Infectious disease AND Urinary tract infection [keywords]
- Ongoing higher infection rate in ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipient: is it a serious problem? A single-center experience. [Journal Article]
- Ann Surg Treat Res 2016 Jul; 91(1):37-44.
Additional clinical experience and knowledge regarding the barrier to transplantation of ABO blood type incompatibility could reduce the higher rate of infectious complications in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.A total of 79 ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOiKT) patients were compared with 260 ABO-compatible kidney transplantation (ABOcKT) patients for basic clinical characteristics, infectious complications, rejection episodes, and graft survival.There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, rejection rates, or graft survival between the ABOiKT and ABOcKT patients. No significant difference in the infection rate was shown for cytomegalovirus (26.6% vs. 30.0%; P = 0.672), BK virus (19.0% vs. 21.5%; P = 0.752), herpes disease (10.1% vs. 5.0%; P = 0.082), pneumonia (5.3% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.746), or urinary tract infection (8.9% vs. 10.0%; P > 0.999). Female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; P = 0.003), advanced age (≥60 years) (HR, 2.5; P = 0.019), history of rejection episodes (HR, 2.28; P = 0.016), and history of surgical complications (HR, 4.64; P = 0.018) were significant risk factors for infection. ABO incompatibility demonstrated a tendency toward higher infection risk without statistical significance (HR, 1.74; P = 0.056).In spite of immunosuppressant protocol modification, the rate of infectious complications following ABOiKT is still higher than with ABOcKT when a modified desensitization protocol is used. However, this was not sufficient to avoid ABOiKT.
- Persistent infection with metallo-beta-lactamase and extended spectrum β-lactamase producer Morganella morganii in a patient with urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation. [Journal Article]
- J Nat Sci Biol Med 2016 Jul-Dec; 7(2):179-81.
Organ transplant recipients under immunosuppressive therapy have a highly increased risk of acquiring unusual opportunistic infections. Diagnosis of the etiology of infection may be difficult in clinical manifestations, which need further histological and biological investigations. Here in we report, for the 1(st) time in the Iran, a Morganella morganii isolate harboring blaVIM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes after kidney transplantation with persistent urinary infections.
- Detection of intracellular bacteria in exfoliated urothelial cells from women with urge incontinence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pathog Dis 2016 Jul 7.
The role of subclinical infection in patients with urge incontinence has been largely ignored. The aim of this study was to test for the presence of intracellular bacteria in the urine of patients with detrusor overactivity or mixed incontinence +/- a history of UTI, and compare this to a control group of patients with stress incontinence and no history of infection. Bacterial cystitis was assessed by routine microbiology and compared to microscopic analysis of urine by Wright staining. Subsequent analysis of urothelial cells by confocal microscopy was performed to determine the existence of intracellular bacteria. Bacterial cystitis was seen in 13% of patients based on routine microbiology. Wright staining of concentrated urothelial cells demonstrated the presence of bacteria in 72% of samples. Filamentous bacterial cells were observed in 51% of patients and were significantly more common in patients with detrusor overactivity. Intracellular E. coli were observed by confocal microscopy. This study supports the possibility that a subset of patients with urge incontinence may have unrecognised chronic bacterial colonisation, maintained via an intracellular reservoir. In patients with negative routine microbiology, application of the techniques used in this study revealed evidence of infection, providing further insights into the aetiology of urge incontinence.
- Accuracy of ICD-10 Coding System for Identifying Comorbidities and Infectious Conditions Using Data from a Thai University Hospital Administrative Database. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Med Assoc Thai 2016 Apr; 99(4):368-73.
To determine the accuracy of International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding system in identifying comorbidities and infectious conditions using data from a Thai university hospital administrative database.A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients hospitalized in six general medicine wards at Siriraj Hospital. ICD-10 code data was identified and retrieved directly from the hospital administrative database. Patient comorbidities were captured using the ICD-10 coding algorithm for the Charlson comorbidity index. Infectious conditions were captured using the groups of ICD-10 diagnostic codes that were carefully prepared by two independent infectious disease specialists. Accuracy of ICD-10 codes combined with microbiological dataf or diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) and bloodstream infection (BSI) was evaluated. Clinical data gathered from chart review was considered the gold standard in this study.Between February 1 and May 31, 2013, a chart review of 546 hospitalization records was conducted. The mean age of hospitalized patients was 62.8 ± 17.8 years and 65.9% of patients were female. Median length of stay [range] was 10.0 [1.0-353.0] days and hospital mortality was 21.8%. Conditions with ICD-10 codes that had good sensitivity (90% or higher) were diabetes mellitus and HIV infection. Conditions with ICD-10 codes that had good specificity (90% or higher) were cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer HIV infection, and all infectious conditions. By combining ICD-10 codes with microbiological results, sensitivity increased from 49.5 to 66%for UTI and from 78.3 to 92.8%for BS.The ICD-10 coding algorithm is reliable only in some selected conditions, including underlying diabetes mellitus and HIV infection. Combining microbiological results with ICD-10 codes increased sensitivity of ICD-10 codes for identifying BSI. Future research is needed to improve the accuracy of hospital administrative coding system in Thailand.
- Site of infection and mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. A cohort study of patients admitted to a Danish general intensive care unit. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Infect Dis (Lond) 2016 Oct; 48(10):726-731.
The search for the site of infection has high priority in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However, it is questionable whether mortality is associated with the specific site of infection in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, the 30-day and 90-day mortalities in ICU patients admitted with suspected or confirmed community-acquired infection were studied.A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including all adult patients admitted to a multi-specialty tertiary ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock from November 2008 to October 2010. The site of infection was classified according to criteria set for healthcare associated infections and infections in the acute care setting by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between site of infection and 30- and 90-day all-cause mortality, adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities.Three hundred and eighty-eight patients were included. One or more comorbidities were present in 76% of patients. Across all sites of infection, there were more patients with septic shock than patients with severe sepsis. The most frequent site of infection was pneumonia, followed by gastrointestinal infection. Urinary tract infection was found to be an independent predictor of mortality among septic ICU patients when adjusting for sex, age and comorbidities.The results suggest that identification of correct site of infection is important in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock.
- Incidence, Risk Factors, and Sources of Sepsis Following Total Joint Arthroplasty. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Arthroplasty 2016 May 27.
Sepsis is a rare but serious complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Common sources include urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), and pneumonia. The purpose of this study is to characterize the incidence, risk factors, and sources of sepsis following TJA.Patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty during 2005-2013 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Independent associations were tested for using multivariate regression adjusting for baseline characteristics.A total of 117,935 patients were identified (45,612 undergoing total hip arthroplasty and 72,323 undergoing total knee arthroplasty). Of these, 402 (0.34%) developed sepsis following surgery. Patients who developed sepsis had an elevated mortality rate (3.7% vs 0.1%, P < .001). Among the 402 patients who developed sepsis, 124 (31%) had concomitant UTI, 110 (27%) SSI, and 60 (15%) pneumonia. Twenty-one patients (5%) had multiple infectious sources and 129 patients (32%) had no identifiable source. Independent risk factors for sepsis included greater age, male sex, functional dependence, insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, current smoker, and greater operative time.These findings suggest that the rate of sepsis following TJA is about 1 in 300, and that sepsis is associated with a high risk of mortality. The most common sources of sepsis are UTI, SSI, and pneumonia, potentially accounting for at least two-thirds of cases. The information provided here can be used to guide the diagnostic workup of sepsis in patients following TJA.
- Coordination of Metabolism and Virulence Factors Expression of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Purified from Blood Cultures of Patients with Sepsis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jun 30.
One of the trademarks of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli is adaptation of metabolism and basic physiology to diverse host sites. However, little is known how this common human pathogen adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. We used label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize five E. coli strains purified from clinical blood cultures associated with sepsis and urinary tract infections. Further comparison of proteome profiles of the clinical strains and a reference uropathogenic E. coli strain 536 cultivated in blood culture and on two different solid media distinguished cellular features altered in response to the pathogenically relevant condition. The analysis covered nearly 60% of the strains predicted proteomes, and included quantitative description based on label-free intensity scores for 90% of the detected proteins. Statistical comparison of anaerobic and aerobic blood cultures revealed 32 differentially expressed proteins (1.5% of the shared proteins), mostly associated with acquisition and utilization of metal ions critical for anaerobic or aerobic respiration. Analysis of variance identified significantly altered amounts of 47 proteins shared by the strains (2.7%), including proteins involved in vitamin B6 metabolism and virulence. Although the proteomes derived from blood cultures were fairly similar for the investigated strains, quantitative proteomic comparison to the growth on solid media identified 200 proteins with substantially changed levels (11% of the shared proteins). Blood culture was characterized by upregulation of anaerobic fermentative metabolism and multiple virulence traits, including cell motility and iron acquisition. In a response to the growth on solid media there were increased levels of proteins functional in aerobic respiration, catabolism of medium-specific carbon sources and protection against oxidative and osmotic stresses. These results demonstrate on the expressed proteome level that expression of extraintestinal virulence factors and overall cellular metabolism closely reflects specific growth conditions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002912.
- Impact of eliminating reflex urine cultures on performed urine cultures and antibiotic use. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Infect Control 2016 Jun 24.
Inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is often the result of unnecessary urinalyses and urine cultures. This study aimed to determine the impact of stopping the practice of reflex urine cultures. Our study demonstrated that stopping urine reflex cultures decreased the number of urine cultures performed and there was a trend toward a decrease in antibiotic use.
- Ceftolozane sulfate with tazobactam sodium. [Journal Article, Review]
- Aust Prescr 2016 Jun; 39(3):106-7.