- For reliable urine cultures in the detection of complicated urinary tract infection, do we use urine specimens obtained with urethral catheter or a nephrostomy tube? [Journal Article]
- TJTurk J Urol 2016; 42(4):290-294
- CONCLUSIONS: PCN is an important treatment for the management of pyonephrosis. Cultures from the PCN yield valuable information that is not available from urethral urine cultures, and is a guiding tool for antibiotic therapy selection.
- CKD and Risk for Hospitalization With Infection: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Kidney Dis 2016 Nov 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Outcome ascertainment relied on diagnostic codes at time of discharge.Increasing provider awareness of chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for infection is needed to reduce infection-related morbidity and mortality.
- Risk factors for bacteremia in urinary tract infections attended in the emergency department. [Journal Article]
- IEIntern Emerg Med 2016 Nov 18
- Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in emergency departments (ED), and at least 15% of them are bacteremic. However, there are few data on how to predict which patients are at high risk of deve...
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in emergency departments (ED), and at least 15% of them are bacteremic. However, there are few data on how to predict which patients are at high risk of developing bacteremic UTI (b-UTI). We performed a retrospective observational cohort study including patients diagnosed with UTI who were admitted to the ED of a tertiary-care hospital in Spain. We included only those patients in whom blood cultures were performed. A nomogram for b-UTI was developed as visualizations of a logistic regression model. Two hundred and thirteen patients with UTI were finally included, 108 of them developed b-UTI (50.7%). The mean age was 60.5 ± 21.4 years. A previous urologic disease was present in 45.5%, 12 out of 213 patients (5.6%) had a urologic tumor (10.2% in b-UTI group vs. 1% in non b-UTI, p = 0.003), and 4.2% were kidney transplant recipients. In a multivariate analysis, variables associated with b-UTI were: solid organ malignancy (OR 3.19; CI 95% 1.01-10.03, p = 0.04), elevated neutrophil count (more than 80% of neutrophils) (OR 5.84; CI 95% 2.13-15.99, p = 0.0006), elevated C reactive protein (OR 1.046; CI 95% 1.006-1.087, p = 0.022), and pyuria (presence of ≥50 white cells per high-power field of urine) (OR 4.43; CI 95% 1.94-10.11, p = 0.0004). The presence of solid tumor, elevated neutrophil count, elevated C reactive protein, and pyuria are independent risk factors that could be useful in anticipating the development of bacteremia in patients with UTI seen in the ED.
- How obesity impacts outcomes of infectious diseases. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Nov 18
- Obesity is associated with co-morbidities and increased risk of acquiring infections with worse outcomes. Paradoxically, a few studies indicate that obesity may have a decreased mortality in hospital...
Obesity is associated with co-morbidities and increased risk of acquiring infections with worse outcomes. Paradoxically, a few studies indicate that obesity may have a decreased mortality in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on short-term all-cause mortality and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults with pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bacteremia. The study cohort included 1437 consecutive patients who were admitted with infectious disease including pneumonia (717), urinary tract infection (506), bacteremia (69), and skin and soft tissue infections (145), and hospitalized in internal medical departments, during 2013-2015. BMI was categorized as underweight (≤20 kg/m(2)), normal (20-25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.1-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). Clinical outcomes of 30- and 90-day all-cause mortality rates, length of hospital stay, and transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) were compared among groups, sorted according to BMI and different infectious diseases. Obesity was associated with decreased 30-day mortality in patients with pneumonia [odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.06-1.01; p = 0.052]. On the contrary, increased 30-day mortality was observed in the underweight patients (OR = 2.89, 95 % CI 1.1-7.6; p = 0.03). Similar impacts were not found for urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, or bloodstream infections. Furthermore, obesity had no effect on 90-day mortality, length of hospital stay, or transfer to the ICU in all kinds of infectious diseases. Obesity is associated with reduced short-term mortality among hospitalized patients with pneumonia. Whether gut microbiota in obese individuals plays a role in this protective effect remains to be investigated by further studies.
- A Multifaceted Approach to Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the Intensive Care Unit With an Emphasis on "Stewardship of Culturing". [Journal Article]
- ICInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016 Nov 17; :1-3
- BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to incre...
BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications. OBJECTIVE To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture. METHODS A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared. RESULTS The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-3.
- Rates of Microbiologically Diagnosed Infection and Pathogen Detection in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients. [Journal Article]
- MMMil Med 2016; 181(11):e1685-e1691
- Infections remain a significant cause of mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Evaluations of causes of infection are often unrevealing, and at some sites, increasing rates of ant...
Infections remain a significant cause of mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Evaluations of causes of infection are often unrevealing, and at some sites, increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance have been noticed. We performed a retrospective analysis of infection rates and microbiologic testing yield, or percent of tests ordered to diagnose an infection, in the first 100 days of 30 allogeneic and 56 autologous stem cell transplants performed at San Antonio Military Medical Center from July 2011 to April 2014. Blood stream infections were diagnosed in 11.6% with a yield of 6%. Urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 2.3% with a yield of 3%. Clostridium difficile infections were diagnosed in 9.3% and testing yield was 6%. Incidence of respiratory viruses was 5.8% with 4 rhinoviruses/enteroviruses and 1 influenza virus identified. One Proteus mirabilis urinary isolate was an extended spectrum beta-lactamase producer. Five patients, 13% of allogeneic and 4% of autologous patients, died within the first 100 days post-transplantation. History of bacteremia was present in 60% of patients who died; however, only one died due to a microbiologically diagnosed infection. Improved diagnostic tests and methods are needed to increase yield of detection of infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.
- Enterovirus neurological disease and bacterial coinfection in very young infants with fever. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Virol 2016; 85:37-39
- CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial infections were frequent in young infants with viral neurological infections associated to EV. Urinary tract infection was the most common bacterial disease.
- Bacterial genome engineering and synthetic biology: combating pathogens. [Review]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2016 Nov 4; 16(1):258
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalent use of antibiotics and the spread of MDR bacteria raise the prospect of a post-antibiotic era, which underscores the need for developing novel therapeutics to target MDR pathogens. The development of enabling SB technologies offers promising solutions to deliver safe and effective antibacterial therapies.
- Value and Clinical Impact of an Infectious Disease-Supervised Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Program. [Journal Article]
- OFOpen Forum Infect Dis 2016; 3(4):ofw193
- Background. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective modality for treating serious infections. This study was undertaken to define the value of OPAT in a multicentered...
Background. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective modality for treating serious infections. This study was undertaken to define the value of OPAT in a multicentered infectious disease (ID) private practice setting. Methods. Over a period of 32 months, 6120 patients were treated using 19 outpatient ID offices in 6 states. Analysis included patient demographics, indications of OPAT, diagnoses, therapeutic agent, duration of therapy, and site of therapy initiation. Outcomes were stratified by therapeutic success, clinical relapse, therapeutic complications, and hospitalizations after initiating therapy. Statistical analysis included an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results. Forty-three percent of patients initiated therapy in an outpatient office, and 57% began therapy in a hospital. Most common diagnoses treated were bone and joint (32.2%), abscesses (18.8%), cellulitis (18.5%), and urinary tract infection (10.8%). Ninety-four percent of patients were successfully treated, and only 3% were hospitalized after beginning therapy. Most common cause of treatment failure was a relapse of primary infection (60%), progression of primary infection (21%), and therapeutic complication (19%). Conclusions. An ID-supervised OPAT program is safe, efficient, and clinically effective. By maximizing the delivery of outpatient care, OPAT provides a tangible value to hospitals, payers, and patients. This program is a distinctive competency available to ID physicians who offer this service to patients.
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- A mucosal imprint left by prior Escherichia coli bladder infection sensitizes to recurrent disease. [Journal Article]
- NMNat Microbiol 2016 Oct 31; 2:16196
- Recurrent bacterial infections are a significant burden worldwide, and prior history of infection is often a significant risk factor for developing new infections. For urinary tract infection (UTI), ...
Recurrent bacterial infections are a significant burden worldwide, and prior history of infection is often a significant risk factor for developing new infections. For urinary tract infection (UTI), a history of two or more episodes is an independent risk factor for acute infection. However, mechanistic knowledge of UTI pathogenesis has come almost exclusively from studies in naive mice. Here we show that, in mice, an initial Escherichia coli UTI, whether chronic or self-limiting, leaves a long-lasting molecular imprint on the bladder tissue that alters the pathophysiology of subsequent infections, affecting host susceptibility and disease outcome. In bladders of previously infected versus non-infected, antibiotic-treated mice, we found (1) an altered transcriptome and defects in cell maturation, (2) a remodelled epithelium that confers resistance to intracellular bacterial colonization, and (3) changes to cyclooxygenase-2-dependent inflammation. Furthermore, in mice with a history of chronic UTI, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent inflammation allowed a variety of clinical E. coli isolates to circumvent intracellular colonization resistance and cause severe recurrent UTI, which could be prevented by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition or vaccination. This work provides mechanistic insight into how a history of infection can impact the risk for developing recurrent infection and has implications for the development of therapeutics for recurrent UTI.