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Interstitial nephritis [keywords]
- The renal histopathology spectrum of elderly patients with kidney diseases: a study of 430 patients in a single chinese center. [Journal Article]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2014 Dec; 93(28):e226.
The elderly population has significantly increased in China. However, data regarding renal histopathology in this population is lacking. The present study retrospectively analyzed renal disease spectrum of 430 elderly patients who had received renal biopsy at Peking University First Hospital between January 2003 and December 2012.Among 6049 patients receiving renal biopsies during the same period, 430 (7.10%) were elderly (≥65 years). The ratio of male (263 patients) to female (167 patients) was 1.57:1, with an age of 70.29 ± 3.99 (range 65-82) years at the time of biopsy. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (59.53%), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI, 19.53%) and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN, 16.05%). The most common renal histopathology in primary glomerular disease was idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN, 61.02%), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.22%), minimal change disease (MCD, 9.32%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (6.78%). ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, 43.95%) was the leading secondary glomerular disease, followed by HBV-related glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN, 24.2%), and amyloidosis (14.01%). In patients with nephrotic syndrome, iMN (50%) was the leading cause, followed by HBV-GN (16.02%), MCD (7.81%), and amyloidosis (7.81%). In patients with iMN, 89.5% presented as nephrotic syndrome, 8.39% as CGN. In patients with AKI, the leading cause was AAV (48.12%), followed by acute interstitial nephritis (20.48%) and acute tubular necrosis (8.43%).In conclusion, in elderly Chinese patients, the most common renal histopathology pattern was iMN in patients with nephrotic syndrome, and AAV in patients with AKI.
- Fowl typhoid (Salmonella Gallinarum) outbreak in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Avian Dis 2014 Sep; 58(3):491-4.
A fowl typhoid (FT) outbreak is reported in a flock of 400 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 91 days of age. Of these, 222 died suddenly, and necropsy revealed swollen liver and spleen with off-white to yellowish granules and reddish small intestine mucosa. Histopathology showed severe multifocal necrosis of liver and spleen (5/5), pulmonary congestion with macrophage infiltration in air capillaries (5/5), discrete interstitial nephritis (2/2), superficial necrosis of the intestinal mucosa with large numbers of coccobacilli (2/2), moderate peritonitis (2/2), and discrete airsacculitis (1/1). Anti-Salmonella immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained the cytoplasm of macrophages or free in the liver (5/5), spleen (5/5), lungs (4/5), kidneys (2/2) small intestine mucosa (2/2), cecum (1/1), bone marrow (1/1), air sacs (1/1), and ovary (1/1). In the heart (5/5), brain (2/2), esophagus (2/2), pancreas (2/2), proventriculus (2/2), gizzard (1/1), bursa of Fabricius (1/1), oviduct (1/1), and skeletal muscle (1/1) staining was observed only in the lumen of blood vessels. Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated in pure cultures of liver, spleen, lung, intestine, and blood samples of two birds.
- A Comparison of Biochemical and Histopathologic Staging in Cats With Chronic Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Pathol 2014 Dec 16.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in elderly cats. Frequently, a diagnosis is made in later stages of disease, by which time many renal lesions are irreversible. As such, little headway has been made in identifying an etiology and preventing this common disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and severity of both reversible and irreversible histopathologic changes in the kidneys of cats at each stage of CKD and, in addition, to determine if lesion prevalence and character were different between stages. A total of 46 cats with CKD were classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) as stage I (3 cats), stage II (16 cats), stage III (14 cats), and stage IV (13 cats). Eleven young, nonazotemic and 10 geriatric, nonazotemic cats were included as controls. The severity of tubular degeneration, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis was significantly greater in later stages of CKD compared with early stages of disease. Proteinuria was associated with increased severity of tubular degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, tubular epithelial single-cell necrosis, and decreased normal parenchyma. Presence of hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, fibrointimal hyperplasia, or other vascular lesions were not found to be significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive cats. The greater prevalence and severity of irreversible lesions in stage III and IV CKD implies that therapeutic interventions should be targeted at earlier stages of disease.
- [Genotyping and evaluation of infection dynamics in a Colombian isolate of Leptospira santarosai in hamster as an experimental model]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Biomedica 2014 Sep; 34(3):460-72.
Is necessary to develop models for the study of leptospirosis.To genotype a Colombian strain of Leptospira isolated from a human with Weil´s syndrome and to evaluate its infection dynamics in the hamster experimental model.Genotyping was performed by amplification and sequence analysis of the rrs 16S and lipL32 genes. The median lethal dose was determined in intraperitoneally inoculated hamsters. The patterns of clinical chemistry, the duration of leptospiremia, leptospiruria and pathological findings were studied and compared in the same animal model infected with L. interrogans (Fiocruz L1-130).Molecular typing revealed that the isolate corresponded to the pathogenic species L. santarosai, which was recovered from hamsters´ kidneys and lungs and detected by lipL32 PCR from day 3 post-infection in these organs. There was a marked increase of C-reactive protein in animals at day 5 post-infection (3.25 mg/dl; normal value: 0.3 mg/dl) with decreases by day 18 (2.60 mg/dl: normal value: 0.8 mg/dl). Biomarkers of urea showed changes consistent with possible renal acute failure (day 5 post-infection: 49.01 mg/dl and day 18 post-infection: 53.71 mg/dl). Histopathological changes included interstitial pneumonia with varying degrees of hemorrhage and interstitial nephritis.The pathogenic species L. santarosai was identified in Colombia. Its pathogenicity as determined by tropism to lung and kidney was comparable to that of L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130, well known for its virulence and pulmonar tropism. The biological aspects studied here had never before been evaluated in an autochthonous isolate.
- Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Antimicrobial Agents in the Elderly: Awareness and Mitigation Strategies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drugs Aging 2014 Dec 10.
The use of antimicrobial agents has increased in recent years as treatments have diversified and resistant bacteria have appeared. With increased use of antimicrobial agents, elderly patients are prone to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as a result of factors such as drug-drug interactions, polypharmacy, long-term use, and over- or under-dosage. In particular, elderly patients using antimicrobials are at increased risk to develop drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), which is the most common severe ADR in such patients. AKI is a serious problem that is associated with mortality amongst hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial-induced AKI can be classified into three different types: acute tubular necrosis (ATN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), and renal tubule lumen obstruction. AKI can generally be prevented by proper maintenance of fluid balance. To design dosage regimens that ensure efficient drug excretion via the kidney, it is necessary to accurately estimate renal function; however, the kidney undergoes age-dependent structural and functional alterations over time. Therefore, proper management of antimicrobial agents by an antimicrobial stewardship team may lead to decreased incidence of AKI. This article reviews antimicrobial-induced AKI and discusses potential strategies for increasing awareness of AKI and mitigating its clinical effects.
- IgG4 related renal disease: A wolf in sheep's clothing. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Nephrol 2014 Nov; 24(6):382-6.
IgG4 related disease is a fibro-inflammatory condition with involvement of renal and extra renal organs, characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with organ dysfunction. We describe three cases of IgG4 related renal disease from a tertiary care hospital in south India.
- An autopsy case of unicentric Castleman's disease associated with bronchiolitis obliterans. [Journal Article]
- Respirol Case Rep 2014 Sep; 2(3):105-7.
A 34-year-old woman visited the hospital suffering from enanthema of the tongue, hair loss, and nonproductive cough. Corticosteroid administration slightly resolved the enanthema and hair loss, but not the nonproductive cough. She was transferred to another hospital for the resection of a retroperitoneal mass, which was histopathologically diagnosed as unicentric, hyaline vascular type Castleman's disease. She was then referred to our hospital due to progressive dyspnea and was diagnosed as having bronchiolitis obliterans based on computed tomography scan findings and a lung function test, while paraneoplastic pemphigus was clinically considered for her enanthema. After her death from respiratory failure in spite of corticosteroid administration, autopsy confirmed constrictive bronchiolitis in the lung. Mucocutaneous lesions, clinically considered as paraneoplastic pemphigus, were histologically different from pemphigus. The constrictive bronchiolitis and other pathological findings, including nonviral chronic hepatitis and interstitial nephritis, confirmed the diagnosis of paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome associated with the Castleman's disease.
- Survey of Acute Kidney Injury and Related Risk Factors of Mortality in Hospitalized Patients in a Third-Level Urban Hospital of Shanghai. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood Purif 2014 Nov 27; 38(2):140-148.
Objective:The main aim of this study is to investigate the incidence and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and to clarify the risk factors associated with the prognosis of AKI in hospitalized patients. Method: All patients hospitalized from January 1st to December 31st 2012 in Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine Shanghai Jiao Tong University were screened by the Lab Administration Network. All the patients with an intact medical history of AKI according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) were enrolled in the study cohort. AKI's incidence and etiology, as well as the patient's characteristics and prognosis, were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors on the patient prognosis and renal outcome.
Results:934 AKI patients were enrolled. The incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients was 2.41%. The ratio of males to females of patients was 1.88:1 and the mean age was 60.82 ± 16.94. The incidence of AKI increased with increase in age. Among hospitalized patients, 63.4% were from the surgical department, 35.4% from the internal medicine department, and 1.2% from the obstetric and gynecologic department. Regarding the cause of AKI, pre-renal AKI, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), acute glomerulonephritis and vasculitis (AGV), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), and post-renal AKI contributed with 51.7, 37.7, 3.8, 3.5, and 3.3%, respectively. The survival rate on the day 28 after AKI was 71.8%. In addition, 65.7% patients got complete renal recovery, while 16.9% got partial renal recovery and 17.4% got renal loss. The mortality of AKI in hospitalized patients at Stage I, Stage II and Stage III was 24.8, 31.2 and 43.7%, respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that use of nephrotoxic drugs, [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.313], hypotension in the previous week (OR = 4.482), oliguria (OR = 5.267), the number of extra-renal organ failures (OR = 1.376), and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) (OR = 4.221) were independent risk factors for mortality. The number of extra-renal organ failures (OR = 1.529) and RRT (OR = 2.117) were independent risk factors for renal loss.
Conclusion:AKI is one of the most common complications in hospitalized patients. The mortality is high and renal prognosis is poor after AKI. The prognosis is closely associated with the severity of AKI. Nephrotoxic drugs, hypotension within the last week, oliguria, the number of extra-renal organ failures, and RRT are independent risk factors for mortality, while the number of extra-renal organ failures and RRT are independent risk factors for renal loss. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- [Systemic sarcoidosis and membranous glomerulonephritis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Pneumol Clin 2014 Dec; 70(6):375-9.
Renal involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and more often related to calcium metabolism disorders or granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Glomerulonephritis is exceptional. There may be a long latency period between the development of active sarcoidosis and glomerular involvement and inversely. We report a case membranous glomerulonephritis revealing systemic sarcoidosis.
- Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Pathol 2014 Dec 1.
Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California.