Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Infectious disease AND Urinary tract infection [keywords]
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection Among Young Children in a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: A Single Institution Experience. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Cardiol 2014 Oct 8.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can present as bacteremia, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, soft tissue and wound infections, bone and joint infections, meningitis, and endocarditis especially in immunosuppressed patients and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence and impact of S. maltophilia in young children with heart disease are poorly defined. A single center retrospective observational study was conducted in infants <180 days of age with positive S. maltophilia cultures over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence for S. maltophilia infection was 0.8 % (n = 32/3656). Among 32 identified infants, there were 47 episodes of S. maltophilia infection 66 % of infants had prior exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. 97 % of positive isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 91 % to levofloxacin as well as ticarcillin/clavulanate. Ventilator-free days and absolute lymphocyte count prior to acquiring infection were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors. 100 % of survivors had clearance of positive cultures compared to 50 % in non-survivors (p < 0.05). The crude all-cause mortality rate was 37.5 %. All non-survivors had increased length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation and had delayed clearance of infection and required longer duration of treatment.
- [Nosocomial infections in urology]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Urologe A 2014 Oct; 53(10):1458-67.
Nosocomial infections (NI) may be a serious and mostly avoidable consequence of medical procedures and often cause a significant aggravation of the patients underlying disease. Following surgical site infections, urinary tract infections (UTI) represent the second most common fraction of NIs (22.4%) in Germany and contribute to approximately 155,000 nosocomial UTIs (nUTI) every year.Prevention of NI is of utmost individual as well as socioeconomic importance especially regarding the continuing worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance. National legislature has responded to this challenge by amending the German Law on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases (IfSG) and other measures. Their practical importance for various clinical settings in urology is outlined in this overview.The correct use of urinary catheters has the greatest impact for prevention and control as nUTIs are associated with urinary catheters in most of the cases (80%). The recently updated guidelines of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention of the Robert Koch Institute (KRINKO) and the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) provide detailed recommendations in an evidence-based and practice-oriented manner as summarized in this article.
- Aerococcal Infection at Three US Tertiary Care Hospitals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- South Med J 2014 Oct; 107(10):642-647.
The aim of the present study was to determine clinical features of Aerococcus infections and the significance of the Aerococcus species isolated from any clinical samples.Electronic records of all cultures yielding Aerococcus species from 2002 to 2012 were obtained from three tertiary care hospitals. We performed an in-depth review of medical records.Aerococcus was isolated from ≥1 site in 93 patients. Blood cultures were positive in 64 patients; 15 with definite bacteremia, including 3 with endocarditis, 7 with urinary tract infections, 13 with probable bacteremia, and 36 in which Aerococcus was judged to be a possible contaminant. Of 19 urine isolates, 10 were from patients with symptomatic urinary tract infections and 7 were from patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria; in 2 cases, urine isolates were regarded as possible contaminants. Most patients with urinary isolates had underlying urological abnormalities. Other sources for Aerococcus included synovial fluid, bile, bone, intraabdominal abscess, and ovarian abscess. All of the isolates tested with ampicillin, cefazolin, clindamycin, and vancomycin were susceptible. A total of two patients with definite Aerococcus infection died, but all of the others responded to antibiotic therapy.Aerococcus often is considered a contaminant; however, in our case series, 35% of cases in which Aerococcus was isolated from any site indicated a definite infection. In patients with positive blood cultures for Aerococcus, at least 23% were associated with infection. Appropriate attention needs to be directed to Aerococcus when it is isolated from a normally sterile site.
- Hospitalization before surgery increases risk for postoperative infections. [Journal Article]
- J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Oct; 148(4):1615-1621.e3.
Exposure to a health care facility before surgery may increase risk for postoperative infections. Our objectives were to (1) determine whether the prevalence of postoperative infections was higher among patients who were hospitalized before cardiac surgery, (2) identify risk factors for infection, and (3) evaluate in-hospital outcomes.A total of 32,707 patients underwent cardiac surgery from January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2011. Forty percent (13,107) were hospitalized before their surgery date or were transfers from other health care facilities, and 60% (19,600) were same-day admissions. The primary outcome consisted of a composite infection: pneumonia, sepsis, surgical site infection, and urinary tract infection. The secondary outcome was in-hospital death. The propensity method was used to compare infectious complications and mortality between groups.Overall infectious complications occurred in 2327 patients (7.1%). Overall composite and individual infections decreased over the study period (P for trend <.0001). Among 7814 propensity-matched pairs, 522 infections (6.7%) occurred in the same-day admission group versus 676 (8.7%) in the prior hospitalization group, P < .0001. In-hospital mortality was 1.5% (n = 120) for the same-day admission group versus 2.8% (n = 221) for the prior hospitalization group (P < .0001).Although the risk of infection decreased over time, the relationship between exposure to a health care facility before surgical intervention and higher infection risk remained substantial. Further investigation into processes of care surrounding infection control is necessary to reduce postoperative infections and associated morbidity.
- An in vitro deletion in ribE encoding lumazine synthase contributes to nitrofurantoin resistance in Escherichia coli. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 Sep 22.
Nitrofurantoin has been used for decades for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI), however, clinically significant resistance in E. coli is as yet uncommon. Nitrofurantoin concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract tend to be low, which might facilitate selection of nitrofurantoin-resistant (NIT-R) strains in the gut flora. We subjected two nitrofurantoin-susceptible intestinal E. coli strains (ST540-p, ST2747-p) to increasing nitrofurantoin concentrations under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Whole genome sequencing was performed on both susceptible isolates and on selected mutants that exhibited the highest nitrofurantoin resistance levels aerobically (ST540-a, ST2747-a) and anaerobically (ST540-an, ST2747-an). ST540-a/-an and ST2747-a (aerobic MIC >64 μg/ml) harbored mutations in known nitrofurantoin resistance determinants, nfsA and/or nfsB that encode oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases. ST2747-an showed reduced nitrofurantoin susceptibility (aerobic MIC 32 μg/ml) and exhibited remarkable growth deficits, however, did not harbor nfsA/B mutations. We identified a 12-nucleotide deletion in ribE encoding lumazine synthase, an essential enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of FMN, an important cofactor of NfsA/B. Complementing ST2747-an with a functional wild-type lumazine synthase restored nitrofurantoin susceptibility. Six NIT-R E. coli (NRCI-1 to -6) isolated from stools of UTI patients treated with nitrofurantoin, cefuroxime, or a fluoroquinolone harbored mutations in nfsA and/or nfsB, but not in ribE. Sequencing of the ribE gene in six intestinal and three urinary E. coli strains showing reduced nitrofurantoin-susceptibility (MIC range 16-48 μg/ml) also did not identify any relevant mutations. NRCI-1, -2, -5 exhibited upto four-fold higher anaerobic MICs compared to the in vitro mutants, presumably because of additional mutations in oxygen-sensitive nitroreductases.
- The intimin-like protein FdeC is regulated by H-NS and temperature in Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appl Environ Microbiol 2014 Sep 19.
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxigenic pathogens capable of inducing severe forms of enteritis (e.g. hemorrhagic colitis) and extraintestinal sequelae (e.g. hemolytic uremic syndrome). The molecular basis of colonization of human and animal hosts by EHEC is not yet completely understood and an improved understanding of EHEC mucosal adherence may lead to development of interventions that could disrupt host colonization. FdeC, also referred to by its IHE 3034 locus tag ECOK1_0290, is an intimin-like protein that was recently shown to contribute to kidney colonisation in a mouse urinary tract infection model. The expression of FdeC is tightly regulated in vitro, and FdeC shows promise as a vaccine candidate against extra-intestinal E. coli strains. In this study we characterised the prevalence, regulation and function of fdeC in EHEC. We showed that the fdeC gene is conserved in both O157 and non-O157 EHEC, and encodes a protein that is expressed at the cell surface and promotes biofilm formation under continuous flow conditions in a recombinant E. coli strain background. We also identified culture conditions where FdeC is expressed, and showed that minor alterations of these conditions, such as changes in temperature, can significantly alter the level of FdeC expression. Additionally, we demonstrate that the transcription of the fdeC gene is repressed by the global regulator H-NS. Taken together, our data suggest a role for FdeC in EHEC when growing at temperatures above 37°C, a condition relevant to its specialized niche at the recto-anal junction of cattle.
- EbpA vaccine antibodies block binding of Enterococcus faecalis to fibrinogen to prevent catheter-associated bladder infection in mice. [Journal Article]
- Sci Transl Med 2014 Sep 17; 6(254):254ra127.
Enterococci bacteria are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. Treatment has become increasingly challenging because of the emergence of multiantibiotic-resistant enterococcal strains and their ability to form biofilms on catheters. We identified and targeted a critical step in biofilm formation and developed a vaccine that prevents catheter-associated urinary tract infections in mice. In the murine model, formation of catheter-associated biofilms by Enterococcus faecalis depends on EbpA, which is the minor subunit at the tip of a heteropolymeric surface fiber known as the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pilus (Ebp). We show that EbpA is an adhesin that mediates bacterial attachment to host fibrinogen, which is released and deposited on catheters after introduction of the catheter into the mouse bladder. Fibrinogen-binding activity resides in the amino-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpA(NTD)), and vaccination with EbpA and EbpA(NTD), but not its carboxyl-terminal domain or other Ebp subunits, inhibited biofilm formation in vivo and protected against catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Analyses in vitro demonstrated that protection was associated with a serum antibody response that blocked EbpA binding to fibrinogen and the formation of a fibrinogen-dependent biofilm on catheters. This approach may provide a new strategy for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.
- Health Care-Associated Infections Among Critically Ill Children in the US, 2007-2012. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2014 Sep 8.
Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are harmful and costly and can result in substantial morbidity for hospitalized children; however, little is known about national trends in HAIs in neonatal and pediatric populations. Our objective was to determine the incidence of HAIs among a large sample of hospitals in the United States caring for critically ill children from 2007 to 2012.In this cohort study, we included NICUs and PICUs located in hospitals reporting data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used a time-series design to evaluate changes in HAI rates.A total of 173 US hospitals provided data from NICUs, and 64 provided data from PICUs. From 2007 to 2012, rates of CLABSIs decreased in NICUs from 4.9 to 1.5 per 1000 central-line days (incidence rate ratio (IRR) per quarter = 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.94-0.97) and in PICUs from 4.7 to 1.0 per 1000 central-line days (IRR per quarter = 0.96 [0.94-0.98]). Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonias decreased in NICUs from 1.6 to 0.6 per 1000 ventilator days (IRR per quarter = 0.97 [0.93-0.99]) and PICUs from 1.9 to 0.7 per 1000 ventilator-days (IRR per quarter = 0.95 [0.92-0.98]). Rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infections did not change significantly in PICUs.Between 2007 and 2012 there were substantial reductions in HAIs among hospitalized neonates and children.
- The toxic effect on leukocyte lineage of antimicrobial therapy in urinary and respiratory infections. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2014; 68(3):167-9.
Antimicrobials are widely used in infectious diseases. Only the timely intervention will contribute to the positive outcome of the disease. Unjustified use of antimicrobial prophylaxis may have adverse effects, i.e., result in bacterial resistance to existing antimicrobials, as well as toxic effects on leukocyte lineage and other parameters of the blood.The goal of this study was to confirm that the antimicrobial therapy of urinary, gynecological and respiratory infections has a toxic effect on leukocyte lineage. Followed by lowered immunity and the emergence of risk for health complications especially in oncology and other immunodeficient patients for whom to apply pharmacotherapy it is necessary to have adequate immunity, or white blood cell count that is greater than 4.0 x 10(9)/L.A prospective-retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 30 patients in a Primary Health Care Center in Gracanica during the period from March 01, 2013 until April 01, 2014. Testing of this sample was conducted by survey on health status and treatment, or on taking of antimicrobial therapy and other treatment regimens, with the referral diagnosis and determination of leukocytes count in by hematology counter SYSMEX. Results of leukocytes below and close to the lower reference values were statistically analyzed by Students t-test.Mean WBC count in the group treated with antimicrobial therapy was 3.687 +/- 0.83 x 10(9)/L, in the group which during repeated infection did not use the antimicrobial therapy 5.09 +/- 1.04 x 10(9)/L, and in the control group of healthy subjects 7.178 +/- 1.038 x 10(9)/L. Statistical analysis with Student's t test indicate highly significant differences between group of patients that used antimicrobial therapy with the group of patient that did not used antimicrobial during repeated infection (t = 6.091; p = 0.0001), as well as significant differences in mean WBC count of both of these groups and the controls (t = 4.984; p = 0.0001, and t = 8.402, p = 0.0001).Use of antimicrobial drugs leads to serious toxic reactions, or leukopenia. Indications for the use of antimicrobial therapy must be strictly followed, because banal, frequent infections are not indication for antimicrobial therapy. It is necessary to know the types of infection causes. Important is the proper and timely selection of antimicrobial therapy. When selecting the drug we should bear in mind its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic and toxic properties, as well as patient health status. Possible is also the application of preventive medicine as well as other manner of solving infection.
- Poorly regulated blood glucose in diabetic patients--predictor of acute infections. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2014; 68(3):163-6.
Diabetes mellitus, the most frequent endocrinology disease is a predisposing factor for infections. Diabetic patients have 4,4 times greater risk of systemic infection than non diabetics.a) To determine the prevalence and characteristics of acute infectious diseases in hospitalized diabetics; b) To correlate values of blood glucose levels and HbA1c with acute infections in hospitalized diabetics; c) To identify the etiology of infectious diseases.The study included 450 diabetic patients hospitalized in the 24-month period in the Intensive care unit of the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders CCUS. In 204 patients (45,3%) there was an acute infectious condition and the following data was registered: a) gender and age; b) basic illness; c) laboratory parameters of inflammation (Le, CRP); d) blood glucose upon admission, parameters ofglucoregulation (HbA1c, fructosamine); e) type of infection; f) verification of etiological agent; g) late complications of diabetes; and h) outcome.Out of 204 diabetic patients with infection, there was 35,3% men and 64,7% women. More than half of patients (61%) were in the age group 61-80 years. The most common primary disease was Diabetes mellitus type 2. HbA1c and fructosamine were significantly increased in diabetic patients with acute infection compared to diabetics without acute infection. There is a positive correlation between HbA1c levels and CRP, and blood glucose and CRP in diabetic patients with acute infection. Most frequent infections: urinary tract infection (70,0%), followed by respiratory infections (11,8%), soft tissue infections (10,3%), generalized-bacteremia / sepsis (6,9%). The most common cause of urinary infection and generalized infection was Escherichia colli. The most common bacteria causing soft tissue infections was Staphylococcus aureus.Almost half (45,3%) of hospitalized diabetic patients had acute infectious condition. They present most frequently in women, aged 61-80 years, with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. HbA1c and fructosamine were significantly increased in diabetic patients with acute infection. There is a positive correlation between the parameters of inflammation and glucoregulation in diabetics with acute infection. Most frequent was a urinary tract infection and the most common causative agent was Escherichia coli. The most common cause of soft tissue infections was Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 21 patients with verified soft tissue infections, 18 of them (85,7%) had confirmed diagnosis of diabetic microangiopathy diabetica. A total of 96,1% of patients fully recovered.