Infectious disease AND Vaginitis [keywords]
- Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Operative Hysteroscopy: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Sci 2016 Jul 28.
To evaluate the incidence of infectious complications and effect of prophylactic antibiotic administration during operative hysteroscopic procedures.A multicentric randomized controlled trial was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. Women (n = 180) affected by endometrial hyperplasia, myomas, or endometrial polyps undergoing operative hysteroscopy were randomized to receive cefazolin 2 g intravenously 30 minutes prior to the procedure (n = 91) and no treatment (n = 89).No statistical difference in terms of postoperative fever (2.4% vs 2.3%, P = .99), endometritis (0% vs 0%), pain (6.0% vs 10.4%, P = .40), cervicitis-vaginitis (0% vs 0%), pelvic abscess (0% vs 0%), pelvic inflammatory disease (0% vs 0%), and bleeding (0% vs 0%) was noticed. No statistical difference in terms of side effects attributable to antibiotic prophylaxis such as allergy (0% vs 4.8%, P = .12), nausea (10.7% vs 17.4%, P = .27), vomiting (3.6% vs 4.6%, P = .99), diarrhea (4.8% vs 5.4%, P = .99), cephalea (9.5% vs 3.5%, P = .13), dizziness (4.8% vs 2.3%, P = .44), and meteorism (5.4% vs 3.4%, P = .99) was noticed.The results of the current study support the recommendation not to prescribe routine antibiotic prophylaxis prior to operative hysteroscopy.
- Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(1):e0146186.
Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans.
- A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections. [Journal Article]
- Clin Infect Dis 2015 Dec 15.:S837-48.
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern.
- A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMJ Open 2015; 5(10):e008530.
Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age.Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components.Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa.220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs.BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status.The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF.The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women.
- Sexually Transmitted Infections. [Journal Article, Review]
- Urol Clin North Am 2015 Nov; 42(4):507-18.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant burden on public health in the United States. Primary prevention counseling with early diagnosis and treatment remain the best methods to decrease the incidence of STIs. Through significant public heath interventions, the incidence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and trichomoniasis is decreasing; however, the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis is increasing. Human papilloma virus remains the most common STI, but new vaccinations have the possibility of having a significant impact on this virus's disease potential. This review discusses the most common STIs in the United States, focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
- Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Pathogens 2015; 4(4):697-707.
The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
- Cryptococcal disease and the burden of other fungal diseases in Uganda; Where are the knowledge gaps and how can we fill them? [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Mycoses 2015 Oct.:85-93.
The HIV epidemic in Uganda has highlighted Cryptococcus and Candida infections as important opportunistic fungal infections. However, the burden of other fungal diseases is not well described. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal infections in Uganda. All epidemiological papers of fungal diseases in Uganda were reviewed. Where there is no Ugandan data, global or East African data were used. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is estimated to occur in 375 540 Uganda women per year; Candida in pregnant women affects up to 651,600 women per year. There are around 45,000 HIV-related oral and oesophageal candidosis cases per year. There are up to 3000 cases per year of post-TB chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. There are an estimated 40,392 people with asthma-related fungal conditions. An estimated 1,300,000 cases of tinea capitis occur in school children yearly in Uganda. There are approximately 800 HIV-positive adults with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) annually and up to 42 000 children with PJP per year. There are an estimated 4000 cryptococcal cases annually. There are an estimated 2.5 million fungal infections per year in Uganda. Cryptococcus and PJP cause around 28,000 deaths in adults and children per year. We propose replicating the model of research around cryptococcal disease to investigate and development management strategies for other fungal diseases in Uganda.
- Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mycoses 2015 Oct.:22-8.
In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.
- Burden of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Mycoses 2015 Oct.:6-14.
We have estimated the number of serious fungal infections in the Czech Republic. All published epidemiology papers reporting Czech fungal infection rates were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations. Population statistics were obtained from the 2011 Census data, prevalence and incidence data for at-risk conditions were obtained from publicly accessible healthcare statistics and relevant surveys. We estimate that 152,840 Czech women suffer with recurrent vaginal thrush. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is likely in 4739 adults and 6581 more have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. Hypersensitivity pneumonitits secondary to fungi is estimated in 1050 cases and 365 people may have chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Oesophageal candidiasis is estimated in 210 HIV-positive people. There are 12 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV population and 60 more cases in non-HIV population. There are an estimated 526 cases of candidaemia, 79 cases of Candida peritonitis and 297 cases of invasive aspergillosis a year. About 176,000 (1.67%) Czech people suffer from severe fungal infections each year, predominantly from recurrent vaginitis and allergic respiratory conditions. Substantial uncertainty surrounds these estimates except for invasive aspergillosis in haematology and candidaemia in critical care.
- Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to group A Streptococcus vaginitis. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Chemother 2015 Dec; 21(12):873-6.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a systemic illness usually caused in the setting of infection by group A Streptococcus (GAS). The primary infections are often invasive infections of the respiratory tract or necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some infections occur without relevant focus. GAS vaginitis is a rare condition among adult women and is accordingly thought to be uncommon as a cause of streptococcal TSS. Here we report the cases of two postmenopausal women with streptococcal TSS secondary to GAS vaginitis, one aged 55 and one aged 60. Both came to our emergency department with complaints or symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure. In both cases, the relevant factor associated with streptococcal infection was a recent episode of GAS vaginitis. Both underwent fluid management and 14 days of antibiotic treatment and fully recovered without complications. Vaginitis was likely to be the primary infectious trigger of TSS in these two cases. Intrauterine device insertion, endometrial biopsy, and post-partum state have all been previously reported in TSS patients, and the female genital tract has been described as a portal of entry. GAS vaginitis warrants appropriate treatment as it may progress to severe systemic infection as described.