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Infectious disease AND Vaginitis [keywords]
- Best practices to minimize risk of infection with intrauterine device insertion. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014 Mar; 36(3):266-76.
Intrauterine devices provide an extremely effective, long-term form of contraception that has the benefit of being reversible. Historically, the use of certain intrauterine devices was associated with increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. More recent evidence suggests that newer devices do not carry the same threat; however, certain risk factors can increase the possibility of infection.To review the risk of infection with the insertion of intrauterine devices and recommend strategies to prevent infection.The outcomes considered were the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, the impact of screening for bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhea; and the role of prophylactic antibiotics.Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library on July 21, 2011, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., intrauterine devices, pelvic inflammatory disease) and key words (e.g., adnexitis, endometritis, IUD). An etiological filter was applied in PubMed. The search was limited to the years 2000 forward. There were no language restrictions. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. All women requesting an intrauterine device should be counselled about the small increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in the first 20 days after insertion. (II-2A) 2. All women requesting an intrauterine device should be screened by both history and physical examination for their risk of sexually transmitted infection. Women at increased risk should be tested prior to or at the time of insertion; however, it is not necessary to delay insertion until results are returned. (II-2B) 3. Not enough current evidence is available to support routine screening for bacterial vaginosis at the time of insertion of an intrauterine device in asymptomatic women. (II-2C) 4. Routine use of prophylactic antibiotics is not recommended prior to intrauterine device insertion, although it may be used in certain high-risk situations. (I-C) 5. Standard practice includes cleansing the cervix and sterilizing any instruments that will be used prior to and during insertion of an intrauterine device. (III-C) 6. In treating mild to moderate pelvic inflammatory disease, it is not necessary to remove the intrauterine device during treatment unless the patient requests removal or there is no clinical improvement after 72 hours of appropriate antibiotic treatment. In cases of severe pelvic inflammatory disease, consideration can be given to removing the intrauterine device after an appropriate antibiotic regimen has been started. (I-B) 7. An intrauterine device is a safe, effective option for contraception in an HIV-positive woman. (I-B) 8. An intrauterine device can be considered a first-line contraceptive agent in adolescents. (I-A).
- The sexual health of female sex workers compared with other women in England: analysis of cross-sectional data from genitourinary medicine clinics. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sex Transm Infect 2014 Jun; 90(4):344-50.
While female sex workers (FSWs) are assumed to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there are limited comparative data with other population groups available. Using routine STI surveillance data, we investigated differences in sexual health between FSWs and other female attendees at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England.Demographic characteristics, STI prevalence and service usage among FSWs and other attendees in 2011 were compared using logistic regression.In 2011, 2704 FSWs made 8411 recorded visits to 131/208 GUM clinics, (primarily large, FSW-specialist centres in London). FSWs used a variety of services, however, 10% did not have an STI/HIV test at presentation. By comparison with other female attendees, FSWs travelled further for their care and had increased risk of certain STIs (e.g., gonorrhoea ORadj: 2.76, 95% CI 2.16 to 3.54, p<0.001). Migrant FSWs had better sexual health outcomes than UK-born FSWs (e.g., period prevalence of chlamydia among those tested: 8.5% vs 13.5%, p<0.001) but were more likely to experience non-STI outcomes (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease ORadj: 2.92, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.41, p<0.001).FSWs in England have access to high-quality care through the GUM clinic network, but there is evidence of geographical inequality in access to these services. A minority do not appear to access STI/HIV testing through clinics, and some STIs are more prevalent among FSWs than other female attendees. Targeted interventions aimed at improving uptake of testing in FSWs should be developed, and need to be culturally sensitive to the needs of this predominantly migrant population.
- More than meets the eye: associations of vaginal bacteria with gram stain morphotypes using molecular phylogenetic analysis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(10):e78633.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a highly prevalent condition associated with adverse health outcomes. Gram stain analysis of vaginal fluid is the standard for confirming the diagnosis of BV, wherein abundances of key bacterial morphotypes are assessed. These Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bacteroides, and Mobiluncus morphotypes were originally linked to particular bacterial species through cultivation studies, but no studies have systematically investigated associations between uncultivated bacteria detected by molecular methods and Gram stain findings. In this study, 16S-rRNA PCR/pyrosequencing was used to examine associations between vaginal bacteria and bacterial morphotypes in 220 women with and without BV. Species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) and fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used to document concentrations of two bacteria with curved rod morphologies: Mobiluncus and the fastidious BV-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1). Rank abundance of vaginal bacteria in samples with evidence of curved gram-negative rods showed that BVAB1 was dominant (26.1%), while Mobiluncus was rare (0.2% of sequence reads). BVAB1 sequence reads were associated with Mobiluncus morphotypes (p<0.001). Among women with curved rods, mean concentration of BVAB1 DNA was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus (p<0.001) using species-specific quantitative PCR. FISH analyses revealed that mean number of BVAB1 cells was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus cells in women with highest Nugent score (p<0.001). Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. were significantly associated with the "Bacteroides morphotype," whereas Bacteroides species were rare. Gram-negative rods designated Mobiluncus morphotypes on Gram stain are more likely BVAB1. These findings provide a clearer picture of the bacteria associated with morphotypes on vaginal Gram stain.
- Toward a simple diagnostic index for acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections. [Journal Article]
- Ann Fam Med 2013 Sep-Oct; 11(5):442-51.
Whereas a diagnosis of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in clinical practice comprises a battery of several diagnostic tests, these tests are often studied separately (in isolation from other test results). We wanted to determine the value of history and urine tests for diagnosis of uncomplicated UTIs, taking into account their mutual dependencies and information from preceding tests.Women with painful and/or frequent micturition answered questions about their signs and symptoms (history) of UTIs and underwent urine tests. A culture was the reference standard (10(3) colony-forming units per milliliter). A diagnostic index was derived using logistic regression with bootstrapped backward selection and parameter-wise shrinkage. Risk thresholds for UTI of 30% and 70% were used to analyze discriminative properties. Six models were compared: (1) history only, (2) history+ urine dipstick, (3) history+ urine dipstick + urinary sediment, (4) history+ urine dipstick+ dipslide, and (5) history+ urine dipstick+ urinary sediment+ dipslide; we then added (6) a test only for patients with an intermediate risk (between 30% and 70%) after the preceding test.One hundred ninety-six women were included (UTI prevalence 61%). Seven variables were selected from history (3), dipstick (2), sediment (1), and dipslide (1). History correctly classified 56% of patients as having a UTI risk of either <30% or >70%. History and urine dipstick raised this to 73%. The 3 models with the addition of urinary sediment and dipslide, separately and in combination, performed hardly better. The sixth model, in which those at intermediate risk after history and received an additional test, correctly classified 83%. The patient's suspicion of a UTI and a positive nitrite test were the strongest indicators of a UTI.Most women with painful and/or frequent micturition can be correctly classified as having either a low or a high risk of UTI by asking 3 questions: Does the patient think she has a UTI? Is there at least considerable pain on micturition? Is there vaginal irritation? Other women require additional urine dipstick investigation. Sediment and dipslide have little added value. External validation of these recommendations is required before they are implemented in practice.
- Current status and prospects for development of a vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis infections. [Journal Article]
- Vaccine 2014 Mar 20; 32(14):1588-94.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted pathogen with an annual worldwide incidence of over 276 million infections, the highest of all curable and non-viral STI. A large proportion of cases are asymptomatic and under-diagnosed with conventional diagnostic tools. Infection has important maternal and fetal health consequences and can lead to a higher probability of HIV transmission and susceptibility. Lack of affordable accurate diagnostic tests globally and metronidazole resistance hinder T. vaginalis control efforts. Based on data from current vaccination studies in animal models, a human vaccine is achievable to intervene on the substantial incidence of infection.
- [Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 2013; 52(2):17-25.
The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.
- A prospective cohort study comparing the effect of single-dose 2 g metronidazole on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in HIV-seropositive versus HIV-seronegative women. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sex Transm Dis 2013 Jun; 40(6):499-505.
This analysis compared the frequency of persistent Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women.Data were obtained from women enrolled in an open cohort study of sex workers in Kenya. Participants were examined monthly, and those diagnosed as having TV by saline microscopy were treated with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole. All women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) used nevirapine-based regimens. Generalized estimating equations with a logit link were used to compare the frequency of persistent TV (defined as the presence of motile trichomonads by saline microscopy at the next examination visit within 60 days) by HIV status.Three-hundred sixty participants contributed 570 infections to the analysis (282 HIV-seropositive and 288 HIV-seronegative). There were 42 (15%) persistent infections among HIV-seropositive participants versus 35 (12%) among HIV-seronegative participants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.87). Persistent TV was highest among HIV-seropositive women using ART (21/64 [33%]) compared with HIV-seropositive women not using ART (21/217 [10%]). Concurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) at TV diagnosis was associated with an increased likelihood of persistent TV (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.09).The frequency of persistent TV infection after treatment with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole was similar by HIV status. Alternative regimens including multiday antibiotic treatment may be necessary to improve cure rates for women using nevirapine-based ART and women with TV and concurrent BV.
- Efficacy of methods used for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar; 7(2):189-200.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. Diagnosis of BV should be rapid, reliable and safe. This is especially vital in pregnant women where intervention may be necessary for the well-being of both the mother and the foetus.This paper consulted PUBMED, LISTA and Web of Science for point-of-care and laboratory-based tests commonly used for the diagnosis and management of BV in pregnant women. An overview of strengths and weaknesses of the methods used may partially explain why treatment plans have failed. Differences in sampling and detection methods, time of gestation, inter-examiner variability and interpretation of data, and the use of different reference tests, amongst many other factors, complicated a meta-analysis of the data.Inconsistencies found in clinical and laboratory detection methods used for the monitoring of treatment have a direct impact on success rates. With current advances in technology, the diagnosis of BV is taking on a new perspective. New information implicating specific vaginal biofilms in adverse pregnancy outcomes through the application of advanced technology promises to change the way we view the aetiology, diagnosis and management of BV.
- Lamisil versus clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Microbiol 2013 Mar; 5(1):86-90.
Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases) was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases) with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Our results shows that 12 (37.5%) patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8%) patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8%) patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0%) patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0%) of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0%) of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.
- Does bacterial vaginosis cause pelvic inflammatory disease? [Journal Article, Review]
- Sex Transm Dis 2013 Feb; 40(2):117-22.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the infection and inflammation of the female genital tract, results in serious reproductive morbidity including infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex alteration of the vaginal flora that has been implicated in PID. The role of BV in the etiology and pathogenesis of PID has not been studied extensively. Our objective was to extensively review data related to the relationship between BV and PID (n = 19 studies). Several studies found a link between BV and cervicitis, endometritis, and salpingitis. Furthermore, it seems that some BV-associated organisms are associated with PID, whereas others are not. However, studies demonstrating an independent association between BV-associated organisms and PID are sparse. In addition, a causal association between BV and PID has not been established. Prospective studies are needed to further delineate the role of BV in PID, with particular focus on individual BV-associated organisms.