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International Psychogeriatric Association [keywords]
- The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alzheimers Dement 2014 Sep 27.
An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance.Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T.The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001).The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms.
- Delphi definition of the EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alzheimers Dement 2014 Aug 14.
This study aimed to have international experts converge on a harmonized definition of whole hippocampus boundaries and segmentation procedures, to define standard operating procedures for magnetic resonance (MR)-based manual hippocampal segmentation.The panel received a questionnaire regarding whole hippocampus boundaries and segmentation procedures. Quantitative information was supplied to allow evidence-based answers. A recursive and anonymous Delphi procedure was used to achieve convergence. Significance of agreement among panelists was assessed by exact probability on Fisher's and binomial tests.Agreement was significant on the inclusion of alveus/fimbria (P = .021), whole hippocampal tail (P = .013), medial border of the body according to visible morphology (P = .0006), and on this combined set of features (P = .001). This definition captures 100% of hippocampal tissue, 100% of Alzheimer's disease-related atrophy, and demonstrated good reliability on preliminary intrarater (0.98) and inter-rater (0.94) estimates.Consensus was achieved among international experts with respect to hippocampal segmentation using MR resulting in a harmonized segmentation protocol.
- SUCLG2 identified as both a determinator of CSF Aβ1-42-levels and an attenuator of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Mol Genet 2014 Jul 15.
Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) and phosphorylated Tau at position 181 (pTau181) are biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed an analysis and meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data on Aβ1-42 and pTau181 in AD dementia patients followed by independent replication. An association was found between Aβ1-42 level and a SNP in SUCLG2 (rs62256378) (p=2.5x10(-12)). An interaction between APOE genotype and rs62256378 was detected (p=9.5x10(-5)), with the strongest effect being observed in APOE-ϵ4 noncarriers. Clinically, rs62256378 was associated with rate of cognitive decline in AD dementia patients (p=3.1x10(-3)). Functional microglia experiments showed that SUCLG2 was involved in clearance of Aβ1-42.
- Compliance with trial registration in five core journals of clinical geriatrics: a survey of original publications on randomised controlled trials from 2008 to 2012. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Age Ageing 2014 Jun 30.
to assess the proportion of registered randomised controlled trials in five core clinical geriatric journals and to analyse whether registered study outcomes correspond with published outcomes.survey of original papers published 2008 to 2012.two independent reviewers retrieved the sample through search in the web-based archives of Age and Ageing, the Journal of the American Geriatric Society, the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association and International Psychogeriatrics. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers using a pre-tested 13-item checklist. Registration status was checked and information provided in registers compared with information presented in the original publication. A third reviewer was consulted if no consensus could be reached.the sample comprised 220 original publications on randomised controlled trials. A total of 140 (63.6%) were registered. Registration was in accordance with the ICMJE requirements in 54 out of 140 registered trials (38.6%). Less than one-third of registered papers (n = 40) reported on all study outcomes listed in the study register. In 74 out of the 80 non-registered trials, the missing registration was not declared in the publication. There was no consistent upward trend towards higher registration compliance throughout journals and years.our survey shows that prospective trial registration and compliance between outcomes declared in the registry and reported in the publication is poor. Concerted action of authors, editors and peer-reviewers is overdue aimed to irreversibly implement the imperative of registration of randomised controlled trials and complete outcome reporting.
- Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk: a mendelian randomisation study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014 Jun 25.
Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk.In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis or substrate availability (CYP2R1 and DHCR7), which we used as a proxy for 25(OH)D concentration. We meta-analysed data for up to 108 173 individuals from 35 studies in the D-CarDia collaboration to investigate associations between the allele score and blood pressure measurements. We complemented these analyses with previously published summary statistics from the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (ICBP), the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, and the Global Blood Pressure Genetics (Global BPGen) consortium.In phenotypic analyses (up to n=49 363), increased 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, -0·12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0·20 to -0·04; p=0·003) and reduced odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·97-0·99; p=0·0003), but not with decreased diastolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, -0·02 mm Hg, -0·08 to 0·03; p=0·37). In meta-analyses in which we combined data from D-CarDia and the ICBP (n=146 581, after exclusion of overlapping studies), each 25(OH)D-increasing allele of the synthesis score was associated with a change of -0·10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (-0·21 to -0·0001; p=0·0498) and a change of -0·08 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (-0·15 to -0·02; p=0·01). When D-CarDia and consortia data for hypertension were meta-analysed together (n=142 255), the synthesis score was associated with a reduced odds of hypertension (OR per allele, 0·98, 0·96-0·99; p=0·001). In instrumental variable analysis, each 10% increase in genetically instrumented 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a change of -0·29 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (-0·52 to -0·07; p=0·01), a change of -0·37 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (-0·73 to 0·003; p=0·052), and an 8·1% decreased odds of hypertension (OR 0·92, 0·87-0·97; p=0·002).Increased plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D might reduce the risk of hypertension. This finding warrants further investigation in an independent, similarly powered study.British Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council, and Academy of Finland.
- Gene-wide analysis detects two new susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(6):e94661.
Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls.In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4×10-6) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9×10-8) which indexed novel susceptibility loci.The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.
- Vitamin D deficiency is common in psychogeriatric patients, independent of diagnosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Psychiatry 2014 May 8; 14(1):134.
Previous studies have found an association between psychiatric disorders and vitamin D deficiency, but most studies have focused on depression. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly patients with a wider range of psychiatric diagnoses.The study included elderly patients (>64 years) referred to a psychiatric hospital in Northern Norway and a control group from a population survey in the same area. An assessment of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms and diagnoses was conducted using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI+), as well as clinical interviews and a review of medical records. The patients' mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were compared with those of a control group, and a comparison of vitamin D deficiency across different diagnostic groups was also made. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (<20 ng/ml).The mean levels of 25(OH)D in the patient group (n = 95) and the control group (n = 104) were 40.5 nmol/L and 65.9 nmol/L (p < 0.001), respectively. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in the patient group compared with the control group (71.6% and 20.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, season, body mass index, and smoking, vitamin D deficiency was still associated with patient status (OR: 12.95, CI (95%): 6.03-27.83, p < 0.001). No significant differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were found between patients with different categories of psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression, bipolar disorders, psychosis, and dementia.Vitamin D deficiency is very common among psychogeriatric patients, independent of diagnostic category. Even though the role of vitamin D in psychiatric disorders is still not clear, we suggest screening for vitamin D deficiency in this patient group due to the importance of vitamin D for overall health.
- Nursing home research: the first International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) research conference. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Am Med Dir Assoc 2014 May; 15(5):313-25.
The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics held its first conference on nursing home research in St Louis, MO, in November 2013. This article provides a summary of the presentations.
- Prevalence and Correlates of Renal Disease in Older Lithium Users: A Population-Based Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2014 Feb 2.
Lithium is an important treatment for mood disorders, but concern about its association with renal disease has contributed to its limited use, particularly in older adults. Because high-quality evidence examining renal disease in this population is lacking, this study aims to quantify the prevalence and identify clinical correlates of renal disease in geriatric lithium users.In a population-based cross-sectional study on 2,480 lithium users aged 70 or more years, the authors searched the provincial administrative health data from Ontario, Canada between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2011. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI), and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) was measured using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent correlates of renal disease.The 6-year prevalence rates of CKD, AKI, and NDI were 13.9%, 1.3%, and 3.0%, respectively. Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-2.79), diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.45-2.38), ischemic heart disease (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.24-2.20), NDI (OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.47-4.40), AKI (OR: 11.7; 95% CI: 5.26-26.1), lithium use for more than 2 years (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05-2.81), loop diuretic use (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.26-2.41), hydrochlorothiazide use (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.07-2.05), and atypical antipsychotic use (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.17-1.89) were all independently associated with CKD.Older lithium users have high rates of CKD. Lithium use duration was independently associated with CKD. Longitudinal studies including individuals without lithium exposure will be necessary to confirm whether lithium is indeed a risk factor for CKD in older adults.
- International Psychogeriatrics and the International Psychogeriatric Association: a successful marriage turns silver. [Editorial]
- Int Psychogeriatr 2014 Jan; 26(1):1-2.