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Infectious disease AND Vaginitis [keywords]
- Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis. [Journal Article]
- J Glob Infect Dis 2014 Jul; 6(3):122-4.
Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.
- Frequency and risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active, young, multi-ethnic women: a community based cohort study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sex Transm Infect 2014 Nov; 90(7):524-8.
To investigate the frequency and risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active, young, multi-ethnic women in the community.Cohort study.20 London universities and Further Education colleges.954 sexually experienced women, mean age 21.5 years (range 16-27), 26% from ethnic minorities, who were recruited to the Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) chlamydia screening trial between 2004 and 2006, and returned repeat postal self-taken vaginal swabs 11-32 (median 16) months after recruitment.The estimated annual incidence of chlamydia infection among 907 women who tested negative at baseline was 3.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 2.5 to 4.6 per 100 person-years), but 6.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.5 to 9.3 per 100 person-years) in the 326 teenagers (<20 years). Predictors of incident chlamydia infection were age <20 years (relative risk (RR) 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 7.5), and (after adjusting for age) a new sexual partner during 12 months follow-up (RR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0 to 9.9), smoking (RR 2.2 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9), concurrent bacterial vaginosis (RR 2.0 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9) and high risk carcinogenic human papillomavirus (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3). Of 47 women positive for chlamydia at baseline, 12 (25.5%, 95% CI 13.9% to 40.3%) had redetected infection at a median of 16 months follow-up. Taking into account follow-up time (65 person-years), the annual redetection rate was 18.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 9.9 to 30.0 per 100 person-years).One in four women with chlamydia infection at baseline retested positive, supporting recent recommendations to routinely retest chlamydia positives.
- HPTN 035 phase II/IIb randomised safety and effectiveness study of the vaginal microbicides BufferGel and 0.5% PRO 2000 for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in women. [Clinical Trial, Phase II, Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Sex Transm Infect 2014 Aug; 90(5):363-9.
To estimate the effectiveness of candidate microbicides BufferGel and 0.5% PRO 2000 Gel (P) (PRO 2000) for prevention of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Between 2005 and 2007, 3099 women were enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) protocol 035, a phase II/IIb evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of BufferGel and PRO 2000 for prevention of STIs, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Incidences of STIs were determined by study arm, and HRs of BufferGel and PRO 2000 versus placebo gel or no gel control groups were computed using discrete time Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model.The overall incidence rates were 1.6/100 person-years at risk (PYAR) for NG, 3.9/100 PYAR for CT and 15.3/100 PYAR for TV. For BufferGel versus placebo gel, HRs were 0.99 (95% CI 0.49 to 2.00), 1.00 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.57) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.25) for prevention of NG, CT and TV, respectively. For PRO 2000, HRs were 1.66 (95% CI 0.90 to 3.06), 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.79) and 1.18 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.53) for prevention of NG, CT and TV, respectively.The incidence of STIs was high during HIV Prevention Trials Network 035 despite provision of free condoms and comprehensive risk-reduction counselling, highlighting the need for effective STI prevention programmes in this population. Unfortunately, candidate microbicides BufferGel and PRO2000 had no protective effect against gonorrhoea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis.NCT00074425.
- Cross-sectional analysis of Toll-like receptor variants and bacterial vaginosis in African-American women with pelvic inflammatory disease. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- Sex Transm Infect 2014 Nov; 90(7):563-6.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition associated with serious complications including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). However, the pathogenesis of BV is poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are responsible for microbial recognition and elimination through inflammatory responses. TLR variants have been implicated in infectious and inflammatory diseases and may be involved in BV pathogenesis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine if TLR variants are associated with BV.Logistic regression was used to test associations between 14 variants assayed in 6 genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TIRAP and MyD88) and BV/intermediate flora among 192 African-American women with clinical PID from the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Study. Additionally, we examined associations between variants and endometrial BV-associated anaerobes. To account for multiple comparisons a permutated p<0.003 was used to determine statistical significance.African-American women with PID carrying the AA genotype for TLR2 SNP rs1898830 had a threefold increased rate of BV/intermediate flora (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.3). This was not significant after accounting for multiple comparisons (p=0.0201). TLR2 variants rs1898830, rs11938228 and rs3804099 were associated with increased endometrial anaerobic gram-negative rods (p=0.0107, p=0.0076 p=0.0121), anaerobic non-pigmented Gram-negative rods (p=0.0231, p=0.0083, p=0.0044), and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (p=0.0596, p=0.0640, p=0.1459).Among African-American women with PID, we observed trends between TLR2 variants, BV/intermediate flora, and BV-associated microbes. This provides some insight into BV pathogenesis. As not all BV-associated microbes may lead to pathology, future studies should focus on associations between TLR variants and individual BV-associated microbes.
- Increased susceptibility to vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus transmission in pig-tailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Infect Dis 2014 Oct 15; 210(8):1239-47.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but their biological effect on HIV susceptibility is not fully understood.Female pig-tailed macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis (n = 9) or medium (controls; n = 7) were repeatedly challenged intravaginally with SHIVSF162p3. Virus levels were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, plasma and genital cytokine levels by Luminex assays, and STI clinical signs by colposcopy.Simian/HIV (SHIV) susceptibility was enhanced in STI-positive macaques (P = .04, by the log-rank test; relative risk, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.6]). All STI-positive macaques were SHIV infected, whereas 3 controls (43%) remained uninfected. Moreover, relative to STI-negative animals, SHIV infections occurred earlier in the menstrual cycle in STI-positive macaques (P = .01, by the Wilcoxon test). Levels of inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ, interleukin 6, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]) were higher in STI-positive macaques during STI inoculation and SHIV exposure periods (P ≤ .05, by the Wilcoxon test).C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis infection increase the susceptibility to SHIV, likely because of prolonged genital tract inflammation. These novel data demonstrate a biological link between these nonulcerative STIs and the risk of SHIV infection, supporting epidemiological associations of HIV and STIs. This study establishes a macaque model for studies of high-risk HIV transmission and prevention.
- Best practices to minimize risk of infection with intrauterine device insertion. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014 Mar; 36(3):266-76.
Intrauterine devices provide an extremely effective, long-term form of contraception that has the benefit of being reversible. Historically, the use of certain intrauterine devices was associated with increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. More recent evidence suggests that newer devices do not carry the same threat; however, certain risk factors can increase the possibility of infection.To review the risk of infection with the insertion of intrauterine devices and recommend strategies to prevent infection.The outcomes considered were the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, the impact of screening for bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhea; and the role of prophylactic antibiotics.Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library on July 21, 2011, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., intrauterine devices, pelvic inflammatory disease) and key words (e.g., adnexitis, endometritis, IUD). An etiological filter was applied in PubMed. The search was limited to the years 2000 forward. There were no language restrictions. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. All women requesting an intrauterine device should be counselled about the small increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in the first 20 days after insertion. (II-2A) 2. All women requesting an intrauterine device should be screened by both history and physical examination for their risk of sexually transmitted infection. Women at increased risk should be tested prior to or at the time of insertion; however, it is not necessary to delay insertion until results are returned. (II-2B) 3. Not enough current evidence is available to support routine screening for bacterial vaginosis at the time of insertion of an intrauterine device in asymptomatic women. (II-2C) 4. Routine use of prophylactic antibiotics is not recommended prior to intrauterine device insertion, although it may be used in certain high-risk situations. (I-C) 5. Standard practice includes cleansing the cervix and sterilizing any instruments that will be used prior to and during insertion of an intrauterine device. (III-C) 6. In treating mild to moderate pelvic inflammatory disease, it is not necessary to remove the intrauterine device during treatment unless the patient requests removal or there is no clinical improvement after 72 hours of appropriate antibiotic treatment. In cases of severe pelvic inflammatory disease, consideration can be given to removing the intrauterine device after an appropriate antibiotic regimen has been started. (I-B) 7. An intrauterine device is a safe, effective option for contraception in an HIV-positive woman. (I-B) 8. An intrauterine device can be considered a first-line contraceptive agent in adolescents. (I-A).
- The sexual health of female sex workers compared with other women in England: analysis of cross-sectional data from genitourinary medicine clinics. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sex Transm Infect 2014 Jun; 90(4):344-50.
While female sex workers (FSWs) are assumed to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there are limited comparative data with other population groups available. Using routine STI surveillance data, we investigated differences in sexual health between FSWs and other female attendees at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England.Demographic characteristics, STI prevalence and service usage among FSWs and other attendees in 2011 were compared using logistic regression.In 2011, 2704 FSWs made 8411 recorded visits to 131/208 GUM clinics, (primarily large, FSW-specialist centres in London). FSWs used a variety of services, however, 10% did not have an STI/HIV test at presentation. By comparison with other female attendees, FSWs travelled further for their care and had increased risk of certain STIs (e.g., gonorrhoea ORadj: 2.76, 95% CI 2.16 to 3.54, p<0.001). Migrant FSWs had better sexual health outcomes than UK-born FSWs (e.g., period prevalence of chlamydia among those tested: 8.5% vs 13.5%, p<0.001) but were more likely to experience non-STI outcomes (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease ORadj: 2.92, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.41, p<0.001).FSWs in England have access to high-quality care through the GUM clinic network, but there is evidence of geographical inequality in access to these services. A minority do not appear to access STI/HIV testing through clinics, and some STIs are more prevalent among FSWs than other female attendees. Targeted interventions aimed at improving uptake of testing in FSWs should be developed, and need to be culturally sensitive to the needs of this predominantly migrant population.
- Bacterial vaginosis and the risk of trichomonas vaginalis acquisition among HIV-1-negative women. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Sex Transm Dis 2014 Feb; 41(2):123-8.
The vaginal microbiota may play a role in mediating susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, including Trichomonas vaginalis (TV).Data were analyzed from HIV-1-seronegative women participating in HIV Prevention Trials Network Protocol 035. At quarterly visits for up to 30 months, participants completed structured interviews and specimens were collected for genital tract infection testing. T. vaginalis was detected by saline microscopy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was characterized by Gram stain using the Nugent score (BV = 7-10; intermediate = 4-6; normal = 0-3 [reference group]). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study site were used to assess the association between Nugent score category at the prior quarterly visit and TV acquisition.In this secondary analysis, 2920 participants from Malawi, South Africa, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe contributed 16,259 follow-up visits. Bacterial vaginosis was detected at 5680 (35%) visits, and TV was detected at 400 (2.5%) visits. Adjusting for age, marital status, hormonal contraceptive use, unprotected sex in the last week and TV at baseline, intermediate Nugent score, and BV at the prior visit were associated with an increased risk of TV (intermediate score: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.19; BV: aHR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.92-3.00). Sensitivity analyses excluding 211 participants with TV at baseline were similar to those from the full study population (intermediate score: aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.14; BV: aHR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.75-2.84).Women with a Nugent score higher than 3 were at an increased risk for acquiring TV. If this relationship is causal, interventions that improve the vaginal microbiota could contribute to reductions in TV incidence.
- Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA by use of self-obtained vaginal swabs with the BD ProbeTec Qx assay on the BD Viper system. [Comparative Study, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Clin Microbiol 2014 Mar; 52(3):885-9.
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and improved diagnostic methods are critical for controlling this pathogen. Diagnostic assays that can be used in conjunction with routine chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid-based screening are likely to have the most impact on disease control. Here we describe the performance of the new BD T. vaginalis Qx (TVQ) amplified DNA assay, which can be performed on the automated BD Viper system. We focus on data from vaginal swab samples, since this is the specimen type routinely used for traditional trichomonas testing and the recommended specimen type for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. Vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease or family planning clinics at 7 sites. Patient-collected vaginal swabs were tested by the TVQ assay, and the Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) assay was performed using clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Additional clinician-collected vaginal swabs were used for the wet mount and culture methods. Analyses included comparisons versus the patient infection status (PIS) defined by positive results with the wet mount method or culture, direct comparisons assessed with κ scores, and latent class analysis (LCA) as an unbiased estimator of test accuracy. Data from 838 women, 116 of whom were infected with T. vaginalis, were analyzed. The TVQ assay sensitivity and specificity estimates based on the PIS were 98.3% and 99.0%, respectively. The TVQ assay was similar to the ATV assay (κ=0.938) in direct analysis. LCA estimated the TVQ sensitivity and specificity as 98.3 and 99.6%, respectively. The TVQ assay performed well using self-collected vaginal swabs, the optimal sample type, as recommended by the CDC for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening among women.
- More than meets the eye: associations of vaginal bacteria with gram stain morphotypes using molecular phylogenetic analysis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(10):e78633.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a highly prevalent condition associated with adverse health outcomes. Gram stain analysis of vaginal fluid is the standard for confirming the diagnosis of BV, wherein abundances of key bacterial morphotypes are assessed. These Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bacteroides, and Mobiluncus morphotypes were originally linked to particular bacterial species through cultivation studies, but no studies have systematically investigated associations between uncultivated bacteria detected by molecular methods and Gram stain findings. In this study, 16S-rRNA PCR/pyrosequencing was used to examine associations between vaginal bacteria and bacterial morphotypes in 220 women with and without BV. Species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) and fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used to document concentrations of two bacteria with curved rod morphologies: Mobiluncus and the fastidious BV-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1). Rank abundance of vaginal bacteria in samples with evidence of curved gram-negative rods showed that BVAB1 was dominant (26.1%), while Mobiluncus was rare (0.2% of sequence reads). BVAB1 sequence reads were associated with Mobiluncus morphotypes (p<0.001). Among women with curved rods, mean concentration of BVAB1 DNA was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus (p<0.001) using species-specific quantitative PCR. FISH analyses revealed that mean number of BVAB1 cells was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus cells in women with highest Nugent score (p<0.001). Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. were significantly associated with the "Bacteroides morphotype," whereas Bacteroides species were rare. Gram-negative rods designated Mobiluncus morphotypes on Gram stain are more likely BVAB1. These findings provide a clearer picture of the bacteria associated with morphotypes on vaginal Gram stain.