- Progesterone Alleviates Endometriosis via Inhibition of Uterine Cell Proliferation, Inflammation and Angiogenesis in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(10):e0165347
- Endometriosis, defined as growth of the endometrial cells outside the uterus, is an inflammatory disorder that is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women of childbearing age. Alt...
Endometriosis, defined as growth of the endometrial cells outside the uterus, is an inflammatory disorder that is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility in women of childbearing age. Although the estrogen-dependence of endometriosis is well known, the role of progesterone in development of this disease remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed a disease model in which endometriosis was induced in the peritoneal cavities of immunocompetent female mice, and maintained with exogenous estrogen. The endometriosis-like lesions that were identified at a variety of ectopic locations exhibited abundant blood supply and extensive adhesions. Histological examination revealed that these lesions had a well-organized endometrial architecture and fibrotic response, resembling those recovered from clinical patients. In addition, an extensive proliferation, inflammatory response, and loss of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were also observed in these lesions. Interestingly, administration of progesterone before, but not after, lesion induction suppressed lesion expansion and maintained ERα and PR expressions. These progesterone-pretreated lesions exhibited attenuation in KI67, CD31, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression as well as macrophage infiltration, indicating that progesterone ameliorates endometriosis progression by inhibiting cell proliferation, inflammation and neovascularization. Our studies further showed that suppression of global DNA methylation by application of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor to female mice bearing ectopic lesions restrained lesion expansion and restored ERα and PR expression in eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesions. These results indicate that epigenetic regulation of target gene expression via DNA methylation contributes, at least in part, to progesterone resistance in endometriosis.
- Factors associated with frequency of discussion of or referral for counselling about fertility issues in female cancer patients. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2016 Oct 24
- Current practices in counselling of female cancer patients with respect to fertility issues need considerable improvement, particularly given the general underuse of fertility preservation options an...
Current practices in counselling of female cancer patients with respect to fertility issues need considerable improvement, particularly given the general underuse of fertility preservation options and the negative impact that infertility can have on quality of life. We investigated the relationship between physicians' and physician-related factors and the frequency of physicians discussing fertility issues and referring to a reproductive specialist. We invited 1,832 physicians in the Netherlands who had treated at least five reproductive-age female cancer patients within the past year to complete a questionnaire. Of the 748 respondents, 406 met our inclusion criteria, and 280 participated. Analysis revealed that 79% of the participants usually or always discuss fertility issues. Specialty, confidence in knowledge regarding fertility issues and a lack of reproductive specialists in their region contributed independently to the variance in the frequency of discussing fertility issues. Moreover, 54% either regularly or always refer. Specialty and frequency of discussion contributed independently to the variance in referral. In conclusion, although high, frequency of discussion of fertility issues is not optimal, and referral seems limited. Patients would benefit from more knowledge among physicians regarding fertility issues and referral options, both in terms of informed choice, and more importantly, quality of life.
- Mechanisms of Aneuploidy in Human Eggs. [Review]
- TCTrends Cell Biol 2016 Sep 27
- Eggs and sperm develop through a specialized cell division called meiosis. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced by two sequential divisions in preparation for fertilization. In human ...
Eggs and sperm develop through a specialized cell division called meiosis. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced by two sequential divisions in preparation for fertilization. In human female meiosis, chromosomes frequently segregate incorrectly, resulting in eggs with an abnormal number of chromosomes. When fertilized, these eggs give rise to aneuploid embryos that usually fail to develop. As women become older, errors in meiosis occur more frequently, resulting in increased risks of infertility, miscarriage, and congenital syndromes, such as Down's syndrome. Here, we review recent studies that identify the mechanisms causing aneuploidy in female meiosis, with a particular emphasis on studies in humans.
- Evidence of oxidative damage and reproductive dysfunction accompanying 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide exposure in female Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- RTReprod Toxicol 2016 Sep 16; 66:10-19
- 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is an occupational chemical widely reported to deplete ovarian follicles in rodents. Here, we investigated VCD-induced reproductive dysfunction in female Wistar rat...
4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is an occupational chemical widely reported to deplete ovarian follicles in rodents. Here, we investigated VCD-induced reproductive dysfunction in female Wistar rats. The rats were orally administered with VCD (100, 250 and 500mg/kg) for twenty-eight days. Thereafter, we evaluated selected biomarkers of oxidative damage, inflammation, endocrine disruption, and apoptosis. We observed that VCD increased ovarian and uterine malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in rats (p<0.05). Also, VCD induced hormonal imbalance, increased ovarian superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and depleted uterine SOD activity and ovarian glutathione (GSH) level in rats (p<0.05). Lastly, VCD markedly increase immunohistochemical expressions of ovarian cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Caspase-9 and Caspase-3. Overall, VCD induced reproductive dysfunctions in rats via ovarian and uterine oxidative damage, hormonal imbalance, as well as inflammation and apoptosis in the ovary of rats.
- Reproductive dysfunctions in viral hepatitis. [Journal Article]
- GEGynecol Endocrinol 2016; 32(sup2):37-40
- The viral hepatitis abnormalities in the female reproductive system are due to hepatic and extrahepatic damage. On the background of HBV- and HCV-infections, menstrual disorders prevail in the struct...
The viral hepatitis abnormalities in the female reproductive system are due to hepatic and extrahepatic damage. On the background of HBV- and HCV-infections, menstrual disorders prevail in the structure of reproductive system pathology; disorders of reproductive function in the form of pregnancy loss and infertility are detected in each second case. Depression of T-cell immunity in the immune status is observed in the patients with intact reproductive function. When miscarriage was in past medical history then divergent changes subpopulations of lymphocytes are found. When patients have infertility, signify depression of T-cell immunity is observed with a decrease in total T-cells, T-helper cells and active lymphocytes.
- Uterosome-like vesicles prompt human sperm fertilizing capability. [Journal Article]
- MHMol Hum Reprod 2016 Sep 27
- Does the rapid transit through the uterine environment modulate the sperm physiological state?
Does the rapid transit through the uterine environment modulate the sperm physiological state?
- Extra-intestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease: Effectiveness of the Gluten Free Diet. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016 Oct 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Children and adults with CeD have similar rates of extra-intestinal manifestations. In children short stature, fatigue and headache were most common while anemia, fatigue and headache/psychiatric disorders were most common in adults. Children on a strict GFD showed faster and higher rates of symptom resolution as compared to adults. Unresponsive children with short stature must be assessed for comorbidities.
- Patients with cervical Ureaplasma Urealyticum and Chlamydia Trachomatis infection undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET: The need for new paradigm. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2016; 36(5):716-722
- Genital tract infections with ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most frequent sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. UU and CT infections are considered to be the le...
Genital tract infections with ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most frequent sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. UU and CT infections are considered to be the leading cause for infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, little is known about the specific effect of cervical UU and CT infections on the etiology of female infertility, as well as the pregnancy outcomes of the patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET). In order to find the association between cervical UU and/or CT infection and pregnancy outcomes, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on the patients undergoing IVF/ICSI-ET with cervical UU and/or CT infection. A total of 2208 patients who received IVF/ICSI-ET were enrolled in this study. Data on the general conditions, pregnancy history and clinical pregnant outcomes were analyzed in terms of the cervical UU and CT detection. Our results revealed that cervical UU and CT infections were the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor-induced infertility. Moreover, the pregnancy rate, abortion rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and premature birth rate in patients with UU and/or CT infections showed no significant difference when compared with the control group. We recommend that cervical UU and CT detection should be an optional item for infertility patients and clinical UU detection should differentiate the subtypes of cervical UU. Positive cervical UU and CT infections should not be taken as strict contraindications for IVF/ICSI-ET.
- Men with a complete absence of normal sperm morphology exhibit high rates of success without assisted reproduction. [Journal Article]
- AJAsian J Androl 2016 Sep 30
- In couples with infertility, abnormal strict morphology of 0% normal forms (NF) is a criterion to proceed rapidly to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Since no data currently exist, we investigated the o...
In couples with infertility, abnormal strict morphology of 0% normal forms (NF) is a criterion to proceed rapidly to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Since no data currently exist, we investigated the outcomes for men with 0% NF to determine reproductive success without the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A cohort of 24 men with 0% NF were identified (2010-2013) with 27 randomly selected men with ≥4% NF as controls. Patient charts were reviewed with men contacted and administered an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved telephone questionnaire to ascertain outcomes. After a median follow-up time of 2.5 years, 29.2% of men with 0% NF did not require ART for their first pregnancy (controls = 55.6%, P ≤ 0.05). When all pregnancies were analyzed together, men with 0% NF achieved twenty pregnancies of which 75% did not require IVF (controls = thirty pregnancies; 76.7% did not require IVF). The average age of men and female partners was similar between men with 0% NF and ≥4% NF. All men had normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol. Although, global semen parameters were worse in men with 0% NF, when a first pregnancy was a natural conception (NC), 100% of men with 0% NF (n = 7/7) and 37.5% of controls (n = 3/8) went on to have a subsequent pregnancy via NC. Men with 0% NF conceived without IVF in 29.2% of cases compared to 55.6% of controls. Strict morphology should not be used to predict fertilization, pregnancy, or live birth potential. In men with 0% NF, alternative modalities should be considered before immediate IVF.
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- Fluoride impairs oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development in mice. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol 2016; 31(11):1486-1495
- The damage caused by fluorosis is permanent, and has been recognized as a public health problem in a number of regions of the world. Although multiple studies provided evidence that sodium fluoride (...
The damage caused by fluorosis is permanent, and has been recognized as a public health problem in a number of regions of the world. Although multiple studies provided evidence that sodium fluoride (NaF) elicits adverse effects on reproductive function, the effect of fluoride on female germ cell development is not well understood. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of fluoride treatments on in vivo maturation and developmental potential of mouse oocytes, in which female ICR mice were treated with a range of doses (0, 30, 60, and 150 mg/L) of NaF. After treatment, mice were superovulated to collect ovulated oocytes. The effects of NaF on oocyte quality, fertilization potential and early embryonic development were evaluated, as well as the underlying mechanisms were primarily investigated. The findings of this study showed that NaF treatment resulted in abnormal spindle configuration, actin cap formation, and cortical granule-free domain formation. Additionally, overexposure of mice to NaF notably reduced ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential, further influencing in vitro fertilization and subsequent embryonic development. These results indicated that NaF treatment impairs the subsequent embryonic developmental potential of the oocytes. In conclusion, overexposure to fluoride in vivo was associated with a significant disruption of cytoskeletal dynamics and decreased oocyte quality, affecting the oocyte's subsequent fertilization and embryonic development. Results of this study provide a rationale for treating reproductive diseases such as infertility or miscarriage caused by environmental contaminants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1486-1495, 2016.