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Intercourse, painful [keywords]
- Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy in Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) Survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sex Med 2013 May 16.
INTRODUCTION:Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic medical condition experienced by many postmenopausal women. Symptoms include dyspareunia (pain with intercourse), vaginal dryness, and irritation and may affect sexual activities, relationships, and activities of daily life.
AIM:The aim of this study is to characterize postmenopausal women's experience with and perception of VVA symptoms, interactions with healthcare professionals (HCPs), and available treatment options.
METHODS:An online survey was conducted in the United States in women from KnowledgePanel(®) , a 56,000-member probability-selected Internet panel projectable to the overall US population. Altogether, 3,046 postmenopausal women with VVA symptoms (the largest US cohort of recent surveys) responded to questions about their knowledge of VVA, impact of symptoms on their activities, communication with HCPs, and use of available treatments.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Percent is calculated as the ratio of response over total responding for each question for all and stratified participants.
RESULTS:The most common VVA symptoms were dryness (55% of participants), dyspareunia (44%), and irritation (37%). VVA symptoms affected enjoyment of sex in 59% of participants. Additionally, interference with sleep, general enjoyment of life, and temperament were reported by 24%, 23%, and 23% of participants, respectively. Few women attributed symptoms to menopause (24%) or hormonal changes (12%). Of all participants, 56% had ever discussed VVA symptoms with an HCP and 40% currently used VVA-specific topical treatments (vaginal over-the-counter [OTC] products [29%] and vaginal prescription therapies [11%]). Of those who had discussed symptoms with an HCP, 62% used OTC products. Insufficient symptom relief and inconvenience were cited as major limitations of OTC products and concerns about side effects and cancer risk limited use of topical vaginal prescription therapies.
CONCLUSIONS:VVA symptoms are common in postmenopausal women. Significant barriers to treatment include lack of knowledge about VVA, reluctance to discuss symptoms with HCPs, safety concerns, inconvenience, and inadequate symptom relief from available treatments. Kingsberg SA, Wysocki S, Magnus L, and Krychman ML. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: Findings from the REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
- More than just bad sex: sexual dysfunction and distress in patients with endometriosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Apr 30.
OBJECTIVES:The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence and the impact of sexual dysfunction, sexual distress and interpersonal relationships in patients with endometriosis.
STUDY DESIGN:A questionnaire-based multicentre cohort study was conducted in eight tertiary referral centres in Austria and Germany. One hundred and twenty-five patients with histologically proven endometriosis and dyspareunia were included. The Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale were used to screen women's sexuality. Additionally, we evaluated psychological parameters and pain intensity during/after sexual intercourse via a self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS:Female sexual distress and sexual dysfunction were observed in 97/125 and 40/125 patients. Statistically significant correlations were found between sexual dysfunction and pain intensity during/after sexual intercourse (p<0.01/p<0.01), a lower number of episodes of sexual intercourse per month (p<0.01), greater feelings of guilt towards the partner (p<0.01) and fewer feelings of feminity (p<0.01). Thirty-eight out of 125 women agreed that the primary motivation for sexual intercourse was to conceive and nearly half of women (46%) included stated that satisfying the partner acted as primary motivation for sexual contact.
CONCLUSION:Overall, our findings demonstrate that dyspareunia as a common complaint in patients with endometriosis causes a severe impairment of sexual function, relationship and psychological wellbeing.
- A psychological view of sexual pain among women: applying the fear-avoidance model. [Journal Article]
- Womens Health (Lond Engl) 2013 May; 9(3):251-63.
Aim:The purpose of this paper is to examine how well research findings on dyspareunia (intercourse pain) fit the fear-avoidance (FA) model on pain.
Results:The evidence suggests that the experience of pain in dyspareunia functions similarly to the pain reported in other pain conditions. There are also accumulating data showing that the central mechanisms of the FA model, such as catastrophizing, fear, hypervigilance and disability, are central to the experience of sexual pain. However, there are also some potential differences between sexual pain and other pain conditions that demand further attention in terms of the role of the partner, specific emotional consequences of avoidance and the effect of hypervigilance on sexual arousal.
Conclusion:The results demonstrate the relevance of the FA model in sexual pain. They also imply that treatment methods for fear and avoidance in other pain conditions offer new avenues for treating sexual pain problems in the clinic. Future studies should focus on expanding how the mechanisms in the FA model contribute to sexual pain, as well as how treatments based on the model may be applied clinically.
- Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse in women. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD004014.
Pelvic organ prolapse may occur in up to 50% of parous women. A variety of urinary, bowel and sexual symptoms may be associated with the prolapse.To determine the effects of the many different surgeries used in the management of pelvic organ prolapse.We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings, healthcare-related bibliographic databases, handsearched conference proceedings (searched 20 August 2012), and reference lists of relevant articles. We also contacted researchers in the field.Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that included surgical operations for pelvic organ prolapse.Trials were assessed and data extracted independently by two review authors. Six investigators were contacted for additional information with five responding.Fifty-six randomised controlled trials were identified evaluating 5954 women. For upper vaginal prolapse (uterine or vault) abdominal sacral colpopexy was associated with a lower rate of recurrent vault prolapse on examination and painful intercourse than with vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. These benefits must be balanced against a longer operating time, longer time to return to activities of daily living and increased cost of the abdominal approach. In single studies the sacral colpopexy had a higher success rate on examination and lower reoperation rate than high vaginal uterosacral suspension and transvaginal polypropylene mesh.Twenty-one trials compared a variety of surgical procedures for anterior compartment prolapse (cystocele). Ten compared native tissue repair with graft (absorbable and permanent mesh, biological grafts) repair for anterior compartment prolapse. Native tissue anterior repair was associated with more recurrent anterior compartment prolapse than when supplemented with a polyglactin (absorbable) mesh inlay (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.90) or porcine dermis mesh inlay (RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.01), however there was no difference in post-operative awareness of prolapse after absorbable mesh (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.81) or a biological graft (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.30). Data on morbidity and other clinical outcomes were lacking. Standard anterior repair was associated with more anterior compartment prolapse on examination than for any polypropylene (permanent) mesh repair (RR 3.15, 95% CI 2.50 to 3.96). Awareness of prolapse was also higher after the anterior repair as compared to polypropylene mesh repair (28% versus 18%, RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.07). However, the reoperation rate for prolapse was similar at 14/459 (3%) after the native tissue repair compared to 6/470 (1.3%) (RR 2.18, 95% CI 0.93 to 5.10) after the anterior polypropylene mesh repair and no differences in quality of life data or de novo dyspareunia were identified. Blood loss (MD 64 ml, 95% CI 48 to 81), operating time (MD 19 min, 95% CI 16 to 21), recurrences in apical or posterior compartment (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4) and de novo stress urinary incontinence (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.1) were significantly higher with transobturator meshes than for native tissue anterior repair. Mesh erosions were reported in 11.4% (64/563), with surgical interventions being performed in 6.8% (32/470).Data from three trials compared native tissue repairs with a variety of total, anterior, or posterior polypropylene kit meshes for vaginal prolapse in multiple compartments. While no difference in awareness of prolapse was able to be identified between the groups (RR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.7) the recurrence rate on examination was higher in the native tissue repair group compared to the transvaginal polypropylene mesh group (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1). The mesh erosion rate was 35/194 (18%), and 18/194 (9%) underwent surgical correction for mesh erosion. The reoperation rate after transvaginal polypropylene mesh repair of 22/194 (11%) was higher than after the native tissue repair (7/189, 3.7%) (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 7.3).Data from three trials compared posterior vaginal repair and transanal repair for the treatment of posterior compartment prolapse (rectocele). The posterior vaginal repair had fewer recurrent prolapse symptoms (RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0) and lower recurrence on examination (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6) and on defecography (MD -1.2 cm, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.3).Sixteen trials included significant data on bladder outcomes following a variety of prolapse surgeries. Women undergoing prolapse surgery may have benefited from having continence surgery performed concomitantly, especially if they had stress urinary incontinence (RR 7.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 14) or if they were continent and had occult stress urinary incontinence demonstrated pre-operatively (RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 6.6). Following prolapse surgery, 12% of women developed de novo symptoms of bladder overactivity and 9% de novo voiding dysfunction.Sacral colpopexy has superior outcomes to a variety of vaginal procedures including sacrospinous colpopexy, uterosacral colpopexy and transvaginal mesh. These benefits must be balanced against a longer operating time, longer time to return to activities of daily living, and increased cost of the abdominal approach.The use of mesh or graft inlays at the time of anterior vaginal wall repair reduces the risk of recurrent anterior wall prolapse on examination. Anterior vaginal polypropylene mesh also reduces awareness of prolapse, however these benefits must be weighted against increased operating time, blood loss, rate of apical or posterior compartment prolapse, de novo stress urinary incontinence, and reoperation rate for mesh exposures associated with the use of polypropylene mesh.Posterior vaginal wall repair may be better than transanal repair in the management of rectocele in terms of recurrence of prolapse. The evidence is not supportive of any grafts at the time of posterior vaginal repair. Adequately powered randomised, controlled clinical trials with blinding of assessors are urgently needed on a wide variety of issues, and they particularly need to include women's perceptions of prolapse symptoms. Following the withdrawal of some commercial transvaginal mesh kits from the market, the generalisability of the findings, especially relating to anterior compartment transvaginal mesh, should be interpreted with caution.
- Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive health morbidity in a cohort of female sex workers screened for a microbicide feasibility study in Nellore, India. [Journal Article]
- Glob J Health Sci 2013 May; 5(3):139-49.
Women constitute 38% of India's 2.4 million HIV-infected persons. Microbicides are potential HIV-prevention products currently undergoing clinical trials for efficacy. A four-month placebo vaginal gel trial was conducted in Nellore, India to determine the feasibility of recruiting a suitable cohort of female sex workers (FSWs) for a future vaginal microbicide efficacy trial. We report on the HIV and STI prevalence and reproductive health (RH) morbidity of FSWs screened for the trial.
RESULTS:529 FSWs completed screening procedures; of those 33.6% were found ineligible. The mean age was 30.9 years; 68.6% women were married and 57.5% were home-based FSWs. Self-reported symptoms included abnormal vaginal discharge (31.6%), genital itching (3.4%), uterine mass/prolapse (3%) and painful intercourse (2.6%). Gynecological surgery was reported by 73.2% of participants; of those 10.5% had undergone a hysterectomy. Female sterilization was the most commonly reported contraceptive method. Pelvic examination showed vaginal discharge (50.7%), cervical discharge (5.3%), uterine/vaginal wall prolapse (2.6%), and cervical mass/nodule/vesicles/genital warts (4.2%). Common epithelial findings included erythema (79.1%) and vesicles/bullae (6%); 46% of participants had Papanicolaou tests graded as inflammatory and 1.1% as malignant. HSV-2 was the mostly commonly detected STI (60.7%) followed by HIV (5.3%), syphilis (2.8%), chlamydia (2.2%), gonorrhoea (0.7%) and trichomoniasis (15.5%). RTIs were more common: bacterial vaginosis (27.8%) and candidiasis (18.9%).
CONCLUSIONS:The low HIV prevalence and high RH morbidity in the population makes this site unsuitable for a future phase 2 or 3 microbicide efficacy trial. HIV prevention programs targeting this population should include access to RH services.
- [Piriformis muscle syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Lijec Vjesn 2013 Jan-Feb; 135(1-2):33-40.
The term 'piriformis syndrome' (PS), introduced by Robinson in 1947, implies a group of signs and symptoms caused by piriformis muscle (PM) disorders. Since PM disorders lead to irritation/compression of the anatomic structures passing under its belly, the main clinical PS signs and symptoms are actually the clinical signs and symptoms of irritation/ compression of neural and vascular structures passing through the infrapiriform foramen: sciatic nerve/SN, inferior gluteal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, pudendal nerve, inferior gluteal artery and vein and inferior pudendal artery and vein. The clinical picture is usually dominated by signs and symptoms of irritation/compression of SN (SN irritation --> low back and buttock pain, sciatica,paresthesias in distribution of SN; SN compression --> low back and buttock pain,sciatica, paresthesias and neurologic deficit in distribution of SN). Irritation/compression of other structures can result in the following signs and symptoms: inferior gluteal nerve --> atrophy of gluteal muscles; posterior femoral cutaneous nerve --> pain, paresthesias and sensory disturbances in the posterior thigh; pudendal nerve --> pudendal neuralgia, painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), sexual dysfunction, urination and defecation problems; inferior gluteal artery --> ischemic buttock pain; inferior pudendal artery --> ischemic pain in the area of external sex organs, perineum and rectum, sexual dysfunction, urination and defecation problems; inferior gluteal vein --> venous stasis in gluteal area; inferior pudendal vein --> venous stasis in external sex organs and rectum. Functional/non-organic and organic PM disorders can cause PS: spasm, shortening, hypertrophy, anatomic variations, edema, fibrosis, adhesions, hematoma, atrophy, cyst, bursitis, abscess, myositis ossificans, endometriosis, tumors (functional disorders: PM spasm and shortening). The most common causes for PS are PM spasm, shortening and hypertrophy and anatomic variations of PM and SN. In 5-6% of patients with low back pain and/or unilateral sciatica, the pain is caused by PM disorders. PS diagnosis can be made on the basis of anamnesis, clinical picture, clinical examination, EMNG, perisciatic anesthetic block of PM and radiological exams (pelvis/PM MRI; MR neurography of LS plexus and SN). PS therapy includes medicamentous therapy, physical therapy, kynesitherapy, acupuncture, therapeutic perisciatic blocks, botulinum toxin injections and surgical treatment (tenotomy of PM, neurolysis of SN).
- Adult circumcision and male sexual health: a retrospective analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Andrologia 2013 Apr 20.
We aimed to evaluate possible associations of circumcision with several sexual dysfunctions and to identify predictors for the development of these outcomes post-operatively. Telephone surveys about sexual habits and dysfunctions before and after intervention were conducted post-operatively to patients that underwent circumcision in Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho during 2011. McNemar test was used for a matched-pairs analysis of pre- and post-operative data. Odds ratios, adjusted in a multivariate analysis, explored predictors of de novo sexual dysfunctions after circumcision. With intervention, there was an increase in frequency of erectile dysfunction (9.7% versus 25.8%, P = 0.002) and delayed orgasm (11.3% versus 48.4%, P < 0.001), and a significant symptomatic improvement in patients with pain with intercourse (50.0% versus 6.5%, P < 0.001). Significant predictors for de novo erectile dysfunction were diabetes mellitus (OR 9.81, P = 0.048) and lack of sexual desire (OR 8.76, P = 0.028). Less than three sex partners (OR 7.04, P = 0.007) and low sexual desire (OR 7.49, P = 0.029) were significant predictors for de novo delayed orgasm.
- Advances in endometriosis treatment. [Journal Article]
- Nurse Pract 2013 May 10; 38(5):42-7.
Endometriosis is a common problem characterized by abdominal pain, back pain, pain with intercourse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and infertility. The cause of endometriosis is not well understood, but advances in treatment have been made. Primary care clinicians are uniquely situated to improve patient outcomes by making informed treatment decisions.
- [Sexual injuries during consensual sexual activity]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2012 Nov; 18(6):519-23.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate sexual injury treated in our clinic.We evaluated the results of 31 patients (17 males, 14 females; mean age 31,97±11,64; range 18 to 60 years) with sexual injury during consensual sexual activity, who presented to the emergency department between January 2004 and December 2010. Patients' age, etiology of injury, time passed since trauma, physical/operative examination results, type of treatment, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications were investigated.Sexual injury occurred in women as vaginal laceration and in man as penile fracture. All of the cases were treated with early surgical repair. Vaginal injuries were formed in virginal girls during the first sexual intercourse. Cases usually complained of vaginal pain and then bleeding during sexual activity. The commonest site of injury was the posterior vaginal fornix. Etiology of penile fracture was sexual intercourse and masturbation. Sudden pain in the penis, edema, color change, and sudden detumescence were the main complaints. Eleven patients had right, 5 had left and 1 had bilateral tunical ruptures, with defects of 0.5-3 cm in length. The patient with bilateral injury had accompanying incomplete urethral rupture.Sexual injury can be diagnosed effectively based on history and physical examination, and may be treated successfully with early surgical procedure.
- Family history repeats itself: Pain and swelling triggered by sexual intercourse had a genetic basis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Apr 11.