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Infectious disease AND Urinary tract infection [keywords]
- Urinary tract infection and kidney transplantation: a review of diagnosis, causes, and current clinical approach. [Journal Article]
- Transplant Proc 2013 May; 45(4):1590-2.
Urinary tract infection (UTI), including bacteriuria, cystitis, and pyelonephritis, is the most common infectious complication after kidney transplantation (KTx). Over the past few years, many medical groups assumed this pathological process to be a "benign" disease in kidney transplant recipients (KTxR). However, increased medical and scientific advances in knowledge and management of KTx complications have raised questions about UTI as a pathological process that decreases and worsens kidney allograft function and survival. This review sought to clarify diagnostic criteria, as well as to describe factors associated with UTI in KTxR that expose its effects on the allograft. We sought to show the uncertainty of important topics within the field of UTI among kidney allograft recipients and to propose a practical clinical approach to KTxRs with UTI.
- Infectious complications in the first year post renal transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Transplant Proc 2013 May; 45(4):1579-83.
The aim of this study was a prospective assessment and determination of risk factors for infections among renal transplant recipients (Rtr) during the 1st year after renal transplantation (Rtx).From June 2004 to October 2005, we performed 133 Rtx in 88 men and 45 women of overall mean age of 46 ± 14 years (range; 13-75).During the first year post-Rtx, 88 (58 men and 30 women) infectious episodes were observed in 60 patients (45%). Thirty-nine (65%) required ≥1 hospitalization. Most common was urinary tract infections (UTI; 54 episodes; 61%). The causative organism was identified in 61 of the 88 (69%) episodes: In 51 it was bacterial, in 8 cytomegalovirus (CMV), and in 2 fungi. Forty-three episodes (49%) were observed during the first 3 months; 22 (25%) between 3 and 6 months and 23 (26%) between 6 and 12 months post-Rtx. There were no significant differences between patients with versus without hospitalization owing to infections with regard to recipient gender and age, duration of dialysis pre-Rtx, donor kidney source, acute rejection episodes, donor age, or arterial hypertension. Diabetes was a significant risk factor for infections (odds ratio [OR], 1.154; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.045-1.274; P = .001], as well as an immunosuppressive regimen that included tacrolimus, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, corticosteroids, and anti-interleukin-2 monoclonal antibody as initial treatment (OR, 3.053; 95% CI, 1.007-9.349; P = .043). There was an increased prevalence of CMV infections after the chemoprophylaxis period (OR, 0.456; 95% CI, 0.358-0.580; P = .002). Mean duration of hospitalization was 11.5 days (range, 2-109). In 3 of 133 (5%) Rtr, the outcome was fatal.The frequency of infections during the 1 st year post-Rtx is influenced by the primary disease of the Rtr as well by the choice of immunosuppressive regimen. UTI remains the commonest infection, accounting for half of all infections in the first 3 months post-Rtx. There was an increased risk for CMV infection after the chemoprophylaxis period.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. [Journal Article]
- S Afr Med J 2013 Jun; 103(6):377-81.
Background.Patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) frequently present to healthcare facilities in South Africa (SA).
Aim.To provide information on UTI aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods. We recruited women with UTI-related symptoms, who tested positive for ≥2 urine dipstick criteria (proteinuria, blood, leucocytes or nitrites) at 1 public and 5 private primary healthcare facilities in 2011. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens were cultured. UTI pathogens were Gram-stained and identified to species level. Etest-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole.
Results.Of the 460 women recruited, 425 MSU samples were processed and 204 UTI pathogens were identified in 201 samples. Most pathogens were Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) (182; 89.2%) and 22 (10.8%) were Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Escherichia coli was the most frequent GNB (160; 79.6%), while Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant GPC (8; 4.0%). The UTI pathogens had similar susceptibility profiles for fosfomycin (95.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 92.6 - 98.4), the 3 fluoroquinolones (94.1%; 95% CI 90.8 - 97.4), nitrofurantoin (91.7%; 95% CI 87.8 - 95.6), cefuroxime (90.1%; 95% CI 86.0 - 94.3) and cefixime (88.2%; 95% CI 83.7 - 92.6). UTI pathogens were less susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (82.8%; 95% CI 77.5 - 88.0) when compared with fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin. Trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole was the least efficacious antimicrobial agent (44.3% susceptible; 95% CI 37.4 - 51.2).
Conclusion.This study provides relevant data for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTIs in SA.
- Antibiotic prescription practices for pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections and urinary tract infections throughout the US Veterans Affairs system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 May 16.
OBJECTIVES:Currently used metrics for antibiotic utilization are not linked to a diagnosis and may be difficult to interpret. We aimed to describe patterns and variation in antibiotic management of three common infectious disease diagnoses in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs).
METHODS:This descriptive retrospective cohort study included all veterans discharged between 2007 and 2009 after an acute care admission to a VAMC and a principal ICD-9-CM code for pneumonia (PNEU), skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI), urinary tract infections (UTI) or non-infectious disease-related diagnoses (NON_INF). Systemic antibiotic use was assessed based on barcode medication administration data. A treatment period was defined as a time of uninterrupted inpatient antibiotic therapy with no gaps of >1 calendar day.
RESULTS:Over the study period there were 1.44 million discharges with an acute care admission to 128 VAMCs included in the study. Of the discharges, 58 118 had a primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis classifiable as PNEU, 36 797 as SSTI, 30 223 as UTI and 1 243 098 as NON_INF. Empirical antibiotic use during the first 2 hospital days was frequent for all infectious disease diagnoses. Type of empirical coverage varied among facilities for all conditions, as did treatment durations. Roughly half of all empirical courses of therapy where the patient was still hospitalized on day 4 did not exhibit any change to the antibiotic regimen.
CONCLUSIONS:There is substantial variation in the management of common infectious diseases with regard to choice of empirical agents and duration of therapy. Diagnosis-specific antibiotic use metrics may prove useful for antibiotic stewardship programmes.
- Patient characteristics but not virulence factors discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic E. coli bacteriuria in the hospital. [Journal Article]
- BMC Infect Dis 2013.:213.
Escherichia coli is a common cause of asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is frequently treated with antibiotics without a clear indication. Our goal was to determine patient and pathogen factors suggestive of ASB.We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of adult inpatients with E. coli bacteriuria seen at a tertiary care hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Urine cultures were taken at the discretion of treating physicians. Bacterial isolates were tested for 14 putative virulence genes using high-throughput dot-blot hybridization.The median age of the 287 study patients was 65 (19-101) years; 78% were female. Seventy percent had community-acquired bacteriuria. One-hundred ten (38.3%) patients had ASB and 177 (61.7%) had symptomatic urinary tract infection (sUTI). Asymptomatic patients were more likely than symptomatic patients to have congestive heart failure (p = 0.03), a history of myocardial infarction (p = 0.01), chronic pulmonary disease (p = 0.045), peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.04), and dementia (p = 0.03). Patients with sUTI were more likely to be neutropenic at the time of bacteriuria (p = 0.046). Chronic pulmonary disease [OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.04, 4.1)] and dementia [OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.02, 5.8)] were independent predictors for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Absence of pyuria was not predictive of ASB. None of the individual virulence genes tested were associated with ASB nor was the total number of genes.Asymptomatic E. coli bacteriuria in hospitalized patients was frequent and more common in patients with dementia and chronic pulmonary disease. Bacterial virulence factors could not discriminate symptomatic from asymptomatic bacteriurias. Asymptomatic E. coli bacteriuria cannot be predicted by virulence screening.
- [Prostatitis - diagnostics and therapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Aktuelle Urol 2013 Mar; 44(2):117-23.
The prostatitis syndrome is a frequent and complex disease. During the last 40 years the scientific perception has shifted between sometimes success and sometimes disappointment. Whereas acute prostatitis is most frequently considered an infectious disease, in only about 10% of cases with a chronic prostatitis syndrome can pathogens be identified. The bacterial spectrum is similar to that of complicated urinary tract infections with mainly Gram-negative pathogens. In some studies atypical pathogens, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmas, can be found in a considerable proportion. In most cases, however, a multifactorial aetiology is discussed. This has lead to a phenotyping directed multimodal treatment approach, considering the main symptoms. In prostatitis of microbial origin antibiotics, particulary fluorquinolones, are still the therapy of first choice. In the other cases multimodal treatment strategies are used considering evidence-based monotherapeutic studies. The evidence for multimodal combination treatment is still sparse.
- Chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua: a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with physicians and pharmacists. [Journal Article]
- BMC Public Health 2013.:350.
Northwestern Nicaragua has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown cause among young adult men. In addition, frequent occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among men and a dysuria syndrome described by sugarcane workers as "chistata" are both reported. This study examines health professionals´ perceptions regarding etiology of these conditions and their treatment approaches, including use of potentially nephrotoxic medications.Nineteen in-person semi-structured interviews were conducted in November 2010 among ten physicians and nine pharmacists practicing in the region.Health professionals perceived CKD as a serious and increasing problem in the region, primarily affecting young men working as manual laborers. All interviewees regarded occupational and environmental exposure to sun and heat, and dehydration as critical factors associated with the occurrence of CKD. These factors were also considered to play a role in the occurrence of chistata in the region. Health professionals indicated that reluctance among workers to hydrate might be influenced by perceptions of water contamination. Symptoms often were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics and antibiotics. Physicians acknowledged that the diagnosis of UTI usually was not based on microbial culture and opined that the use of potentially nephrotoxic medications may be contributing to CKD.Interviews provided evidence suggesting that medications such as diuretics, antibiotics and NSAIDs are widely used and sold over the counter for symptoms that may be related to dehydration and volume depletion. These factors, alone or in combination, may be possible contributors to kidney damage. Acute kidney damage coupled with volume depletion and exposures including medications and infectious agents should be further evaluated as causal factors for CKD in this region.
- Specialty care delivery: bringing infectious disease expertise to the residents of a veterans affairs long-term care facility. [Journal Article]
- J Am Geriatr Soc 2013 May; 61(5):782-7.
To initiate a long-term care facility (LTCF) infectious disease (LID) service that provides on-site consultations to LTCF residents to improve the care of residents with possible infections.Clinical demonstration project.A 160-bed LTCF affiliated with a tertiary care Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital.Residents referred to the LID team.The reason for and source of LTCF residents' referral to the LID team and their demographic characteristics, infectious disease diagnoses, interventions, and hospitalizations were determined.Between July 2009 and December 2010, the LID consultation service provided 291 consultations for 250 LTCF residents. Referrals came from LTCF staff (75%) or the VA hospital's ID consult service (25%). The most common diagnoses were Clostridium difficile infection (14%), asymptomatic bacteriuria (10%), and urinary tract infection (10%). More than half of referred residents were receiving antibiotic therapy when they first saw the LID team; 46% of residents required an intervention. The most common interventions, stopping (32%) or starting (26%) antibiotics, were made in accordance with principles of antibiotic stewardship.The LID team represents a novel and effective means to bring subspecialty care to LTCF residents.
- Distribution of uropathogenic virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection. [Journal Article]
- Int J Infect Dis 2013 Jun; 17(6):e450-3.
Escherichia coli is the predominant pathogen causing urinary tract infection (UTI), the most common bacterial infectious disease encountered in clinical practice, accounting for significant morbidity and high medical costs. The severity of UTI produced by E. coli is due to the expression of a wide spectrum of virulence factors. In this study we evaluated the role of E. coli virulence determinants in the pathogenesis of UTI.A total of 90 uropathogenic E. coli strains were screened by PCR for the prevalence of seven virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc), afimbrial adhesins (afa), cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf), hemolysin (hly), and aerobactin (aer).The prevalence of genes coding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 68% for fimH, 41% for pap, and 34% for sfa/foc. The operons coding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 20% of strains. The hly and cnf genes coding for toxins were amplified in 19% and 3% of strains, respectively. A prevalence of 52% was found for the aer gene. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The strains isolated from hospitalized patients displayed a great diversity of gene associations compared to those isolated from ambulatory patients.Our study showed that investigation of the bacterial pathogenicity associated with UTI may contribute to a better medical intervention.
- Epidemiology, risk factors and impact on long-term pancreatic function of infection following pancreas-kidney transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Microbiol Infect 2013 Mar 11.
Limited information exists about epidemiology and risk factors of infection following pancreas-kidney transplantation and its impact on long-term pancreatic graft function. A retrospective chart review of episodes of severe infection in consecutive pancreas-kidney transplantations in a single institution was performed to assess the epidemiology, risk factors for infection and their impact on the development of pancreatic graft dysfunction. Ninety-four (81%) of 116 recipients (median follow-up of 1492 days; mean 1594) developed 248 episodes of severe infection. Bacterial infections were present in 208 episodes, with 12% of the isolates resistant to antibiotics used in prophylaxis. There were 40 episodes of fungal infection in 32 patients (28%) (mostly Candida spp), and CMV disease appeared in 20 patients (17%), of which 50% appeared after the third month following surgery. The multivariate analysis identified that surgical re-intervention and the use of steroid pulses were independently associated with the development of any infection. Additionally, pre-transplant evidence of peripheral artery disease, a longer cold ischaemia time and high transfusional requirements were associated with fungal infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mismatch was independently related to CMV disease and female sex, and bladder drainage of the exocrine pancreas was associated with urinary tract infection. At the end of follow-up, 29 patients (25%) had developed severe pancreatic graft dysfunction, and fungal infection was independently associated with it. Our study identifies a subset of pancreas-kidney transplant recipients at a higher risk of developing severe infection. Fungal infection is an independent risk factor for the development of severe pancreatic graft dysfunction.