Infectious disease AND Vaginitis [keywords]
- Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(1):e0146186.
Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans.
- A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections. [Journal Article]
- Clin Infect Dis 2015 Dec 15.:S837-48.
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern.
- Sexually Transmitted Infections. [Journal Article, Review]
- Urol Clin North Am 2015 Nov; 42(4):507-18.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant burden on public health in the United States. Primary prevention counseling with early diagnosis and treatment remain the best methods to decrease the incidence of STIs. Through significant public heath interventions, the incidence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and trichomoniasis is decreasing; however, the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis is increasing. Human papilloma virus remains the most common STI, but new vaccinations have the possibility of having a significant impact on this virus's disease potential. This review discusses the most common STIs in the United States, focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
- Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Pathogens 2015; 4(4):697-707.
The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
- Burden of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mycoses 2015 Oct.:6-14.
We have estimated the number of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic. All published epidemiology papers reporting Czech fungal infection rates were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations. Population statistics were obtained from the 2011 Census data, prevalence and incidence data for at-risk conditions were obtained from publicly accessible healthcare statistics and relevant surveys. We estimate that 152,840 Czech women suffer with recurrent vaginal thrush. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is likely in 4739 adults and 6581 more have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. Hypersensitivity pneumonitits secondary to fungi is estimated in 1050 cases and 365 people may have chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Oesophageal candidiasis is estimated in 210 HIV-positive people. There are 12 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV population and 60 more cases in non-HIV population. There are an estimated 526 cases of candidaemia, 79 cases of Candida peritonitis and 297 cases of invasive aspergillosis a year. About 176,000 (1.67%) Czech people suffer from severe fungal infections each year, predominantly from recurrent vaginitis and allergic respiratory conditions. Substantial uncertainty surrounds these estimates except for invasive aspergillosis in haematology and candidaemia in critical care.
- Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to group A Streptococcus vaginitis. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Chemother 2015 Dec; 21(12):873-6.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a systemic illness usually caused in the setting of infection by group A Streptococcus (GAS). The primary infections are often invasive infections of the respiratory tract or necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some infections occur without relevant focus. GAS vaginitis is a rare condition among adult women and is accordingly thought to be uncommon as a cause of streptococcal TSS. Here we report the cases of two postmenopausal women with streptococcal TSS secondary to GAS vaginitis, one aged 55 and one aged 60. Both came to our emergency department with complaints or symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure. In both cases, the relevant factor associated with streptococcal infection was a recent episode of GAS vaginitis. Both underwent fluid management and 14 days of antibiotic treatment and fully recovered without complications. Vaginitis was likely to be the primary infectious trigger of TSS in these two cases. Intrauterine device insertion, endometrial biopsy, and post-partum state have all been previously reported in TSS patients, and the female genital tract has been described as a portal of entry. GAS vaginitis warrants appropriate treatment as it may progress to severe systemic infection as described.
- HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum is associated with genital infections and partnership characteristics. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- AIDS 2015 Sep 24; 29(15):2025-33.
The objective of this study is to determine the risk and cofactors for HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum.A prospective cohort study: Pregnant women in western Kenya were enrolled if HIV seronegative at that visit or within 3 months. Serial HIV nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) were conducted at 1 to 3-month intervals to 9 months postpartum. Genital swabs were collected for detection of chlamydia and gonorrhoea at baseline, and for trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis and yeast at baseline and follow-up.Among 1304 pregnant women, median age was 22 years, 78% were married for a median of 4 years, 66% reported knowing partner HIV status and 8% reported using condoms. Study retention was 98%. During 1235 person-years of follow-up, HIV incidence was 2.31/100 person-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.71-4.10]. Incident HIV was associated with syphilis (hazard ratio 9.18, 95% CI 2.15-39.3), chlamydia (hazard ratio 4.49, 95% CI 1.34-15.0), bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio 2.91, 95% CI 1.25-6.76), yeast (hazard ratio 3.46, 95% CI 1.46-8.19), sexually transmitted infection (STI) history (hazard ratio 3.48, 95% CI 1.31-9.27), lifetime number of sex partners (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.37), partner age discordance (hazard ratio 1.07 per year, 95% CI 1.02-1.13) and shorter marriage (hazard ratio 1.19 per year, 95% CI 1.03-1.38). No women with incident HIV reported an HIV-infected partner. In multivariate analyses, chlamydia, older partners and yeast infection remained significant; however, power was limited.Pregnant and lactating women may not perceive HIV risk and rarely used condoms. Prevention and treatment of genital infections and risk stratification to identify women for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could decrease HIV acquisition in pregnant/lactating women.
- Effect of ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli vaginal tablets (Gynoflor®) on inflammatory and infectious markers of the vaginal ecosystem in postmenopausal women with breast cancer on aromatase inhibitors. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2015 Oct; 34(10):2023-8.
This study was a detailed microscopic analysis of the changes of vaginal microflora characteristics after application of 0.03 mg estriol-lactobacilli combination on the vaginal ecosystem in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) survivors on aromatase inhibitors (AI) with severe atrophic vaginitis. A total of 16 BC women on AI applied daily one vaginal tablet of Gynoflor® for 28 days followed by a maintenance therapy of three tablets weekly for 8 weeks. During four follow up visits a smear from the upper lateral vaginal wall was analysed by phase contrast microscopy at 400 times magnification in order to classify the lactobacillary grades(LBG), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), proportional number of leukocytes and evidence of parabasal cells and epitheliolysis. LBG improved from 81% LBG-III at entry to 88% LBG-I&IIa after 2 weeks of initial therapy, which further improved upon follow up (p < 0.001). Whereas BV was a rare event, AV was frequent and substantially improved during treatment (p < 0.01). While at entry most patients had moderate or severe AV, after maintenance therapy no patient except one had AV. The number of leukocytes dropped dramatically from a score of 1.78 ± 0.70 to 1.06 ± 0.25 which was consistent till the end of the study (p < 0.01). Parabasal cells dropped from a score of 3.4 ± 0.64 at entry to 1.3 ± 0.60 at the final visit (p trend < 0.01). Starting from a low rate of Candida colonisation of 2/14 (14%), a sudden rise to 7/16 (44%) occurred after 2 weeks, to return back to base levels at subsequent visits. The vaginal use of ultra-low dose estriol and lactobacilli results in rapid and enduring improvement of all markers of the vaginal microflora and epithelial vaginal cell quality in women with breast cancer on AI with dyspareunia. Candida may develop soon after its use, but rapidly disappears again upon their prolonged use. Due to its excellent safety profiles and clinical efficacy we recommend this product as first choice in women on AI with severe dyspareunia.
- First Trimester Levels of BV-Associated Bacteria and Risk of Miscarriage Among Women Early in Pregnancy. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Matern Child Health J 2015 Dec; 19(12):2682-7.
Prior studies have examined the role of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and increased risk of miscarriage; however the risk has been modest and many BV positive pregnant women deliver at term. BV is microbiologically heterogeneous, and thus the identification of specific BV-associated bacteria associated with miscarriage is warranted.We measured the presence and level of seven BV-associated bacteria prior to 14 weeks gestation among urban pregnant women seeking routine prenatal care at five urban obstetric practices at Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia PA from July 2008 through September 2011. 418 Pregnant women were included in this assessment and 74 experienced a miscarriage.Mean log concentration of BVAB3 was significantly higher among women experiencing a miscarriage (4.27 vs. 3.71, p value = 0.012). Younger women with high levels of BVAB3 had the greatest risk of miscarriage. In addition, we found a significant decreased risk of miscarriage among women with higher log concentrations of Leptotrichia/Sneathia species or Megasphaera phylotype 1-like species early in pregnancy.The identification of selected vaginal bacteria associated with an increased risk of miscarriage could support screening programs early in pregnancy and promote early therapies to reduce early pregnancy loss.
- New Perspectives on the Normal Vagina and Noninfectious Causes of Discharge. [Journal Article]
- Clin Obstet Gynecol 2015 Sep; 58(3):453-63.
An understanding of how the vaginal flora is influenced by hormonal status is crucial in distinguishing normal from abnormal secretions. New studies exploring the vaginal microbiome with culture-independent techniques have led to the discovery of previously uncultivable bacteria on a species level, and have contributed to a better understanding of disease processes including bacterial vaginosis. It is important to note that not all vaginal discharge is abnormal or infectious in etiology, but a thorough evaluation will help reassure both the patient and the provider.