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Infectious disease AND Vaginitis [keywords]
- Current status and prospects for development of a vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis infections. [Journal Article]
- Vaccine 2014 Mar 20; 32(14):1588-94.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted pathogen with an annual worldwide incidence of over 276 million infections, the highest of all curable and non-viral STI. A large proportion of cases are asymptomatic and under-diagnosed with conventional diagnostic tools. Infection has important maternal and fetal health consequences and can lead to a higher probability of HIV transmission and susceptibility. Lack of affordable accurate diagnostic tests globally and metronidazole resistance hinder T. vaginalis control efforts. Based on data from current vaccination studies in animal models, a human vaccine is achievable to intervene on the substantial incidence of infection.
- [Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 2013; 52(2):17-25.
The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.
- A prospective cohort study comparing the effect of single-dose 2 g metronidazole on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in HIV-seropositive versus HIV-seronegative women. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sex Transm Dis 2013 Jun; 40(6):499-505.
This analysis compared the frequency of persistent Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women.Data were obtained from women enrolled in an open cohort study of sex workers in Kenya. Participants were examined monthly, and those diagnosed as having TV by saline microscopy were treated with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole. All women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) used nevirapine-based regimens. Generalized estimating equations with a logit link were used to compare the frequency of persistent TV (defined as the presence of motile trichomonads by saline microscopy at the next examination visit within 60 days) by HIV status.Three-hundred sixty participants contributed 570 infections to the analysis (282 HIV-seropositive and 288 HIV-seronegative). There were 42 (15%) persistent infections among HIV-seropositive participants versus 35 (12%) among HIV-seronegative participants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.87). Persistent TV was highest among HIV-seropositive women using ART (21/64 [33%]) compared with HIV-seropositive women not using ART (21/217 [10%]). Concurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) at TV diagnosis was associated with an increased likelihood of persistent TV (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.09).The frequency of persistent TV infection after treatment with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole was similar by HIV status. Alternative regimens including multiday antibiotic treatment may be necessary to improve cure rates for women using nevirapine-based ART and women with TV and concurrent BV.
- Efficacy of methods used for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar; 7(2):189-200.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. Diagnosis of BV should be rapid, reliable and safe. This is especially vital in pregnant women where intervention may be necessary for the well-being of both the mother and the foetus.This paper consulted PUBMED, LISTA and Web of Science for point-of-care and laboratory-based tests commonly used for the diagnosis and management of BV in pregnant women. An overview of strengths and weaknesses of the methods used may partially explain why treatment plans have failed. Differences in sampling and detection methods, time of gestation, inter-examiner variability and interpretation of data, and the use of different reference tests, amongst many other factors, complicated a meta-analysis of the data.Inconsistencies found in clinical and laboratory detection methods used for the monitoring of treatment have a direct impact on success rates. With current advances in technology, the diagnosis of BV is taking on a new perspective. New information implicating specific vaginal biofilms in adverse pregnancy outcomes through the application of advanced technology promises to change the way we view the aetiology, diagnosis and management of BV.
- Lamisil versus clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Microbiol 2013 Mar; 5(1):86-90.
Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases) was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases) with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Our results shows that 12 (37.5%) patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8%) patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8%) patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0%) patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0%) of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0%) of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.
- Does bacterial vaginosis cause pelvic inflammatory disease? [Journal Article, Review]
- Sex Transm Dis 2013 Feb; 40(2):117-22.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the infection and inflammation of the female genital tract, results in serious reproductive morbidity including infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex alteration of the vaginal flora that has been implicated in PID. The role of BV in the etiology and pathogenesis of PID has not been studied extensively. Our objective was to extensively review data related to the relationship between BV and PID (n = 19 studies). Several studies found a link between BV and cervicitis, endometritis, and salpingitis. Furthermore, it seems that some BV-associated organisms are associated with PID, whereas others are not. However, studies demonstrating an independent association between BV-associated organisms and PID are sparse. In addition, a causal association between BV and PID has not been established. Prospective studies are needed to further delineate the role of BV in PID, with particular focus on individual BV-associated organisms.
- Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis in obstetrics and gynecology practice: new concepts and controversies. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Obstet Gynecol Surv 2013 Jan; 68(1):43-50.
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Annually, 7.4 million new infections are estimated in the United States, which is greater than combined new cases of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Serious adverse reproductive health outcomes including pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and an increased risk of HIV acquisition have been linked to TV infection. There are several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available, including a newly approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that utilizes the same instrumentation platform and clinical sample as Chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. In this article, we review TV pathogenicity, adverse reproductive health outcomes, detection, and treatment followed by clinical scenarios for which TV diagnosis may prove useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice.
- Mycoplasma genitalium incidence, organism load, and treatment failure in a cohort of young Australian women. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Clin Infect Dis 2013 Apr; 56(8):1094-100.
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is potentially associated with reproductive tract sequelae in women. This study aimed to estimate MG incidence and treatment failure and provide estimates of organism load in infection.1110 women aged 16-25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Women were tested for MG at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, and MG organism load was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG-positive cases were screened for MG 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene point mutations shown to confer azithromycin resistance using high-resolution melt following PCR.MG incidence rate was 1.3 per 100 person-years (n=14; 95% confidence interval [CI], .8-2.3); women reporting 3 or more sex partners in the last 12 months had an increased rate of incident infection (rate ratio [RR], 5.1; 95% CI, 1.3-19.6]). There were 3 cases of MG reinfection (0.8 per 100 person-years [95% CI, .1-.9]. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infection (P=.04). There were 3 cases of treatment failure (9.4% [95% CI, 2.0-25.0]); organism load was higher in cases with treatment failure than in successfully treated cases (P<.01). An MG 23S rRNA mutation was detected in 5 cases (3 cases of treatment failure and 2 successfully treated).Although MG incidence was relatively low, testing should be recommended for women considered to be at increased risk based on sexual history. Our results also suggest that organism load might be important in azithromycin treatment failure.
- [Generalized cutaneous candidiasis in newborn at term]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Biomedica 2012 Jun; 32(2):170-3.
Cutaneous candidiasis is a disease that affects children as well as adults. The presentation may be localized or systemic, and with multiple etiological agents. The most prevalent infecting species in children differs from that of the adult.A case is presented where a congenital cutaneous candidiasis was transmitted to the child during birth.A full term newborn was exposed to a subclinical vaginal candidiasis infection, and 24 hr after birth, developed congenital cutaneous candidiasis. The etiological agent was Candida albicans, and was associated with sepsis and respiratory distress. Blood cultures, cutaneous biopsy of vesicular lesions, blood tests and lumbar puncture were performed.Biochemistry and blood count showed a CRP of 5.7 mg/dl, leukocytosis with left shift and mild anemia. After 24 hr, the blood analyses showed an increase in a CRP (7.8 mg/dl) and increased progressively for three days; consequently, a lumbar puncture was performed. Blood culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous biopsy confirmed the cutaneous candidiasis.The early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications derived by the Candida albicans in newborns.
- Safety of lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2012 Dec 7; 18(45):6645-50.
To evaluate the safety of lamivudine (LAM) treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy.A total of 92 pregnant women who received LAM treatment either before pregnancy or in early pregnancy were enrolled in this study. All of the pregnant women volunteered to take lamivudine during pregnancy and were not co-infected with hepatitis C virus, human immunodeﬁciency virus, cytomegalovirus, or other viruses. All infants received passive-active immunoprophylaxis with 200 IU hepatitis B immunoglobulin and three doses of 10 μg hepatitis B vaccines (0-1-6 mo) according to the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Adverse events were observed throughout the entire pregnancy and perinatal period, and the effectiveness of lamivudine treatment for blocking mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was evaluated. All adverse events in mothers and infants during pregnancy and the perinatal period and the HBV mother-to-infant transmission blocking rate were compared with the literature.Among the 92 pregnant women, spontaneous abortions occurred in 11 cases, while 3 mothers had a second pregnancy after the initial abortion; 72 mothers delivered 73 live infants, of whom 68 infants were followed up for no less than 6 mo, and 12 mothers were still pregnant. During pregnancy, the main maternal adverse events were vaginitis (12/72, 16.7%), spontaneous abortion (11/95, 11.6%), and gestational diabetes (6/72, 8.3%); only one case had 1-2 degree elevation of the creatine kinase level (195 U/L). During the perinatal period, the main maternal adverse events were premature rupture of the membranes (8/72, 11.1%), preterm delivery (5/72, 6.9%), and meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (4/72, 5.6%). In addition, 2 infants were found to have congenital abnormalities; 1 had a scalp hemangioma that did not change in size until 7 mo, and the other had early cerebral palsy, but with rehabilitation training, the infant's motor functions became totally normal at 2 years of age. The incidence of adverse events among the mothers or abnormalities in the infants was not higher than that of normal mothers or HBV-infected mothers who did not receive lamivudine treatment. In only 2 cases, mother-to-infant transmission blocking failed; the blocking rate was 97.1% (66/68), which was higher than has been previously reported.Lamivudine treatment is safe for chronic HBV-infected pregnant mothers and their fetuses with a gestational age of less than 12 wk or throughout the entire pregnancy.