International Psychogeriatric Association [keywords]
- Longitudinal association of delta activity at sleep onset with cognitive and affective function in community-dwelling older adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2016 Aug 23.
This investigation sought to determine whether delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in the sleep electroencephalography of older adults represents normal variation or is associated with clinical pathology. To this end, we examined its longitudinal associations with cognitive and affective function in older adults without dementia.Participants were 153 community-dwelling older adults without dementia. We evaluated polysomnography (PSG), cognitive performance, and affective function at four time points: baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. All participants completed PSG and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, visuospatial ability, and measures of anxiety and depression. DASO was defined as sequences of rhythmic anterior delta activity on PSG in the transition from awake to sleep during the baseline assessment (Figure ). [Figure: see text] RESULTS: At the baseline, 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 years participated and 19.6% of participants exhibited DASO. Age, years of education, gender, and body mass index did not differ according to DASO status. Linear mixed modeling showed that the presence of DASO was actually associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression. Further, participants with DASO, versus those without DASO, exhibited a trend towards better cognitive performance over time, although none of these associations reached statistical significance.Whereas DASO was associated with better affective function, no significant association was found between DASO and cognitive change over time. These longitudinal findings support the view that the presence of DASO in healthy older adults represents normal variation rather than pathological aging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Restless Legs Syndrome and Depression: Effect Mediation by Disturbed Sleep and Periodic Limb Movements. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2016 Apr 27.
To investigate an association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression and to what extent sleep disturbance, periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), and antidepressant medication mediate this relationship.A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Older Men Study data in 982 men assessed for RLS (International RLS Study Group scale [IRLSS]) and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]), who underwent actigraphy (for sleep latency/efficiency) and polysomnography (for PLMS). Men were split into three groups: no RLS (N = 815), mild RLS (IRLSS ≤ 12, N = 85), moderate-to-severe RLS (IRLSS > 12, N = 82). Depression was defined as GDS score ≥ 6. Logistic and linear regression assessed associations of RLS and depression or number depressive symptoms, respectively. Models were adjusted for age, site, race, education, body mass index, personal habits, benzodiazepine/dopaminergic medication, physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, and apnea-hypopnea index.Of 982 men, 167 (17.0%) had RLS. Depression was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe RLS after adjustment (versus no RLS: OR [95% CI] 2.85 [1.23, 6.64]). Further adjustment for potential mediators attenuated effect size modestly, most for sleep efficiency (OR: 2.85-2.55). Compared with no RLS, moderate-to-severe RLS was associated with the number of depressive symptoms after adjustment (adjusted means [95% CI]; no RLS: 1.14 [1.05, 1.24] versus IRLSS > 12: 1.69 [1.32, 2.11]). Further adjustment for potential mediators did not alter effect size. For men with PLMS index at least median, number of depressive symptoms significantly increased as RLS category became more severe.Depression is more common as RLS severity worsens. The RLS-depression relationship is modestly explained by sleep disturbance and PLMS.
- Global and regional effects of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with acute stroke in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE): a case-control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lancet 2016 Jul 15.
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke.We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated, with 99% confidence intervals.Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher (OR 2·98, 99% CI 2·72-3·28; PAR 47·9%, 99% CI 45·1-50·6), regular physical activity (0·60, 0·52-0·70; 35·8%, 27·7-44·7), apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio (1·84, 1·65-2·06 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·8%, 22·2-31·9 for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), diet (0·60, 0·53-0·67 for highest vs lowest tertile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index [mAHEI]; 23·2%, 18·2-28·9 for lowest two tertiles vs highest tertile of mAHEI), waist-to-hip ratio (1·44, 1·27-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·6%, 13·3-25·3 for top two tertiles vs lowest), psychosocial factors (2·20, 1·78-2·72; 17·4%, 13·1-22·6), current smoking (1·67, 1·49-1·87; 12·4%, 10·2-14·9), cardiac causes (3·17, 2·68-3·75; 9·1%, 8·0-10·2), alcohol consumption (2·09, 1·64-2·67 for high or heavy episodic intake vs never or former drinker; 5·8%, 3·4-9·7 for current alcohol drinker vs never or former drinker), and diabetes mellitus (1·16, 1·05-1·30; 3·9%, 1·9-7·6) were associated with all stroke. Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 90·7% of the PAR for all stroke worldwide (91·5% for ischaemic stroke, 87·1% for intracerebral haemorrhage), and were consistent across regions (ranging from 82·7% in Africa to 97·4% in southeast Asia), sex (90·6% in men and in women), and age groups (92·2% in patients aged ≤55 years, 90·0% in patients aged >55 years). We observed regional variations in the importance of individual risk factors, which were related to variations in the magnitude of ORs (rather than direction, which we observed for diet) and differences in prevalence of risk factors among regions. Hypertension was more associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke, whereas current smoking, diabetes, apolipoproteins, and cardiac causes were more associated with ischaemic stroke (p<0·0001).Ten potentially modifiable risk factors are collectively associated with about 90% of the PAR of stroke in each major region of the world, among ethnic groups, in men and women, and in all ages. However, we found important regional variations in the relative importance of most individual risk factors for stroke, which could contribute to worldwide variations in frequency and case-mix of stroke. Our findings support developing both global and region-specific programmes to prevent stroke.Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Stroke Network, Health Research Board Ireland, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, The Health & Medical Care Committee of the Regional Executive Board, Region Västra Götaland (Sweden), AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada), Pfizer (Canada), MSD, Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland, and The Stroke Association, with support from The UK Stroke Research Network.
- Are stroke survivors with delirium at higher risk of post-stroke dementia? Current evidence and future directions. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2016 Jul 11.
The idea that delirium is a risk factor for dementia, broadly defined, is derived from heterogeneous patient samples. We reviewed available evidence as to whether stroke survivors who developed delirium during the acute phase of treatment are at a higher prospective risk of incident post-stroke cognitive impairment or dementia.We searched 8721 records in the Cochrane database for reviews or protocols dealing with the study objective, Medline, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL for observational studies in the general adult population and PubMed for in-process articles. Additional searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles were also undertaken. Qualitative syntheses and meta-analysis were conducted according to conventional guidelines.Twelve relevant articles were fully appraised. Four out of these studies, comprising 743 stroke survivors, including 199 with delirium, met criteria for qualitative syntheses. Overall, the studies presented low to moderate level evidence suggesting an association between post-stroke delirium and dementia.There is a need for further studies to investigate the association of post-stroke delirium and dementia using well-defined cohorts of patients and controlling for factors such as pre-stroke cognition, stroke severity and location and the presence of persistent delirium. Such studies will help understand the place of delirium identification and prevention in reducing the risk of dementia after stroke. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Apathy associated with neurocognitive disorders: recent progress and future directions. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alzheimers Dement 2016 Jun 27.
Apathy is common in neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) such as Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the definition of apathy is inconsistent in the literature, apathy is primarily defined as a loss of motivation and decreased interest in daily activities.The Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART) Neuropsychiatric Syndromes Professional Interest Area (NPS-PIA) Apathy workgroup reviewed the latest research regarding apathy in NCDs.Progress has recently been made in three areas relevant to apathy: (1) phenomenology, including the use of diagnostic criteria and novel instruments for measurement, (2) neurobiology, including neuroimaging, neuropathological and biomarker correlates, and (3) interventions, including pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and noninvasive neuromodulatory approaches.Recent progress confirms that apathy has a significant impact on those with major NCD and those with mild NCDs. As such, it is an important target for research and intervention.
- Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers predict cognitive decline in lewy body dementia. [Journal Article]
- Mov Disord 2016 Aug; 31(8):1203-8.
Alzheimer's disease pathologies are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but their clinical relevance is not clear. CSF biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 reflect Alzheimer's disease neuropathology antemortem. In PD, low CSF amyloid beta 1-42 predict long-term cognitive decline, but little is known about these biomarkers as predictors for cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. The aim of this study was to assess whether Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers predict cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia.From a large European dementia with Lewy bodies multicenter study, we analyzed baseline Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and serial MMSE (baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up) in 100 patients with Lewy body dementia. Linear mixed-effects analyses, adjusted for sex, age, baseline MMSE, and education, were performed to model the association between CSF biomarkers and rate of cognitive decline measured with MMSE. An Alzheimer's disease CSF profile was defined as pathological amyloid beta 1-42 plus pathological total tau or phosphorylated tau.The Alzheimer's disease CSF profile, and pathological levels of amyloid beta 1-42, were associated with a more rapid decline in MMSE (2.2 [P < 0.05] and 2.9 points difference [P < 0.01], respectively). Higher total tau values showed a trend toward association without statistical significance (2.0 points difference; P = 0.064), whereas phosphorylated tau was not associated with decline.Reduced levels of CSF amyloid beta 1-42 were associated with more rapid cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia patients. Future prospective studies should include larger samples, centralized CSF analyses, longer follow-up, and biomarker-pathology correlation. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Both muscle mass and muscle strength are inversely associated with depressive symptoms in an elderly Chinese population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2016 Jun 7.
Few population studies have examined the association between skeletal muscle and depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine whether low muscle mass and muscle strength were associated with the depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese.A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1046 elderly in Tianjin, China. Depressive symptoms were examined using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale. A Geriatric Depression Scale score of ≥11 was used to indicate depressive symptoms. Skeletal muscle mass was indicated using a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) that was measured by bioimpedance analysis and muscle strength was measured by dynamometer.In a multiple logistic regression analysis, subjects in the lowest quartile of SMI or muscle strength had a significantly higher risk for depressive symptoms compared with those in the fourth quartile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for depressive symptoms risk in the lowest quartile of SMI compared with the highest after adjusting for potential confounding factors were 10.1 (2.25, 58.3) in men and 3.17 (1.07, 9.95) in women. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for depressive symptoms risk in the lowest quartile of muscle strength compared with the highest after adjusting for potential confounding factors were 2.55 (1.02, 6.67) in men and 4.18 (1.83, 10.2) in women.Both muscle mass and muscle strength are inversely associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Chinese. These findings may provide novel insights linking skeletal muscle and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Predictors of depressive symptoms following the Great East Japan earthquake: A prospective study. [Journal Article]
- Soc Sci Med 2016 Jul.:47-54.
We sought to investigate prospectively the association between exposure to disaster (the 2011 East Japan Earthquake) and change in depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adult survivors. We used two waves of data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), an ongoing population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan. A unique feature of our study was the availability of information about mental health status pre-dating the disaster. Our sample comprised community-dwelling survivors aged 65 and older, who responded to surveys in 2010 (i.e. one year before the disaster) and in 2013 (n = 3464). We categorized disaster exposure according to three types of experiences: loss of family/friends, property damage, and disruption in access to medical service. Our main outcome was change in depressive symptoms, measured by the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS). Among the participants, 917 (26.5%) reported losing a family member to the disaster, while a further 537 (15.5%) reported losing a friend. More than half of the participants reported some damage to their homes. After adjusting for demographics and baseline mental health, people whose homes were completely destroyed had significantly elevated depressive symptom scores three years later (+1.22 points, 95%CI: 0.80, 1.64, p < 0.0001). Disruption of psychiatric care was also associated with change in GDS scores (+2.51 points, 95%CI: 1.28, 3.74, p < 0.0001). By contrast, loss of family/friends was no longer associated with GDS after 3 years; +0.18 points (95%CI: -0.018, 0.37, p = 0.08) for loss of family, and -0.045 points (95%CI: -0.28, 0.19, p = 0.71) for loss of friends. Three years after the disaster, survivors of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami appeared to have recovered from loss of loved ones. By contrast, property loss and disruption of psychiatry care were associated with persistent adverse impact on mental health.
- Cognitive impairment and depression in a population of patients with chronic kidney disease in Colombia: a prevalence study. [Journal Article]
- Can J Kidney Health Dis 2016.:26.
Growth of the elderly population is linked to the increase of comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), depression, and cognitive impairment (CI). Cognitive impairment can vary from minimal deficits in the normal aging, to mild cognitive impairment with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 29 % in people ≥ 65 years of age, up to severe impairment with a prevalence of 6 to 42 %. The CI induced by depression usually affects the functional performance of the elderly.The objective of the study is to describe the prevalence of CI and depression in patients ≥ 55 years with CKD stages 3 and 4, attending a secondary prevention program during 2012-2013.The design of the study is a cross-sectional study of simple random sampling, and 308 patients were invited to participate.Patients were being treated in a CKD secondary prevention program in Bogotá, Colombia, during 2012-2013.Participants were over 54 years diagnosed with CKD in stages 3 to 4 according to the K/DOQI classification.CI was assessed using NEUROPSI and modified Lawton Scale; depression was measured with Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale and the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview.Through an interview with the subjects, information regarding age, occupation, civil status, educational level, and clinical baseline variables was collected. Clinical assessment with specific instruments was performed by a multidisciplinary team composed of nephrologists, a psychiatrist, a neurologist, and a neuropsychologist.Two hundred and fifty-one patients agreed to participate. The average age was 76.3 (SD = 7.9) years, 67 % were males, and 86.5 % had CKD stage 3. Overall prevalence of CI was 51 % (95 % CI 44.7 to 57.2), and the prevalence of major depression reached 8 % (95 % CI 4.5 to 11.3); 4.8 % of the patients (n = 12) had both CI and depression.A limitation of the study is its design, which does not allow establishing the direction of the association between predictors and outcomes. Suggested associations must be interpreted cautiously as they are generated as hypothesis, which should be investigated in properly designed trials.CI and depression are prevalent conditions among patients with CKD stages 3-4, with the greatest occurrence of CI, affecting half of the investigated Colombian patients with age ≥ 55 years.
- Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Alzheimers Dement 2016 Mar; 12(3):292-323.
During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations.