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Infectious disease AND Vaginitis [keywords]
- Lamisil versus clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Microbiol 2013 Mar; 5(1):86-90.
Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on vaginitis versus clotrimazole.In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases) was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases) with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Our results shows that 12 (37.5%) patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8%) patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8%) patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0%) patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0%) of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0%) of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.
- [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Arch Pediatr 2013 Jan; 20(1):37-40.
Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.
- Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans vulvovaginitis. [Journal Article]
- Obstet Gynecol 2012 Dec; 120(6):1407-14.
As a result of high recurrence rates of Candida albicans vaginitis, successful suppressive fluconazole is widely used, and drug resistance is considered rare. We report increased occurrence of secondary fluconazole resistance, analysis of risk factors thereof, and describe management of fluconazole-refractory vaginitis.Patients referred to the Vaginitis Clinic at Wayne State University with clinically refractory fluconazole-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 2 micrograms/mL or greater) C albicans vaginitis from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled. Patients completed a questionnaire pertaining to demographics, comorbidities, behavioral characteristics, exposure to antimicrobials and antifungals, fluconazole consumption in defined daily doses in the previous 6 months, management received, and outcomes. With patients not located, data were extracted from charts. Susceptibilities to antifungals were determined by broth microdilution.Twenty-five women with fluconazole-resistant recurrent C albicans vaginitis were identified, and 16 returned filled questionnaires. Study cohort consisted mainly of married, insured white women with more than 12 years of formal education and average or above average socioeconomic status. Median fluconazole MIC was 8 micrograms/mL (range 2-128 micrograms/mL). Risk factors for mycologic failure included increased fluconazole consumption (P=.03) with 16 of 25 women exposed to low-dose weekly fluconazole maintenance therapy. All patients were clinically controlled successfully, although treatment was difficult and often prolonged.Fluconazole-resistant C albicans vaginitis was previously considered rare. We report 25 cases over an 11-year period, indicating an emerging problem. All patients had fluconazole consumption in the previous 6 months. Management of fluconazole refractory disease is extremely difficult with limited options, and new therapeutic modalities are needed.
- Opportunistic infections in women with HIV AIDS. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Obstet Gynecol 2012 Dec; 55(4):927-37.
Women account for half of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infections. Heterosexual contact is the leading risk factor in women. Over 50% of patients are significantly immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Women with advanced HIV infection are at a risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). OIs lead to significant morbidity and cost. Some of OIs may impact women more significantly than men, that is, human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. OIs during pregnancy can increase the risk of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV and some OIs, such as Hepatitis C. This chapter will review of OIs that are most important in women's health.
- Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Lancet Infect Dis 2012 Oct; 12(10):765-73.
We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities.In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18-29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50 000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548.15 261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners.Defining of high-risk groups could guide targeting of interventions for communicable diseases-including STIs-in the general Peruvian population.Wellcome Trust-Burroughs Wellcome Fund Infectious Disease Initiative and US National Institutes of Health.
- Bacterial communities in women with bacterial vaginosis: high resolution phylogenetic analyses reveal relationships of microbiota to clinical criteria. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Validation Studies]
- PLoS One 2012; 7(6):e37818.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV.Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and pyrosequencing were performed on vaginal swabs from 220 women with and without BV. BV was assessed by Amsel's clinical criteria and confirmed by Gram stain. Taxonomic classification was performed using phylogenetic placement tools that assigned 99% of query sequence reads to the species level. Women with BV had heterogeneous vaginal bacterial communities that were usually not dominated by a single taxon. In the absence of BV, vaginal bacterial communities were dominated by either Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners. Leptotrichia amnionii and Eggerthella sp. were the only two BV-associated bacteria (BVABs) significantly associated with each of the four Amsel's criteria. Co-occurrence analysis revealed the presence of several sub-groups of BVABs suggesting metabolic co-dependencies. Greater abundance of several BVABs was observed in Black women without BV.The human vaginal bacterial biota is heterogeneous and marked by greater species richness and diversity in women with BV; no species is universally present. Different bacterial species have different associations with the four clinical criteria, which may account for discrepancies often observed between Amsel and Nugent (Gram stain) diagnostic criteria. Several BVABs exhibited race-dependent prevalence when analyzed in separate groups by BV status which may contribute to increased incidence of BV in Black women. Tools developed in this project can be used to study microbial ecology in diverse settings at high resolution.
- Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification assay. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Clin Microbiol 2012 Aug; 50(8):2601-8.
Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥ 40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women <30 years old. Coinfection prevalences were 1.3% for C. trachomatis/T. vaginalis, 0.61% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae and N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis, and 0.24% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis and highest in women <30 years old. T. vaginalis prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence in black women (20.2%). T. vaginalis prevalence ranged from 5.4% in family planning clinics to 22.3% in jails. Multivariate analysis determined that ages of ≥ 40 years, black race, and patient locations were significantly associated with T. vaginalis infection. T. vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in women of >40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, should be screened for T. vaginalis.
- Role of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals from India (South). [Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2012 May-Jun; 78(3):323-7.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite and an etiological agent for trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Fifty to eighty percentage of women with trichomoniasis are asymptomatic and in the absence of treatment the infection persists longer.To evaluate the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis and also to look at the frequency of infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women.A non-nested PCR was standardized to detect 102 bp size amplified product of the adhesin gene of T. vaginalis. The real time performance of this assay was performed with vaginal swab samples from 198 HIV-seropositive women who attended the infectious disease clinic and compared with wet mount and culture in Diamond's modified media.Among the prospectively studied 198 HIV-infected women, 1 (0.51%) was positive by wet mount, 6 (3.03%) were positive by culture and 10 (5.02%) were positive by the PCR. There was a significant observed agreement between the PCR and culture (k=0.74, Z=10.7, P<0.0000).Our study showed that the PCR assay for the amplification of adhesion gene is a highly sensitive method to screen the high risk group individuals like HIV-positive women for Trichomonas vaginalis compared to the culture. Testing algorithm should be, wet mount and if negative, test by PCR as it is rapid compared to culture which takes 7 days.
- Recent progress in vaccines against fungal diseases. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Curr Opin Microbiol 2012 Aug; 15(4):427-33.
Diseases caused by fungi are increasingly impacting the health of the human population and now account for a large fraction of infectious disease complications in individuals with impaired immunity or breached tissue defenses. Antifungal therapy is often of limited effectiveness in these patients, resulting into treatment failures, chronic infections and unacceptable rates of mortality, morbidity and their associated costs. Consequently there is a real medical need for new treatments and preventive measures to combat fungal diseases and, toward this goal, safe and efficacious vaccines would constitute major progress. After decades of complacency and neglect of this critically important field of research, remarkable progress has been made in recent years. A number of highly immunogenic and protective vaccine formulations in preclinical setting have been developed, and at least two have undergone Phase 1 clinical trials as preventive and/or therapeutic tools against candidiasis.