Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Interstitial nephritis [keywords]
- The contribution of epithelial-mesenchymal transition to renal fibrosis differs among kidney disease models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kidney Int 2014 Jul 9.
The impact of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to the formation of renal fibrosis has been debated in several lineage-tracing studies, with conflicting findings. Such disparities may have arisen from varying experimental conditions such as different disease models, the mouse strain, and type of genetic alteration used. In order to determine the contribution of these factors to EMT, we generated four kidney disease models in several mouse strains genetically modified to express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in cortical tubular epithelial cells under the control of the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase promoter. Using this approach, the EMT was visible and quantifiable based on a count of EGFP-positive interstitial cells in the fibrotic kidney sections of the four renal disease models found to be either EMT-prone or -resistant. The EMT-prone models consisted of unilateral ureteral obstruction and ischemic nephropathy in SJL mice. The EMT-resistant models consisted of ureteral obstruction in C57B/6 and F1(C57B/6 × SJL) mice, adriamycin nephrosis in 129 mice, and nephrotoxic serum nephritis in SJL mice. Analyses of these renal disease models suggest the emergence of EMT-derived fibroblasts arises in a disease-specific and strain-dependent manner. Thus, when considering molecular mechanisms and involvement of the EMT in renal fibrosis, it is important to take into account the experimental conditions, particularly the mouse strain and type of disease model.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.235.
- Tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating IVIG therapy for X-linked agammaglobulinemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Nephrol 2014 Jul 8; 15(1):109.
Patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) develop immune-complex induced diseases such as nephropathy only rarely, presumably because their immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration is low. We encountered a patient with XLA who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis during treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).A 20-year-old man was diagnosed with XLA 3 months after birth and subsequently received periodic gamma-globulin replacement therapy. Renal dysfunction developed at 19 years of age in association with high urinary beta2-microglobulin (MG) concentrations. A renal biopsy specimen showed dense CD3-positive lymphocytic infiltration in the tubulointerstitium and tubular atrophy, while no IgG4-bearing cell infiltration was found. Fibrosclerosis and crescent formation were evident in some glomeruli. Fluorescent antibody staining demonstrated deposition of IgG and complement component C3 in tubular basement membranes. After pulse steroid therapy was initiated, urinary beta2-MG and serum creatinine concentrations improved.Neither drug reactions nor collagen disease were likely causes of tubular interstitial disorder in this patient. Although BK virus was ruled out, IgG in the gamma-globulin preparation might have reacted with a pathogen present in the patient to form low-molecular-weight immune complexes that were deposited in the tubular basement membrane.
- Non-diabetic renal diseases in a multi-ethnic New Zealand cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and histopathological features. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pathology 2014 Jun 20.
The aims of this study were to identify non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), including obesity related glomerulopathy (ORG) in diabetic patients, and compare the findings with those of pure diabetic nephropathy (DN).Ninety-three renal biopsies from diabetic patients were reviewed retrospectively, along with their clinical findings at biopsy and their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over 5 years follow-up. DN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were diagnosed on blinded histology review, together with assessment of renal compartment histology. Other NDRD were diagnosed on full review.Most patients were obese with poor renal function at biopsy. NDRD occurred in more than two-thirds of biopsies. FSGS and interstitial nephritis were common. Patients with pure FSGS presented earlier, and had favourable histological features and clinical course. Most FSGS patients fulfilled criteria for ORG. Biopsies with interstitial nephritis showed more functional glomerular tissue, and most patients retained good renal function. Adverse prognostic features were DN versus NDRD, nodular grade of DN, low eGFR at biopsy, and severe chronic histological changes.In this population, ORG mechanisms contribute to renal injury. FSGS is frequent, and should be diagnosed separately from any DN. Biopsy to confirm suspicion of interstitial nephritis should be performed even if retinopathy is present.
- Hepatitis C virus associated glomerulopathies. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Jun 28; 20(24):7544-7554.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a systemic disorder which is often associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations including glomerulopathies. Patients with HCV infection were found to have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease. HCV positivity has also been linked to lower graft and patient survivals after kidney transplantation. Various histological types of renal diseases are reported in association with HCV infection including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), membranous nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, fibrillary glomerulonephritis, immunotactoid glomerulopathy, IgA nephropathy, renal thrombotic microangiopathy, vasculitic renal involvement and interstitial nephritis. The most common type of HCV associated glomerulopathy is type I MPGN associated with type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. Clinically, typical renal manifestations in HCV-infected patients include proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, hypertension, acute nephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Three approaches may be suggested for the treatment of HCV-associated glomerulopathies and cryoglobulinemic renal disease: (1) antiviral therapy to prevent the further direct damage of HCV on kidneys and synthesis of immune-complexes; (2) B-cell depletion therapy to prevent formation of immune-complexes and cryoglobulins; and (3) nonspecific immunosuppressive therapy targeting inflammatory cells to prevent the synthesis of immune-complexes and to treat cryoglobulin associated vasculitis. In patients with moderate proteinuria and stable renal functions, anti-HCV therapy is advised to be started as pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin. However in patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and/or progressive kidney injury and other serious extra-renal manifestations, immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide, rituximab, steroid pulses and plasmapheresis should be administrated.
- Inflammatory pseudotumors of the kidney due to IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. [Journal Article]
- Rom J Morphol Embryol 2014; 55(2):419-23.
The paper presents the case of a female patient who was admitted to our department because of prolonged febrile syndrome, altered general status and renal tumoral masses revealed by thoracic and abdominal CT. After thorough histological examination, including immunohisto-chemistry and in situ hybridization studies, we reached the diagnosis of renal pseudotumoral masses due to IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. The kidney is a distinct target organ affected by IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and the most frequent manifestation is tubulo-interstitial nephritis. We described the clinical, imagistic and histopathological features of kidney and urological involvement in IgG4-related sclerosing disease, especially focusing on IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. This is a rare case of IgG4-related sclerosing disease without extrarenal features, excepting lumboaortic lymphadenopathy.
- Low-dose corticosteroid and gallium-67 scintigraphy and acute interstitial nephritis. [Journal Article]
- Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2014 Jul-Aug; 25(4):864-8.
We describe a 19-year-old male who developed diclofenac-induced acute inters-titial nephritis (AIN). Diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration was confirmed by renal biopsy and a Gallium (Ga)-67 scintigraphy revealed diffuse uptake of the isotope in both kidneys. His renal function had gradually and promptly recovered after initiation of low-dose prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/day). There are no established criteria for the administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of drug-induced AIN. Moreover, no clear recommendations regarding the optimal dose and duration of steroid administration in the treatment for drug-induced AIN has been established. In addition, we discuss the clinical benefit of steroid treatment and the diagnostic impact of Ga scanning on the management of drug-induced AIN.
- Protocol renal biopsy in patients with lupus nephritis: A single center experience. [Journal Article]
- Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2014 Jul-Aug; 25(4):801-7.
Renal biopsy plays an indispensable role in the diagnosis and management of patients with lupus nephritis (LN). A number of studies have evaluated the role of a repeat biopsy in case of disease relapse or treatment unresponsiveness. We studied 40 patients with LN with renal biopsies performed at baseline and after six months of therapy. The baseline and protocol biopsies were compared with respect to histological class transformation, crescents, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. We also compared serum creatinine, hemog-lobin, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores, 24-h urine protein excretion and C3levels as well as activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI) at baseline and at six months. Comparison of means was made by paired t test, McNemar test and marginal homogeneity test (multinomial data). Histological class transformation was seen in 10 patients (25%). Intra-class progression to greater chronicity was seen in 10 other patients (25%).There was an increase in glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and a reduction in cellularity, crescent formation and wire loop lesions in the protocol biopsy. A decline in AI (6.05 vs. 2.50, P <0.001) and SLEDAI scores (8.1 vs. 3.7, P <0.001) and an increase in CI (0.68 vs. 2.52, P <0.001) was observed at the time of protocol biopsy. Our study shows a trend toward greater chronicity in protocol biopsies in LN.
- Adenovirus causing fever, upper respiratory infection, and allograft nephritis complicated by persistent asymptomatic viremia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transpl Infect Dis 2014 Jun 26.
A 20-year-old woman, with renal transplant complicated by recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, presented nearly 2 years after transplantation with fever, conjunctivitis, and sinus congestion. She was found to have severe adenovirus (ADV)-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for ADV in the renal biopsy, without urinary symptoms, hematuria, or laboratory evidence of a change in allograft function. Fever, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and evidence of adenoviral infection in the allograft resolved with decreased immunosuppression and treatment with cidofovir and intravenous immunoglobulin. Creatinine rose during treatment and remained elevated, possibly related to cidofovir nephrotoxicity. Despite therapy and continued reduction in immunosuppression, asymptomatic low-level viremia persisted for a year. In renal transplant patients with ADV infection, allograft involvement should be highly suspected even without overt urinary symptoms or laboratory evidence of allograft dysfunction. Demonstration of allograft involvement may prompt alternative management that could limit continued allograft infection. No clear recommendations exist for management of asymptomatic ADV viremia in solid organ transplant patients.
- Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol Ind Health 2014 Jun 23.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration.