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Infertility female [keywords]
- [Müllerian anomalies. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA).] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cir Cir 2014 July-August; 82(4):460-471.
Müllerian duct anomalies are a group of uncommon and underdiagnosed entities, which cause specific symptoms in adolescent females and may be associated with infertility as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes. These malformations occur as a result of an arrest or abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts in different stages of the female reproductive tract during gestation. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA), formerly known as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, is a rare entity characterized by the presence of a uterus didelphys with an obstructed hemivagina cause by a vaginal septum and the association of a renal anomaly (most commonly renal agenesis) ipsilateral to the obstruction. This syndrome may remain undiagnosed during childhood and usually becomes symptomatic after menarche, causing obstructive symptoms. Occasionally it may be identified after the evaluation of a patient with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. The clinical diagnosis is very challenging and requires imaging studies in which ultrasound and MRI play an essential role in the diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. Opportune diagnosis and treatment achieve complete improvement of symptoms, adequate reproductive prognosis and avoid major complications such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and infertility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic METHODS and treatment of the obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome.
- Generation of Mouse Functional Oocytes in Rat by Xeno-Ectopic Transplantation of Primordial Germ Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Reprod 2014 Aug 27.
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are germ cell progenitors in the fetal genital ridge; female PGCs give rise to definitive oocytes that contribute to the next generation. Artificial PGCs have been induced in vitro from pluripotent stem cells and gonad-like tissue has been induced in vivo by co-transplantation of PGCs with PGC-free gonadal cells. To apply these technologies to human infertility treatment or conservation of rare species, PGC transplantation must be established in xenogenic animals. Here, we established a xenogeneic transplantation model by inducing ovary-like tissue from PGCs in xenogenic animals. We transplanted enzymatically dispersed PGCs with PGC-free gonadal cells under the kidney capsule of xenogenic immunodeficient animals. The transplanted cells formed ovary-like tissues under the kidney capsule. These tissues were histologically similar to the normal gonad and expressed the oocyte markers Vasa and Stella. In addition, mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocyte-like cells collected from ovary-like tissue in rats matured to metaphase II (MII) via in vitro maturation and gave rise to offspring by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Our studies show that rat/mouse female PGCs and PGC-free gonadal cells can develop and reconstruct ovary-like tissue containing functional oocytes in an ectopic xenogenic microenvironment.
- Fertility preservation and reproductive health in the pediatric, adolescent, and young adult female cancer patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2014 Aug 23.
As treatments for malignancies become increasingly successful, emphasis on quality of life in survivorship becomes important. Of equal importance is the role of gonadotoxic agents in the management of chronic medical conditions, such as nonmalignant blood disorders and rheumatologic and genetic conditions. Gonadotoxic agents have long-term effects to include ovarian insufficiency, pubertal arrest and subsequent infertility.In 2004, ovarian tissue cryopreservation emerged as an investigational but viable option for prepubertal patients and those unable to undergo ovarian stimulation. In 2012, oocyte preservation became standard therapy for patients without a partner or who elected not to use donor sperm or freeze embryos. Ovarian reserve testing with antimullerian hormone to assess fertility after gonadotoxic therapy is a rapidly growing area of interest with potentially significant benefits in personalizing the approach to fertility preservation.A systematic approach to fertility preservation prior to treatment in all patients receiving gonadotoxic agents optimizes care. Fertility preservation strategies can restore hormonal function and preserve reproductive potential. Future research in personalizing approach to care is critical to meeting the needs of this patient population.
- [Gonococcal and chlamydial infections of the urethra : New German guidelines.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Urologe A 2014 Aug 28.
The German STI guidelines for gonococcal and chlamydial infections were recently updated. Representing the German Society of Urology (DGU) in these guidelines consensus processes, the authors summarize the recommendations regarding screening, appropriate laboratory diagnostics and dose-increased dual antimicrobial therapy of urethritis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Urologists need to be informed about an approaching era of untreatable gonorrhea. Although of limited use, whenever possible Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultures are required to monitor developing resistance to current treatment regimes. Recommendations for the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of chlamydia and gonorrhea as the standard laboratory test remain. Because the majority of persons infected by Chlamydia trachomatis are not aware of the infection, untreated infection can lead to serious complications later on with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. Principally, both partners should be treated simultaneously in order to prevent re-infection. Furthermore, therapy control is recommended for every gonorrhea.
- Ovarian germline stem cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stem Cell Res Ther 2014 Aug 18; 5(4):98.
It has long been established that germline stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for lifelong gametogenesis in males, and some female invertebrates (for example, Drosophila) and lower vertebrates (for example, teleost fish and some prosimians) also appear to rely on GSCs to replenish their oocyte reserve in adulthood. However, the presence of such cells in the majority of female mammals is controversial, and the idea of a fixed ovarian reserve determined at birth is the prevailing belief among reproductive biologists. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates the isolation and culture of putative GSCs from the ovaries of adult mice and humans. Live offspring have been reportedly produced from the culture of adult mouse GSCs, and human GSCs formed primordial follicles using a mouse xenograft model. If GSCs were present in adult female ovaries, it could be postulated that the occurrence of menopause is not due to the exhaustion of a fixed supply of oocytes but instead is a result of GSC and somatic cell aging. Alternatively, they may be benign under normal physiological conditions. If their existence were confirmed, female GSCs could have many potential applications in both basic science and clinical therapies. GSCs not only may provide a valuable model for germ cell development and maturation but may have a role in the field of fertility preservation, with women potentially being able to store GSCs or GSC-derived oocytes from their own ovaries prior to infertility-inducing treatments. Essential future work in this field will include further independent corroboration of the existence of GSCs in female mammals and the demonstration of the production of mature competent oocytes from GSCs cultured entirely in vitro.
- Conditional Knockout of the Androgen Receptor in Gonadotropes Reveals Crucial Roles for Androgen in Gonadotropin Synthesis and Surge in Female Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Endocrinol 2014 Aug 26.:me20141154.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is the major cause of infertility in reproductive aged women. PCOS is associated with high circulating levels of androgens and impaired metabolic function. The goal of this study is to understand how androgen signaling via the androgen receptor (AR) impacts reproductive function. We knock out the AR gene specifically in pituitary gonadotropes (PitARKO) to explore the role of androgen on the development of reproductive function in female mice. There was no difference in the age of puberty between control and PitARKO littermates which was assessed by the ages of vaginal opening and first estrus. Cyclicity and fertility were also studied and there was no significant difference between control and PitARKO mice. We observed a significant decrease in basal FSH serum and mRNA levels with no corresponding change in LH serum and mRNA levels. While the numbers of litters born to control and PitARKO females were the same, the litter size was significantly smaller for PitARKO mice. LH and FSH response to ovariectomy was altered with reduced LH/FSH hormone and mRNA level in PitARKO females. This reduction may be due to reduced expression of activin A/B and GnRHR. Preovulatory surge levels of LH and FSH were dramatically lower in PitARKO mice. The number of corpora lutea was decreased while the number of antral follicles was similar between control and PitARKO mice. Overall the pituitary androgen receptor contributes to the elaboration of the LH surge and normal reproductive function by regulating LH/FSH expression and secretion.
- A prospective study of depression and anxiety in female fertility preservation and infertility patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fertil Steril 2014 Aug 22.
To prospectively assess anxiety, depression, coping, and appraisal in female fertility preservation (FP) patients compared with infertile patients.Prospective pre- and post-treatment survey.Academic medical center.Forty-seven women with cancer (FP patients) and 91 age-matched infertile patients.None.Depression, anxiety, coping, infertility-related stress, appraisal of treatment, and medical outcomes.FP patients reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression than infertile patients, but infertile patients' symptoms worsened over time; 44% of FP and 14% of infertile patients' scores exceeded the clinical cutoff for depression before treatment. The interval between surveys and medical treatment data did not predict changes in mood symptoms. Coping strategies and infertility-related stress did not differ between groups, and avoidant coping predicted higher depression and anxiety scores.FP patients reported more anxiety and depression than infertile patients at enrollment in treatment, with more than one-third of FP patients reporting clinically significant depressive symptoms. However, infertile patients' anxiety and depressive symptoms increased across treatment. This increase was not related to time between registration for IVF and oocyte retrieval or the medical aspects of treatment. FP and infertile patients should be provided psychologic consultation before treatment to identify mood and anxiety symptoms and to refer patients for counseling as needed to prevent worsening of symptoms.
- Bisphenol A, oocyte maturation, implantation, and IVF outcome: review of animal and human data. [REVIEW]
- Reprod Biomed Online 2014 Jul 10.
Recent data have raised concerns about the detrimental effect of chronic exposure to environmental chemicals. Some chemicals affect the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors) and have been linked to several diseases, including infertility. One such endocrine disruptor is bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer widely used in the plastic industry, with nearly ubiquitous exposure. In this review, data on the effects of BPA on female fertility are summarized. Specifically, its effect is considered on folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, embryo quality, and implantation, both in animal and human models. Animal studies have shown that BPA might impair prophase I, follicular growth, and implantation, and may be associated with spindle abnormalities. In humans, while in-vitro studies have suggested an association between BPA exposure and impaired oocyte meiosis, clinical evidence indicate possible adverse effects of BPA exposure on IVF outcomes. As human clinical data are still scarce, larger studies are required to further elucidate the effects of BPA exposure on female fertility.
- Th17 cells and related cytokines in unexplained recurrent spontaneous miscarriage at the implantation window. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Biomed Online 2014 Jul 10.
Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) might be caused by the mother's immunological rejection of the fetus. In this cross-sectional study, the percentage of T helper 17 (Th17), T regulatory (Treg) cells and their cytokines as the main players of immunomodulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes during the luteal phase of 20 women with unexplained RSA were compared with 20 normal non-pregnant women. The percentage of Treg cells in the former was significantly lower compared with controls. The percentage of Th17 cells in the former was higher than controls. Expression of IL-23, IL-17, IL-6 cytokines in the former was significantly higher than controls, but the higher expression of IL-21 was not significant. The gene expression of TGF-β and FoxP3 in the former was lower than controls. Significant positive correlations were found between the percentage of Th17 cells with IL-23, IL-6 and IL-17 and between expression of IL-23 and IL-6 and IL-17. IL-6 gene expression showed a significant positive correlation with IL-17. Therefore, imbalance of Th17-Treg cells and the consequent changes in cytokine expression might be implicated in the pathogenesis of unexplained RSA and may provide new insight into the immunoregulatory events at the maternal-fetal interface.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014 Aug 7.:195-199.
To compare the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Iranian infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women without PCOS after pregnancies resulting from either assisted reproductive technology (ART) or spontaneous as well as to determine the risk factors of GDM in PCOS women.In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated medical records of 234 spontaneous pregnant women without PCOS in Akbarabadi Women's Hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran, along with 234 pregnant women with PCOS and 234 pregnant non-PCOS women with ART conception who were treated at Royan institute, Tehran, Iran, at the same period of time, 2012 to February 2013. Exclusion criteria were as following: maternal age ≥40, family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, pre-pregnancy diabetes and history of gestational diabetes, history of stillbirth, recurrent miscarriage, birth weight baby ≥4kg (macrosomia), parity >4, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and overt hypothyroidism. The GDM diagnosis was according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Incidence and the risk factors for GDM were evaluated.The incidence rates of GDM were 44.4%, 29.9% and 7.3% for PCOS ART, non-PCOS ART and non-PCOS spontaneous pregnant women, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used for determining risk factors of GDM in PCOS women with adjusted odds ratios for age, parity and hypothyroidism, the results revealed the most important and significant predictors for development of GDM in PCOS women as follow: menstrual irregularity (OR=4.2; 95% CI=1.7-10.6), serum triglycerides level ≥150mg/dL (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.07-3.6) and pregestational metformin use (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2-0.7).Pregnant Iranian women with a history of infertility and PCOS are at increased risk for developing GDM. It is recommendable to perform screening test for GDM in PCOS women with ART treatment, irregular menses and high serum triglycerides level in the early stage of pregnancy. Pregestational use of metformin can be effective in reducing the occurrence of GDM.