Infectious disease AND Urinary tract infection [keywords]
- A multi-center, controlled, randomized, open-label clinical study of levofloxacin for preventing infection during the perioperative period of ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate biopsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Aug 16.
By comparing the safety and efficacy of 500 mg of oral levofloxacin for 3 days with those of intravenous antibiotics for 3 days in the prevention of infectious complications of ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate biopsy (TPB), we provided a safe and cost-effective infection preventive protocol for TPB in China. A total of 801 patients with indications for TPB in 12 centers were randomized into two groups from October 2011 to December 2015. Patients in the test group (n = 392) took 500 mg of oral levofloxacin for 3 days. Patients in the control group (n = 409) underwent intravenous antibiotics according to the traditional habits of the center for 3 days. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided TPB. Infectious complications were compared between the two groups. Different kinds of antibiotic were used in the control group. Comparing the two groups, the mean patient age was 70.6 ± 14.0 and 70.5 ± 14.0 years. The incidence of total infectious complications was 4.6 % (18/392) and 4.4 % (18/409) respectively, the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 3.1 % (12/392) and 2.7 % (11/409), the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection was 0.0 % and 0.2 % (1/409), the incidence of fever was 0.8 % (3/392) and 0.5 % (2/409), the incidence of bacteremia was 0.5 % (2/392) and 0.0 %, and the incidence of urosepsis was 0.3 % (1/392) and 1.0 % (4/409) respectively (all P > 0.05). The selection of antibacterial agents for TPB is in ca haotic condition in China. Oral levofloxacin at 500 mg once daily for 3 days is a safe, convenient, and cost-effective infection preventive protocol for TPB in China.
- Successful Use of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam to Treat a Pulmonary Exacerbation of Cystic Fibrosis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [CASE REPORTS]
- Pharmacotherapy 2016 Aug 13.
Ceftolozane-tazobactam, a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract and intraabdominal infections, as monotherapy and in combination with metronidazole, respectively. Ceftolozane-tazobactam exhibits a wide spectrum of activity against both gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria including multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and some anaerobic bacteria. Although not currently approved for any pulmonary indication, studies have demonstrated excellent distribution to epithelial lining fluid, indicating that it may be an alternative agent to use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. Unfortunately, data are lacking regarding the use of ceftolozane-tazobactam in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, including patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We describe the first case report, to our knowledge, of a 25-year-old Caucasian man successfully treated with ceftolozane-tazobactam for a pulmonary exacerbation of his CF caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. He was admitted for his fourth hospitalization in 7 months for a pulmonary exacerbation of his CF. After blood and sputum were cultured, prednisone, cefepime, inhaled tobramycin, and intravenous ciprofloxacin were started. On day 4, after no signs of clinical improvement, respiratory cultures revealed nonmucoid, MDR P. aeruginosa, susceptible to only colistin. β-lactam therapy was subsequently change to ceftolozane-tazobactam 3 g intravenously every 8 hours, while continuing ciprofloxacin and inhaled tobramycin. Ceftolozane-tazobactam susceptibility was determined by Etest method (minimum inhibitory concentration 1.5 μg/mL). By day 3 of therapy, the patient showed signs of clinical improvement and was discharged after completion of a 12-day course of antibiotics. Until additional research is available, we hope that this evidence will provide consideration of ceftolozane-tazobactam for this novel, off-label indication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Genitourinary infections in diabetic patients in the new era of diabetes therapy with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2016 Jul 12.
To review prevalence and significance of urinary tract (UTI) and genital infections (GI) in diabetes and the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on these complications.The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is 2-3 times higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic women. The treatment of ASB has no impact on the development of UTIs and/or a decline in renal function. Therefore, there is no indication for screening for and/or treatment of ASB. The incidence of UTI is higher and frequently complicated in diabetic patients, particularly in those with longer duration of disease and of older age. There is no consistent evidence of an association between A1c levels, glycosuria and the risk of ASB and/or UTIs. Diabetes is a known risk factor for Candida colonization and GI, and a poor glycemic control is associated with a higher risk. While patients treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors may have a non-significant increased risk of UTI, they have a clearly increased risk of GI; most of these infections are mild, easy to treat, and the rate of recurrence is low.Diabetic patients are at high risk of UTIs and of GI. Only GI are associated with poor glycemic control. Although patients treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors have an increased 3-5 fold risk of GI, proper medical education can reduce this risk.
- Species Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Coagulase- Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection Specimens. [Journal Article]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Jul; 26(7):581-4.
To determine the incidence of Coagulase- negative S. aureusin urinary tract infections and sensitivities of these isolates to antimicrobial agents.Cohort study.Dr. Essa Laboratory and Immunology and Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IIDRL), Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2009 to January 2010.Urine specimens, suggestive of urinary tract infection (UTI), were identified. Speciation of isolates was done using API-20 Staph.system. Screening of extracellular products was done using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Hemolysin on blood-agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of antibiotics was estimated by microtiter well plate method. Frequency and percentages were determined and chi-square test was used for comparing proportions with significance at p < 0.05.Coagulase - negative S. aureus(CONS) were the cause of urinary tract infection in 56 out of 1866 outpatient (3%) and 164 of 1261 inpatient (13%), urinary tract infections (p < 0.001). Two hundred and twenty CONS isolates were identified. The most common CONS identified was S. saprophyticus (31%, 68 strains). The relative frequency of Coagulase - negative S. aureuswas 6% (13 strains). All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. Resistance was 69% to Ampicillin, 53% to Methicillin, and 37.5% to Ciprofloxacin.CONS are a potential uropathogens, with capability of slime production and resistance to common empirical prescriptions. This also warrants formulation of an appropriate antibiotic policy that covers CONS.
- Fever of unknown origin--diagnostic methods in a European developing country. [Journal Article]
- Vojnosanit Pregl 2016 Jun; 73(6):553-8.
Fewer of unknown origin (FUO) remains amongst the most difficult diagnostic dilemmas in contemporary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of FU and to identify the methods of diagnosis in patients with FUO in a tertiary care setting in the Republic of Macedonia.Retrospectively histories of 123 immunocompetent patients older than 14 years with classical FUO that had been examined at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in the city of Skopje, during the period 2006-2012 were evaluated. FUO was defined as axillary fever of ≥ 37.5 °C on several occasions, fever duration of more than 21 days and failure to reach the diagnosis after the initial diagnostic workup comprised of several defined basic investigations.Infections were the cause of FUO in 51 (41.5%) of the patients, followed by non-infective inflammatory disorders (NIID) in 28 (22.8%), miscellaneous in 12 (9.7%) and neoplasm in 11 (8.9%) of the patients. Twenty one of the patients (17.1%) remained undiagnosed. The most common causes for FUO were visceral leishmaniasis, abscesses, urinary tract infections, subacute endocarditis, polymyalgia rheumatica and adult onset of Still disease. The final diagnosis was reached with histology in 24 (23.5%), imaging and endoscopic procedures in 21 (20.6%), clinical course and empiric therapy response in 20 (19.6%), serology in 18 (17.6%) and cultures in 16 (15.7%) of the cases.In the Republic of Macedonia infections are the leading cause of FUO, predominately visceral leishmaniasis. In the future in patients with prolonged fever, physicians should think more often of this disease, as well as of the possibility of atypical presentation of the common classical causes of FUO.
- Point prevalence surveys on healthcare acquired infections in medical and surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Rome. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ig 2016 Jul-Aug; 28(4):274-81.
Healthcare acquired infections (HAI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals worldwide. Aim of the study was to analyze nine years surveillance activity, carried out by point prevalence surveys from 2007 to 2015, in a 450-bed teaching hospital in Rome.Point prevalence surveys were carried out every year in the medical and surgical wards following the same methodology. In accordance with definitions used by the Centers for Disease Control, all infections occurred more than 48 hours after hospital admission were considered HAI, and included in the study. Baseline characteristics, clinical features, isolated pathogens (only for the period 2011-2015) and antimicrobial resistance were recorded.During the nine years point prevalence surveys a total 2,840 patients were enrolled. Overall 136 (4.79%) patients developed 180 (6.34%) HAI. The most frequent HAI were respiratory tract infections (RTI), which accounted for 35.0% of all HAI, followed by surgical site infections (SSI) 22.2%, urinary tract infections (UTI) 19.4%, bloodstream infections (BSI) 17.2%, and others 6.1%. HAI related to major invasive risk procedures were also evaluated. SSI/patients undergoing surgery 3.99%, UTI/ patients with urinary catheter 4.17% and BSI/patients with CVC 9.42%. Over one-half of all patients surveyed (1,532, 53.9%) were receiving antibiotics at the time of our study. Among them 892 (58.2%) for treatment, 641 (41.8%) for prophylaxis. In the latter group, 109 (17.0%) underwent extra-short term, 89 (13.9%) short term and 443 (69.1%) a long term prophylaxis. During the period 2011-2015 out of 110 HAI episodes 71 (64.5%) were confirmed microbiologically. In total 106 pathogens were isolates, Gram-negative bacteria (63.2%) were isolated more frequently than Gram-positive bacteria (28.3%).The overall HAI prevalence in our hospital was consistent with those reported in other studies in Italy. The study underlined the role of Gram-negative bacteria in HAI and the need for antimicrobial stewardship. It also provided useful baseline data for rational priorities in allocation of resources, for further infection control activities.
- Sepsis and Other Infectious Disease Emergencies in the Elderly. [Journal Article, Review]
- Emerg Med Clin North Am 2016 Aug; 34(3):501-22.
Waning immunity and declining anatomic and physiologic defenses render the elder vulnerable to a wide range of infectious diseases. Clinical presentations are often atypical and muted, favoring global changes in mental status and function over febrile responses or localizing symptoms. This review encompasses early recognition, evaluation, and appropriate management of these common infections specifically in the context of elders presenting to the emergency department. With enhanced understanding and appreciation of the unique aspects of infections in the elderly, emergency physicians can play an integral part in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these often debilitating and life-threatening diseases.
- Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of ceftolozane/tazobactam in healthy Japanese, Chinese, and white subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2016 Jul 30.
Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antibacterial with potent activity against Gram-negative pathogens, was developed for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and intra-abdominal infections. A phase 1 pharmacokinetic (PK) study of ceftolozane/tazobactam in healthy Japanese, Chinese, and white volunteers was conducted to assess the potential effect of ethnicity on PK. The PK of ceftolozane, tazobactam, and tazobactam metabolite M1 was compared after single 1.5- and 3-g intravenous doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam. Ten Japanese, nine Chinese, and ten white subjects were enrolled, and 27 completed all doses of study medication. Dose-normalized PK parameters for ceftolozane and tazobactam were similar among Japanese, Chinese, and white subjects (at 1.5-g and 3-g doses, ceftolozane area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity [AUC0-∞ ] = 166.3, 165.9, and 185.5 h μg/mL, respectively, and 157.7, 158.5, and 181.2 h μg/mL, respectively; tazobactam AUC0-∞ = 48.5, 43.2, and 50.1 h μg/mL, respectively, and 47.3, 43.7, and 50.0 h μg/mL, respectively. The 90% CIs of their ratio estimates were within the range 0.80 to 1.25 with the exception of AUC0-∞ for ceftolozane after the 3-g dose (0.79). The cumulative amount of ceftolozane and tazobactam excreted in urine was similar among ethnic groups. For all groups, treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were mild; no deaths or serious AEs were reported. The PK of ceftolozane/tazobactam was approximately dose proportional (i.e. doubling the dose approximately doubles the exposure) and similar among the groups. No dosage adjustment is needed for ceftolozane/tazobactam in Japanese and Chinese patients.
- Ongoing higher infection rate in ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipient: is it a serious problem? A single-center experience. [Journal Article]
- Ann Surg Treat Res 2016 Jul; 91(1):37-44.
Additional clinical experience and knowledge regarding the barrier to transplantation of ABO blood type incompatibility could reduce the higher rate of infectious complications in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.A total of 79 ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOiKT) patients were compared with 260 ABO-compatible kidney transplantation (ABOcKT) patients for basic clinical characteristics, infectious complications, rejection episodes, and graft survival.There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, rejection rates, or graft survival between the ABOiKT and ABOcKT patients. No significant difference in the infection rate was shown for cytomegalovirus (26.6% vs. 30.0%; P = 0.672), BK virus (19.0% vs. 21.5%; P = 0.752), herpes disease (10.1% vs. 5.0%; P = 0.082), pneumonia (5.3% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.746), or urinary tract infection (8.9% vs. 10.0%; P > 0.999). Female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; P = 0.003), advanced age (≥60 years) (HR, 2.5; P = 0.019), history of rejection episodes (HR, 2.28; P = 0.016), and history of surgical complications (HR, 4.64; P = 0.018) were significant risk factors for infection. ABO incompatibility demonstrated a tendency toward higher infection risk without statistical significance (HR, 1.74; P = 0.056).In spite of immunosuppressant protocol modification, the rate of infectious complications following ABOiKT is still higher than with ABOcKT when a modified desensitization protocol is used. However, this was not sufficient to avoid ABOiKT.
- Persistent infection with metallo-beta-lactamase and extended spectrum β-lactamase producer Morganella morganii in a patient with urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation. [Journal Article]
- J Nat Sci Biol Med 2016 Jul-Dec; 7(2):179-81.
Organ transplant recipients under immunosuppressive therapy have a highly increased risk of acquiring unusual opportunistic infections. Diagnosis of the etiology of infection may be difficult in clinical manifestations, which need further histological and biological investigations. Here in we report, for the 1(st) time in the Iran, a Morganella morganii isolate harboring blaVIM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes after kidney transplantation with persistent urinary infections.