Infertility female [keywords]
- Quantitative analysis of expression level of estrogen and progesterone receptors and VEGF genes in human endometrial stromal cells after treatment with nicotine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol Mech Methods 2016 Aug 23.:1-6.
Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of toxic chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and several recognized carcinogens and mutagens. Nicotine has a direct disturbing influence on steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone), which are essential components of the female reproductive system, but the effect of nicotine on the hormone receptors is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of nicotine on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endometrial stromal cells. Expression levels of PR, ER, and VEGF in human endometrial stromal primary cells treated with nicotine (0, 10(-11), 10(-8), and 10(-6 )μM) for 24 h were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MTT assay demonstrated that nicotine decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR data showed that despite decrease in ER expression in the nicotine-treated groups compared with the control, nicotine exerted an increased inhibitory effect on PR expression compared to that on ER expression. VEGF mRNA expression in nicotine-treated endometrial stromal cells was increased. The results from this study provide novel evidence for inhibitory effects of nicotine on steroid hormones receptor expression in human primary endometrial cells. Also, our data suggest that nicotine might have angiogenesis effects on these cells.
- Attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination among African parents in a city in the north of England: a qualitative study. [Journal Article]
- Reprod Health 2016; 13(1):97.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted and has been conclusively linked to cervical cancer and genital warts. Cervical cancer is attributed to approximately 1100 deaths annually in UK, and is the second most common female cancer globally. It has been suggested that black African women are more predisposed to HPV infection and cervical cancer. A vaccine has been developed to reduce HPV infection, and in the UK, has been offered to 12-13 year old adolescent girls through schools as part of their childhood immunization programme since 2008. Upon programme initiation, it was noted that vaccine uptake was lower in schools where girls from ethnic minority groups were proportionately higher. The study's objectives were to explore factors influencing UK based African parents' acceptance or decline of the HPV vaccine, whether fathers and mothers share similar views pertaining to vaccination and any interfamily tensions resulting from differing views.A qualitative study was conducted with five African couples residing in north England. Face to face semi-structured interviews were carried out. Participants were parents to at least one daughter aged between 8 and 14 years. Recruitment was done through purposive sampling using snowballing.HPV and cervical cancer awareness was generally low, with awareness lower in fathers. HPV vaccination was generally unacceptable among the participants, with fear of promiscuity, infertility and concerns that it's still a new vaccine with yet unknown side effects cited as reasons for vaccine decline. There was HPV risk denial as religion and good cultural upbringing seemed to result in low risk perceptions, with HPV and cervical cancer generally perceived as a white person's disease. Religious values and cultural norms influenced vaccine decision-making, with fathers acting as the ultimate decision makers. Current information about why the vaccine is necessary was generally misunderstood.Tailored information addressing religious and cultural concerns may improve vaccine acceptability in African parents.
- Mutations in PADI6 Cause Female Infertility Characterized by Early Embryonic Arrest. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Hum Genet 2016 Aug 17.
Early embryonic arrest is one of the major causes of female infertility. However, because of difficulties in phenotypic evaluation, genetic determinants of human early embryonic arrest are largely unknown. With the development of assisted reproductive technology, the phenotype of early human embryonic arrest can now be carefully evaluated. Here, we describe a consanguineous family with a recessive inheritance pattern of female infertility characterized by recurrent early embryonic arrest in cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We have identified a homozygous PADI6 nonsense mutation (c.1141C>T [p.Gln381(∗)]) that is responsible for the phenotype. Mutational analysis of PADI6 in a cohort of 36 individuals whose embryos displayed developmental arrest identified two affected individuals with compound-heterozygous mutations (c.2009_2010del [p.Glu670Glyfs(∗)48] and c.633T>A [p.His211Gln]; c.1618G>A [p.Gly540Arg] and c.970C>T [p.Gln324(∗)]). Immunostaining indicated a lack of PADI6 in affected individuals' oocytes. In addition, the amount of phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and expression levels of seven genes involved in zygotic genome activation were reduced in the affected individuals' embryos. This phenotype is consistent with Padi6 knockout mice. These findings deepen our understanding of the genetic basis of human early embryonic arrest, which has been a largely ignored Mendelian phenotype. Our findings lay the foundation for uncovering other genetic causes of infertility resulting from early embryonic arrest.
- The effect of chromosomal polymorphisms on the outcomes of fresh IVF/ICSI-ET cycles in a Chinese population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Assist Reprod Genet 2016 Aug 20.
Chromosomal polymorphisms (CPs) have been reported to be associated with infertility; however, their effects on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) are still controversial. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of CPs on IVF/ICSI-ET outcomes.To investigate whether CPs affected the outcomes of fresh IVF/ICSI-ET cycles in a Chinese population, we evaluated infertile couples with male carriers of CPs (n = 348), infertile couples with female carriers (n = 99), and unaffected couples (n = 400) who had received their first treatment cycles in our hospital between January 2013 and March 2015.CPs in either male or female carriers seemed to have adverse effects on IVF/ICSI-ET outcomes. CPs in male carriers affected outcomes mainly by decreasing the rates of fertilization, embryo cleavage, good quality embryos, clinical pregnancies, ongoing pregnancies, and deliveries as well as increasing the biochemical pregnancy rate (P < 0.05); CPs in female carriers affected outcomes only by lowering the embryo cleavage rate (P < 0.05). The mean fertilization rate of couples with male CP carriers undergoing IVF was significantly lower than that in those undergoing ICSI (61.1 versus 66.5 %, respectively; P = 0.0004).Our data provide evidence for the involvement of CPs in the poor outcomes of fresh IVF/ICSI-ET cycles in a Chinese population. The use of ICSI might improve outcomes by increasing the fertilization rate for men with CPs.
- The hysteroscopic morcellator to overcome cervical stenosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fertil Steril 2016 Aug 16.
To report a step-by-step technique to using a hysteroscopic morcellator to safely gain access into the intrauterine cavity in two patients with severe cervical stenosis and concomitant intrauterine pathology.Video article introducing the hysteroscopic morcellator for overcoming severe cervical stenosis.Academic-based practice.A 36-year-old G0 female with primary infertility and uterine polyps and a 34-year-old G0 female with uterine polyps and a difficult trial transfer before undergoing an IVF cycle. In both patients, preoperative saline-infused sonography revealed submucosal filling defects and severe cervical stenosis.A hysteroscopic technique using the Hologic Myosure to overcome severe cervical stenosis with or without the use of intraoperative ultrasound.Despite using preoperative Cytotec, cervical stenosis was identified. Under direct visualization, a 4-mm Myosure XL blade was placed through a 7.25-mm Myosure XL hysteroscopy. The cutter blade, powered by an electromechanical drive system, enables simultaneous rotation and reciprocation. The blade allows one to shave and remove tissue and is applied to cervical stenosis, allowing safe access into the intrauterine cavity.The intrauterine hysteroscopic Myosure morcellator allowed for safe and direct entry into the uterine cavity. We have since applied this technique to all patients where cervical stenosis is identified and have minimized potential uterine perforation and false tracks in our patients.Our technique is an alternative method for overcoming severe cervical stenosis and minimizing potential intraoperative complications.
- Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review. [Journal Article, Review]
- Vet World 2016 Jul; 9(7):783-91.
The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility.
- Effects of melatonin on oocyte maturation in PCOS mouse model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anim Sci J 2016 Aug 17.
The purpose of oocyte in vitro maturation is generation of mature oocytes that could support future development. Efforts have been made to enhance oocyte developmental competence by developing optimal culture conditions. The present study is conducted to determine melatonin effects on quality of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) oocytes when it has been added during in vitro maturation, and immature oocytes were cultured in defined conditioned medium with and without different melatonin concentrations. Melatonin could significantly improve nuclear maturation of PCOS oocytes (81.1% vs. 56.3%, P < 0.05 were achieved with 10(-6) mol/L concentration). Cleavage rate was significantly higher in 10(-5) mol/L concentration compared to untreated oocytes in PCOS (54% vs. 35%, respectively) and it was significantly higher with 10(-6) mol/L concentration in the control group, 55% versus 38%, compared to untreated oocytes. This study showed that melatonin has the potential to induce oocyte nuclear maturation and guarantee fertilization potential.
- Long-term follow-up of fertility and pregnancy in autoimmune diseases after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatol Int 2016 Aug 13.
Issues of fertility and pregnancy require special attention in the long-term care of patients with autoimmune diseases (AD), who are candidates for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this single-centre observational study, we report fertility status and pregnancy outcomes in 15 patients (11 female and 4 male) after immunoablation with cyclophosphamide, antithymocyte globulin and autologous CD34(+)-selected HSCT for severe, refractory AD. The median follow-up after HSCT was 12 years (range 2-16 years). Impaired fertility was observed in six patients (five females and one male) before HSCT based on sexual hormone measurements. Higher age and cumulative cyclophosphamide dosage before HSCT correlated with fertility impairment. Median serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was significantly higher in female patients at 1 year after HSCT compared to baseline values, but premature ovarian failure developed in only one patient. Four women had five pregnancies and six healthy offsprings during follow-up, and no miscarriages were observed. The mothers were in treatment-free remissions during conception. No peripartal flare of their AD occurred. Although AD patients undergoing HSCT are at risk of developing infertility, pre-HSCT treatment and patients' age seem to have higher impact on long-term fertility status than HSCT itself. HSCT offers the opportunity to conceive during treatment-free remissions with favourable pregnancy outcomes.
- Fertility counseling and preservation practices in youth with lupus and vasculitis undergoing gonadotoxic therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fertil Steril 2016 Aug 10.
To assess fertility counseling and preservation practices among children, adolescents, and young adults with rheumatic diseases undergoing cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment.Retrospective chart review (2006-2016).Academic pediatric center.Male and female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis/granulomatosis with polyangiitis, or other vaculitides, receiving CTX treatment.None.Documentation of fertility counseling and fertility preservation.A total of 58 subjects met the inclusion criteria; 5 were excluded due to incomplete records, thus N = 53. Of these 75% were female (N = 40). Median age was 14 years at diagnosis and 15 years at first CTX treatment. A total of 51% of subjects (69% of males and 45% of females) had no documentation about potential fertility loss before CTX treatment. Among females where fertility counseling was documented, the only fertility preservation option discussed was leuprolide acetate (LA), which was pursued in all of these cases. Of 13 males (77% postpubertal), 3 were offered sperm banking, of whom 2 declined and the other attempted after treatment began and was azoospermic. Of 53 patients, 1 was referred to a fertility specialist. Mean cumulative CTX dose was 9.2 g in males and 8 g in females.Based on these findings, increasing awareness about infertility risk, fertility preservation options, and referral to fertility specialists is needed among pediatric rheumatologists. Prospective studies are needed to assess fertility outcomes in this patient population (including effectiveness of LA with regard to pregnancy rates [PRs]), as well as barriers/facilitators to fertility counseling and fertility preservation.
- Decreased expression of NR4A nuclear receptors in adenomyosis impairs endometrial decidualization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Hum Reprod 2016 Aug 11.
How do NR4A receptors drive decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs)?NR4A receptors modulate endometrial decidualization by transcriptional activation of FOXO1A, and in adenomyosis patients, the reduced expression of NR4A receptors in the eutopic endometrium may represent a novel mechanism to explain impaired decidualization and subfertility.A close relationship between impaired decidualization and subfertility has been established. In human endometrial stromal cells, orphan nuclear receptor NR4A is a novel regulator of decidualization.Eutopic endometrial tissues and hESCs from fertile controls (n = 56) and adenomyosis patients (n = 27) were collected for in vitro analysis. Primary hESCs isolated from eutopic endometrial tissues were used to evaluate the biological function of NR4A receptors. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of NR4A and small interfering RNAs targeting NR4A, and FOXO1A were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Gene expression regulation was examined by real-time-quantitative PCR, immunostaining, and luciferase reporter assay. Artificial decidualization assay was performed to investigate the role of NR4A1 during decidualization in vivo.NR4A modulates the decidualization of hESCs by upregulating prolactin (PRL) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) expression and transformation in vitro. Loss of uterine Nr4a1 results in female subfertility due to impaired decidualization. Mechanistically, NR4A binds to the nerve growth factor 1B (NGFI-B) -responsive element (NBRE) (-843 to -813) within the FOXO1A promoter region and regulates FOXO1A expression. Loss of FOXO1A significantly inhibits PRL and IGFBP-1 expression, as induced by NR4A. Moreover, the expression of NR4A and FOXO1A was lower in adenomyosis endometrial tissues compared to fertile controls, especially in stroma compartments. Ectopic NR4A expression rescued PRL and IGFBP-1 expression in adenomyotic hESCs to near-normal levels. Furthermore, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway involved in inducing NR4A expression under decidualization stimuli in hESCs and the level of p(Ser473)-AKT was significantly higher in stroma in endometrium from patients with adenomyosis.This is an in vitro study with a small sample size, utilizing stromal cell cultures from endometrial tissues of adenomyosis patients. Furthermore, results obtained should also be confirmed in a larger data set and with adenomyosis mouse models in vivo.Identification of a positive agonist of NR4A receptors will be critical for the improved treatment of patients with conditions of insufficient decidualization-associated infertility, such as adenomyosis and endometriosis.N/A.This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81170570, G.J.Y. 81370683, G.J.Y. 81501251, Y.J. 31571189, H.X.S. and 81571402, G.J.Y.), and a special grant for clinical medicine science of Jiangsu Province (BL2014003, H.X.S.). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.