clinicians to fill when notifying travel-associated infections. We measured the completeness and validated the travel-history information for salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and shigellosis reported in 2009-2010. Of all 8,978 selected infections in MSIS, 8,122 (91%) were reported with place of infection of which 5,236 (65%) were notified as acquired abroad, including 5,017 with symptoms. Of these, 2,972 (59%) notifications had information on both date of arrival in Norway and date of symptom onset, so time between travel and illness onset could be assessed. Taking in account the incubation period, of the 1,435 infections reported as travel-associated and for which symptom onset occurred after return to Norway, 1,404 (98%) would have indeed been acquired abroad. We found a high level of completeness for the variable 'place of infection'. Our evaluation suggests that the validity of this information is high. However, incomplete data in the variables 'return date to Norway' and 'date of symptoms onset', only allowed assessment of the biological plausibility of being infected abroad for 59% of the cases. We encourage clinicians to report more complete travel information. High quality information on travel-associated gastrointestinal infections is crucial for understanding trends in domestic and imported cases and evaluating implemented control measures.
- Immunophenotyping in post-giardiasis functional gastrointestinal disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Infect Dis 2012.:258.
A Giardia outbreak was associated with development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID) and chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS). Markers of immune dysfunction have given conflicting results in CFS and FGID patient populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide selection of markers of immune dysfunction in these two co-occurring post-infectious syndromes.48 patients, reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study, were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS (n=19) and idiopathic chronic fatigue (n=5) and Rome II criteria for FGIDs (n=54). 22 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry.In peripheral blood we found significantly higher CD8 T-cell levels in PI-FGID, and significantly lower NK-cell levels in PI-CFS patients. Severity of abdominal and fatigue symptoms correlated negatively with NK-cell levels. A tendency towards lower T-cell CD26 expression in FGID was seen.Patients with PI-CFS and/or PI-FGID 5 years after Giardia lamblia infection showed alterations in NK-cell and CD8-cell populations suggesting a possible immunological abnormality in these conditions. We found no significant changes in other markers examined in this well-defined group of PI-CFS and PI-FGID elicited by a gastrointestinal infection. Controlling for co-morbid conditions is important in evaluation of CFS-biomarkers.
- Giardiasis surveillance--United States, 2009-2010. [Journal Article]
- MMWR Surveill Summ 2012 Sep 7; 61(5):13-23.
Giardiasis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis.2009-2010.State, commonwealth, territorial, and two metropolitan health departments voluntarily report cases of giardiasis through CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.During 2009-2010, the total number of reported cases of giardiasis increased slightly from 19,403 for 2009 to 19,888 for 2010. During this period, 50 jurisdictions reported giardiasis cases. A larger number of case reports were received for children aged 1-9 years than with other age groups. The number of cases peaked annually during early summer through early fall.Transmission of giardiasis occurs throughout the United States, with more frequent diagnosis or reporting occurring in northern states. However, state incidence figures should be compared with caution because surveillance capacity differs between states. Giardiasis is reported more frequently in young children, which might reflect increased contact with contaminated water or ill persons.Local and state health departments can use giardiasis surveillance data to better understand the epidemiologic characteristics and the disease burden of giardiasis in the United States, design efforts to prevent the spread of disease, and establish research priorities.
- A descriptive analysis of notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open 2012; 2(4)
To describe the major characteristics of reported notifiable gastrointestinal illness (NGI) data in the Northwest Territories (NWT) from January 1991 through December 2008.Descriptive analysis of 708 reported cases of NGI extracted from the Northwest Territories Communicable Disease Registry (NWT CDR).Primary, secondary and tertiary health care centres across all 33 communities of the NWT.NWT residents of all ages with confirmed NGI reported to the NWT CDR from January 1991 through December 2008.Laboratory-confirmed NGI, with a particular emphasis on campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis.Campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis were the most commonly identified types of NGI in the territory. Seasonal peaks for all three diseases were observed in late summer to autumn (p<0.01). Higher rates of NGI (all 15 diseases/infections) were found in the 0-9-year age group and in men (p<0.01). Similarly, rates of giardiasis were higher in the 0-9-year age group and in men (p<0.02). A disproportionate burden of salmonellosis was found in people aged 60 years and older and in women (p<0.02). Although not significant, the incidence of campylobacteriosis was greater in the 20-29-years age group and in men (p<0.07). The health authority with the highest incidence of NGI was Yellowknife (p<0.01), while for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, it was Tlicho (p<0.01) and for giardiasis, the Sahtu region (p<0.01). Overall, disease rates were higher in urban areas (p<0.01). Contaminated eggs, poultry and untreated water were believed by health practitioners to be important sources of infection in cases of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, respectively.The general patterns of these findings suggest that environmental and behavioural risk factors played key roles in infection. Further research into potential individual and community-level risk factors is warranted.
- The impact of atopic disease on the risk of post-infectious fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome 3 years after Giardia infection. A historic cohort study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Scand J Gastroenterol 2012 Sep; 47(8-9):956-61.
To investigate whether atopic disease influences the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue (CF) after giardiasis.A questionnaire was sent to all confirmed cases of giardiasis after a Norwegian outbreak, with response rate of 65.3% (817/1252). Controls were randomly selected matched on age and sex, with response rate of 31.4% (1128/3598). Associations were evaluated by use of logistic regression analyses.In the Giardia exposed group, 47.8% of those with asthma had IBS compared with 45.3% in those without asthma (p = 0.662). For controls, corresponding percentages were 23.9% and 12.2% (p < 0.001). Among those with asthma, the adjusted relative risk (RR) for IBS was 2.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45, 2.62) for the exposed group compared with controls. In those without asthma, the corresponding RR was 3.80 (95% CI: 3.30, 4.32). In the exposed group, 51.5% of those with asthma had CF compared with 44.9% in those without asthma (p = 0.218). For controls, corresponding percentages were 19.3% and 10.7% (p = 0.004). Among those with asthma, the adjusted RR for CF was 2.73 (95% CI: 1.98, 3.45) for the exposed compared with controls. In those without asthma, the corresponding RR for CF was 4.25 (95% CI: 3.66, 4.85).For the exposed, having asthma or allergy did not increase the outcome of IBS or CF. For the control group, having an atopic disease made a substantial risk difference, with significantly more IBS and CF.
- Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Exp Parasitol 2012 Aug; 131(4):452-6.
The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria.