Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Infectious disease AND Urinary tract infection [keywords]
- Health Care-Associated Infections Among Critically Ill Children in the US, 2007-2012. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2014 Sep 8.
Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are harmful and costly and can result in substantial morbidity for hospitalized children; however, little is known about national trends in HAIs in neonatal and pediatric populations. Our objective was to determine the incidence of HAIs among a large sample of hospitals in the United States caring for critically ill children from 2007 to 2012.In this cohort study, we included NICUs and PICUs located in hospitals reporting data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used a time-series design to evaluate changes in HAI rates.A total of 173 US hospitals provided data from NICUs, and 64 provided data from PICUs. From 2007 to 2012, rates of CLABSIs decreased in NICUs from 4.9 to 1.5 per 1000 central-line days (incidence rate ratio (IRR) per quarter = 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.94-0.97) and in PICUs from 4.7 to 1.0 per 1000 central-line days (IRR per quarter = 0.96 [0.94-0.98]). Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonias decreased in NICUs from 1.6 to 0.6 per 1000 ventilator days (IRR per quarter = 0.97 [0.93-0.99]) and PICUs from 1.9 to 0.7 per 1000 ventilator-days (IRR per quarter = 0.95 [0.92-0.98]). Rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infections did not change significantly in PICUs.Between 2007 and 2012 there were substantial reductions in HAIs among hospitalized neonates and children.
- Poorly regulated blood glucose in diabetic patients--predictor of acute infections. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2014; 68(3):163-6.
Diabetes mellitus, the most frequent endocrinology disease is a predisposing factor for infections. Diabetic patients have 4,4 times greater risk of systemic infection than non diabetics.a) To determine the prevalence and characteristics of acute infectious diseases in hospitalized diabetics; b) To correlate values of blood glucose levels and HbA1c with acute infections in hospitalized diabetics; c) To identify the etiology of infectious diseases.The study included 450 diabetic patients hospitalized in the 24-month period in the Intensive care unit of the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders CCUS. In 204 patients (45,3%) there was an acute infectious condition and the following data was registered: a) gender and age; b) basic illness; c) laboratory parameters of inflammation (Le, CRP); d) blood glucose upon admission, parameters ofglucoregulation (HbA1c, fructosamine); e) type of infection; f) verification of etiological agent; g) late complications of diabetes; and h) outcome.Out of 204 diabetic patients with infection, there was 35,3% men and 64,7% women. More than half of patients (61%) were in the age group 61-80 years. The most common primary disease was Diabetes mellitus type 2. HbA1c and fructosamine were significantly increased in diabetic patients with acute infection compared to diabetics without acute infection. There is a positive correlation between HbA1c levels and CRP, and blood glucose and CRP in diabetic patients with acute infection. Most frequent infections: urinary tract infection (70,0%), followed by respiratory infections (11,8%), soft tissue infections (10,3%), generalized-bacteremia / sepsis (6,9%). The most common cause of urinary infection and generalized infection was Escherichia colli. The most common bacteria causing soft tissue infections was Staphylococcus aureus.Almost half (45,3%) of hospitalized diabetic patients had acute infectious condition. They present most frequently in women, aged 61-80 years, with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. HbA1c and fructosamine were significantly increased in diabetic patients with acute infection. There is a positive correlation between the parameters of inflammation and glucoregulation in diabetics with acute infection. Most frequent was a urinary tract infection and the most common causative agent was Escherichia coli. The most common cause of soft tissue infections was Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 21 patients with verified soft tissue infections, 18 of them (85,7%) had confirmed diagnosis of diabetic microangiopathy diabetica. A total of 96,1% of patients fully recovered.
- Infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in cancer patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2014 Aug 30.
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is an emergent pathogen in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of this study was to describe HAIs due to KPC-Kp, as well as identify mortality risk factors in cancer patients. In patients diagnosed with HAIs due to KPC-Kp between January 2009 and July 2013, we evaluated only the first infection episode of each patient, analyzing mortality separately for patients treated for ≥48 h with at least one antimicrobial agent proven to display in vitro activity against KPC-Kp. We evaluated variables related to the malignancy, the severity and characteristics of the HAI, and the antimicrobial therapy. We identified 83 HAIs due to KPC-Kp. The 30-day mortality was 57.8 % for all infections and 72.7 % for bacteremic infections. Of the 83 patients, 60 patients received ≥48 h of appropriate treatment and 44 (53 %) developed bacteremia. Ten patients (12 %) were neutropenic at HAI diagnosis and 33 (39.8 %) had infection at the tumor site. The most common HAI was urinary tract infection, seen in 26 patients (31.3 %), followed by primary bloodstream infection, seen in 24 patients (28.9 %). Forty-four patients (73.3 %) received combination antimicrobial therapy, most often including polymyxin (68.3 %). Risk factors for 30-day mortality are high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, need for intensive care stay at diagnosis of infection, and acute kidney injury; the removal of invasive devices related to infection and treatment with effective antibiotics for KPC-Kp are protective factors. In cancer patients, high mortality is associated with HAI due to KPC-Kp and mortality risk factors are more often related to acute infection than to the underlying disease.
- Clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of Morganella morganii bacteremia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2014 Aug 9.
Although Morganella morganii causes a variety of clinical infections, there are limited studies on M. morganii bacteremia after the year 2000. A total of 109 patients with M. morganii bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012 were studied. Among them, 30.3 % had polymicrobial bacteremia and 75.2 % had community-acquired infection. The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (62.4 %) and diabetes mellitus (38.5 %). The urinary tract (41.3 %) was the major portal of entry, followed by the hepatobiliary tract (27.5 %), skin and soft tissue (21.1 %), and primary bacteremia (10.1 %). Susceptibility testing of M. morganii isolates showed ubiquitous resistance to first-generation cephalosporins and ampicillin-clavulanate; resistance rates to gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin were 30.3 %, 1.8 %, and 10.1 %, respectively. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 14.7 %. Univariate analysis revealed that elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values [p = 0.0137, odds ratio (OR) 5.26], intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.011, OR 4.4), and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (p < 0.001, OR 1.62) were significantly associated with mortality. The APACHE II score remained the only significant risk factor for mortality in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0012, OR 1.55). In conclusion, M. morganii bacteremia patients were mostly elderly, with one or more comorbidities. Most of the patients had community-acquired infection via the urinary and hepatobiliary tracts. Furthermore, prognosis can be predicted according to disease severity measured by the APACHE II score.
- Vancomycin-resistant Clostridium innocuum bacteremia following oral vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaerobe 2014 Aug 4.
An 85 year-old male initially admitted for septic shock due to urinary tract infection experienced Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea during hospitalization and was treated by oral vancomycin. His clinical course was complicated by cytomegalovirus colitis and then vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum bacteremia, which was cured by uneventfully parenteral piperacillin-tazobactam therapy.
- Trends in antibiotic prescribing in primary care for clinical syndromes subject to national recommendations to reduce antibiotic resistance, UK 1995-2011: analysis of a large database of primary care consultations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2014 Aug 4.
To measure trends in antibiotic prescribing in UK primary care in relation to nationally recommended best practice.A descriptive study linking individual patient data on diagnosis and prescription in a large primary care database, covering 537 UK general practices during 1995-2011.The proportion of cough/cold episodes for which antibiotics were prescribed decreased from 47% in 1995 to 36% in 1999, before increasing to 51% in 2011. There was marked variation by primary care practice in 2011 [10th-90th percentile range (TNPR) 32%-65%]. Antibiotic prescribing for sore throats fell from 77% in 1995 to 62% in 1999 and then stayed broadly stable (TNPR 45%-78%). Where antibiotics were prescribed for sore throat, recommended antibiotics were used in 69% of cases in 2011 (64% in 1995). The use of recommended short-course trimethoprim for urinary tract infection (UTI) in women aged 16-74 years increased from 8% in 1995 to 50% in 2011; however, a quarter of practices prescribed short courses in ≤16% of episodes in 2011. For otitis media, 85% of prescriptions were for recommended antibiotics in 2011, increasing from 77% in 1995. All these changes in annual prescribing were highly statistically significant (P < 0.001).The implementation of national guidelines in UK primary care has had mixed success, with prescribing for coughs/colds, both in total and as a proportion of consultations, now being greater than before recommendations were made to reduce it. Extensive variation by practice suggests that there is significant scope to improve prescribing, particularly for coughs/colds and for UTIs.
- Antibiotic prescribing by telephone in primary care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014 Jul 31.
Little is known about the contribution of telephone-based prescribing on overall antibiotic utilization. The objective of this study was to determine the extent and characteristics of telephone-based antibiotic prescribing in teaching and non-teaching primary care practices.This retrospective cohort study included all patients (n = 114 610) cared for by teaching and non-teaching internal medicine, pediatrics, family practice, and obstetrics/gynecology practices (n = 19) affiliated with a large US healthcare system during 2006-2010 and using a common electronic medical record. Rates and types of antibiotics prescribed by teaching and non-teaching practices via telephone contact and office visit were compared among the overall cohort. All telephone-related prescriptions during 2008 underwent chart review to determine indications for antibiotic prescribing.Overall, 28.9 antibiotic prescriptions were issued per 100 patient-years, with 63 418 total antibiotic prescriptions and 7876 (12.4%) generated after telephone contact. Telephone-based prescribing increased steadily from 2.2 to 4.2 per 100 patient-years during the study period. Both telephone-based and office-based antibiotic prescribing were higher in non-teaching practices. Of 1790 antibiotics prescribed by telephone during 2008, the majority were for urinary tract infection (28.3%), sinusitis (20.1%), and unspecified upper respiratory infection (URI, 15.0%).Overall, one in every eight antibiotics was prescribed via telephone encounter. These data highlight the need to include the impact of this practice in analysis of outcomes associated with outpatient antibiotic prescribing and to incorporate telephonic prescribing into guidelines facilitating appropriate antibiotic use. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- JC polyomavirus attachment, entry, and trafficking: unlocking the keys to a fatal infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurovirol 2014 Jul 31.
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes a lifelong persistent infection in the reno-urinary tract in the majority of the adult population worldwide. In healthy individuals, infection is asymptomatic, while in immunocompromised individuals, the virus can spread to the central nervous system and cause a fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). There are currently very few treatment options for this rapidly progressing and devastating disease. Understanding the basic biology of JCPyV-host cell interactions is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat PML. Research in our laboratory has focused on gaining a detailed mechanistic understanding of the initial steps in the JCPyV life cycle in order to define how JCPyV selectively targets cells in the kidney and brain. JCPyV requires sialic acids to attach to host cells and initiate infection, and JCPyV demonstrates specificity for the oligosaccharide lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc) with an α2,6-linked sialic acid. Following viral attachment, JCPyV entry is facilitated by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 family of serotonin receptors via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. JCPyV then undergoes retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where viral disassembly begins. A novel retrograde transport inhibitor termed Retro-2(cycl) prevents trafficking of JCPyV to the ER and inhibits both initial virus infection and infectious spread in cell culture. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which JCPyV establishes infection will open up new avenues for the prevention or treatment of virus-induced disease.
- Clinical and microbiological characteristics of recurrent group B streptococcal infection among non-pregnant adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Infect Dis 2014 Jul 21.
This study aimed to investigate the clinical and microbiological features of recurrent group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases among non-pregnant adults.All hospitalized non-pregnant adults who had culture-proven GBS infections between January 2008 and December 2010 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Bacterial isolates were examined for their serotypes, genotypes, and antimicrobial resistance.The recurrence rate of GBS infection in Taiwan was found to be 9.3%. Of the 70 recurrent episodes in 32 patients, infections of the urinary tract (U) were diagnosed clinically in 55.7%, infections of the soft tissue (S) in 31.4%, and infections of the bloodstream (B) in 12.9%. The initial/recurrent episodes in 25 patients were mainly U/U (40.6%), followed by S/S (18.8%) and B/B (6.2%). The serotypes/serogroups identified were serotypes V (34.3%), Ib (22.9%), VI (17.1%), III (12.9%), IV (7.1%), and Ia (5.7%). Recurrent strains showed less resistance to erythromycin or clindamycin than non-recurrent strains. Six distinct genotypes were identified in 12 serotype VI isolates derived from seven patients; five of these isolate pairs had identical genotypes.Recurrent GBS diseases were found to occur considerably more often than previously thought, mainly in adults with a high comorbid index. Relapse, not new acquisition, was found to be more common.
- [Risk factors of postoperative meningitis in patients with chiasm-sellar tumors]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Anesteziol Reanimatol 2014 Mar-Apr; (2):10-4.
Postoperative intracranial infectious complications are one of the most topical problems of neurosurgical intensive care due to theirs significant capability to impair outcomes of the main disease.To define the risk factors of postoperative meningitis in patients with chiasm-sellar tumors.1. to define the effect of somatic and intracranial risk factors on occurrence of postoperative meningitis in patients after transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches to the tumor. 2. To define the effect of postoperative meningitis on outcomes of treatment in patients after transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches to the tumor.Somatic and intracranial risk factors of occurrence of postoperative meningitis (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, intra-abdominal hypertension, the presence of external ventricular and lumbar drainage, monitoring of intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid, and reoperation) were fixed every day. The study was conducted in the ICU of the Burdenko from October, 2010 to July, 2012. The 34 patients (19 males, 15 females) were included in the study (average age 47.5 years). The patients were divided into two groups; 17 patients each group. The group-1 included patients after transcranial approach to the tumor and the group-2 included patients after transsphenoidal approach.In the group-1 a meningitis occurred in 3 patients (17.6% +/- 9.2%, DI [-0.4 - 35.6]). In the group-2 a meningitis occurred in 7 patients (41.2% +/- 11.9) DI 95% [17.8 - 64.4]. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid under the skin flap authentically increased a risk of a meningitis occurrence in patients after transcranial approach to the tumor (p = 0.031). There was no defined statistical significance of other risk factors. But there was defined a trend of the increasing of meningitis occurrence in patients after transsphenoidal approach in case of lumbar drainage or reoperation. Duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay in patients with meningitis was authentically longer than in patients without meningitis in both groups. In the group-2 the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay was significantly shorter than in the group-1.Meningitis is not a typical complication of postoperative period in patients with transcranial approach to the tumor. After transsphenoidal approach a meningitis occurrence is likely in case of postoperative liquorrhea, lumbar drainage or reoperation. Subcutaneous accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid is a single defined statistically significant risk factor of meningitis. Postoperative meningitis impairs a condition of patients with chiasm-sellar tumors, increases the duration of mechanical ventilation and impairs treatment outcomes.