Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Interstitial nephritis [keywords]
- Renal failure due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis in native and allograft renal biopsies: experience from a tertiary care hospital. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ren Fail 2014 Aug 26.:1-3.
Abstract Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of renal failure in both native and allograft renal biopsies. Drugs and sarcoidosis are the commonest causes of granulomatous interstitial nephritis as reported in Western countries. Unlike the west, tuberculosis is the commonest cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in Indian subcontinent. The etiological factors, clinical course, glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes associated with granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been analyzed in the present study along with the outcome in patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis.
- [A case of successful living related renal transplantation in a patient with end-stage renal disease resulting from sarcoidosis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hinyokika Kiyo 2014 Jul; 60(7):319-22.
We report a case in a 44-year-old man with known past history of sarcoidosis associated with uveitis that was first diagnosed when he was 20 years old. He developed renal dysfunction 6 years after the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. At that time, a renal biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomatous interstitial nephritis, typical findings of renal involvement of sarcoidosis. Despite corticosteroid therapy administered soon after the biopsy, the renal dysfunction gradually progressed to end-stage renal disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation from a living donor and the renal graft has been functioning well with no evidence of recurrence 10 months postoperatively, and with a serum creatinine level between 1.2 and 1.5 mg/dl.
- Prucalopride-associated acute tubular necrosis. [Journal Article]
- World J Clin Cases 2014 Aug 16; 2(8):380-4.
We report the first case of acute renal failure secondary to prucalopride, a novel agent for the treatment of chronic constipation. The 75 years old male patient was initiated on prucalopride after many failed treatments for constipation following a Whipple's procedure for pancreatic cancer. Within four months of treatment his creatinine rose from 103 to 285 μmol/L (eGFR 61 decrease to 19 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). He was initially treated with prednisone for presumed acute interstitial nephritis as white blood casts were seen on urine microscopy. When no improvement was detected, a core biopsy was performed and revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The presence of oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals were also noted. These findings suggest acute tubular necrosis which may have been secondary to acute interstitial nephritis or hemodynamic insult. The use of prednisone may have suppressed signs of inflammation and therefore the clinical diagnosis was deemed acute interstitial nephritis causing acute tubular necrosis. There are no previous reports of prucalopride associated with acute renal failure from the literature, including previous Phase II and III trials.
- Macrophage trafficking as key mediator of adenine-induced kidney injury. [Journal Article]
- Mediators Inflamm 2014.:291024.
Macrophages play a special role in the onset of several diseases, including acute and chronic kidney injuries. In this sense, tubule interstitial nephritis (TIN) represents an underestimated insult, which can be triggered by different stimuli and, in the absence of a proper regulation, can lead to fibrosis deposition. Based on this perception, we evaluated the participation of macrophage recruitment in the development of TIN. Initially, we provided adenine-enriched food to WT and searched for macrophage presence and action in the kidney. Also, a group of animals were depleted of macrophages with the clodronate liposome while receiving adenine-enriched diet. We collected blood and renal tissue from these animals and renal function, inflammation, and fibrosis were evaluated. We observed higher expression of chemokines in the kidneys of adenine-fed mice and a substantial protection when macrophages were depleted. Then, we specifically investigated the role of some key chemokines, CCR5 and CCL3, in this TIN experimental model. Interestingly, CCR5 KO and CCL3 KO animals showed less renal dysfunction and a decreased proinflammatory profile. Furthermore, in those animals, there was less profibrotic signaling. In conclusion, we can suggest that macrophage infiltration is important for the onset of renal injury in the adenine-induced TIN.
- Renal pathology associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Adv Anat Pathol 2014 Sep; 21(5):330-40.
The kidney is subject to a large variety of injurious factors before, during, and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), leading to a high incidence of acute kidney injury in the peritransplant period. Chronic kidney disease is estimated to impact 15% to 20% of HCT recipients. Although renal biopsies may be deferred in the setting of thrombotic microangiopathy, acute self-limited impairment, or slowly progressive functional decline, in many patients renal biopsy yields important diagnostic insight to guide treatment. Light microscopic, immunofluorescence, and ultrastructural analysis often reveals a number of concurrent abnormalities in glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and vessels. Meta-analysis of the literature reveals that membranous nephropathy is the most commonly reported glomerular lesion in the setting of HCT, followed by minimal change disease. Autopsy and biopsy studies show that clinical criteria lack sensitivity and specificity for renal acute and chronic thrombotic microangiopathy. Viral infection and other causes of interstitial nephritis and tubular injury are important findings in HCT renal biopsies, which in many instances may not be clinically suspected. Given the complexity and variability of HCT protocols, clinicopathologic correlation is needed.
- Elevated IgG4 Serum Levels Among Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Patients: Do They Unmask Underlying IgG4-Related Disease? [Journal Article]
- Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014 May; 66(5):773-7.
To determine IgG4 levels in a cohort of consecutive patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and other autoimmune diseases and explore whether they associate with distinct clinical, serologic, and histopathologic features.Serum IgG4 levels were measured in 133 primary SS patients and 49 healthy donors (HDs). Seventy-four lupus and 54 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients served as disease controls. Immunohistochemical IgG4 analysis was performed in paraffin-embedded minor salivary gland (MSG) tissues.Raised IgG4 serum levels (>135 mg/dl) were detected in 10 (7.5%) of 133 primary SS patients (high-IgG4 group), in 8 (10.8%) of 74 lupus patients, in 7 (12.9%) of 54 RA patients, and in 1 (2%) of 49 HDs. Compared to the normal-IgG4 (<135 mg/dl) primary SS group, high-IgG4 patients exhibited increased prevalence of IgG4-related features (autoimmune cholangitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and interstitial nephritis), lower rates of antinuclear antibody positivity, and higher IgG2 and IgE levels. Positive staining for IgG4+ plasma cells with an IgG4:IgG ratio ≥40% was detected in 3 of 6 available MSG tissues in the high-IgG4 group. Criteria of possible or definite IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) were fulfilled by 10 (7.5%) of 133 of our primary SS cohort.Raised IgG4 serum levels were detected in 7.5% of primary SS patients in association with IgG4RD-reminiscent clinical, serologic, and histopathologic features. Whether this high-IgG4 primary SS group represents a misclassified IgG4-RD group or a distinct primary SS subtype remains to be further explored in future studies.
- Acute interstitial nephritis - a reappraisal and update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Nephrol 2014 Sep; 82(3):149-162.
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 - 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest.
- Induction monotherapy with sirolimus has selected beneficial effects on glomerular and tubulointersititial injury in nephrotoxic serum nephritis. [Journal Article]
- Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2014.:303-13.
The study aimed to test the hypothesis that therapeutic treatment with a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor reduces renal cell proliferation and attenuates glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in the early phase of nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) in rats.Male Wistar-Kyoto rats received a single tail-vein injection of sheep anti-rat glomerular basement membrane serum (day 0) and were treated with vehicle or sirolimus (0.25 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection) from day 1 until day 14.Treatment with sirolimus attenuated kidney enlargement by 41% (P<0.05), improved endogenous creatinine clearance by 50% (P<0.05), and reduced glomerular and tubulointerstitial cell proliferation by 53% and 70%, respectively, (P<0.05 compared to vehicle) in rats with NSN. In glomeruli, sirolimus reduced segmental fibrinoid necrosis by 69%, autologous rat immunoglobulin G deposition, glomerular capillary tuft enlargement, and periglomerular myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells) accumulation (all P<0.05) but did not significantly affect glomerular crescent formation (P=0.15), macrophage accumulation (P=0.25), or the progression of proteinuria. In contrast, sirolimus preserved tubulointerstitial structure and attenuated all markers of injury (interstitial ED-1- and α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells and tubular vimentin expression; all P<0.05). By immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, sirolimus reduced the glomerular and tubulointerstitial expression of phosphorylated (Ser 235/236) S6-ribosomal protein (P<0.05).Induction monotherapy with sirolimus suppressed target of rapamycin complex 1 activation, renal cell proliferation, and injury during the early stages of rodent NSN, but the degree of histological protection was more consistent in the tubulointerstitium than the glomerular compartment.
- IgG4-related disease: a rheumatologist's perspective. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014 Jul 28.
Given that the clinical features of several IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) can mimic those of autoimmune disorders, the aim of this study was to find possible distinguishing characteristics that would help us identify such cases from the pool of patients in a rheumatology clinic.From our clinic's medical records, we identified patients who fulfilled the recently published diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. We recorded their presenting features, co-morbid conditions, laboratory, radiologic and histologic findings as well as their treatment and outcome.We identified 11 cases of IgG4-RD: 4 cases of IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), 5 cases of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF)/ periaortitis, 2 cases of IgG4-related sialadenitis and one of IgG4-related interstitial nephritis. 5 out of the 11 patients had been diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, namely rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). 3 out of 11 patients were subsequently diagnosed with neoplastic disorders. All patients with IgG4-related AIP had raised CRP levels at presentation. Presenting features of RPF/periaortitis patients were constitutional symptoms, abnormal renal function, hypertension and back pain. Patients with IgG4-related sialadenitis had clinical features mimicking SS. The majority of patients had a favourable response to steroids.We present common IgG4-RD presentations in the setting of a rheumatology clinic. Increased awareness may avoid delay in diagnosis.
- [Nitrofurantoin--clinical relevance in uncomplicated urinary tract infections]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Med Monatsschr Pharm 2014 Jul; 37(7):242-8.
The nitrofuran derivative nitrofurantoin has been used for more than 60 years for the antibacterial therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Despite its long application, this antibiotic retained good activity against Escherichia coli and some other pathogens of uncomplicated urinary tract infections such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus species. Nitrofurantoin therapy has been shown to be accompanied by numerous adverse drug effects. Among these, there are also serious side effects such as pulmonary reactions and polyneuropathy, which mainly occur in long-term use. Recent studies, however, have shown a good efficacy and tolerability of short-term nitrofurantoin therapy comparable to previous established standard therapeutic regimens applying cotrimoxazole or quinolones. Because of these data and the alarming resistance rates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to cotrimoxazole and quinolones that have been increased markedly in several countries, the clinical significance ofnitrofurantoin has been raised again. In many current treatment guidelines, e. g., the international clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, nitrofurantoin has been recommended as one first-line antibiotic of empiric antibacterial treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in otherwise healthy women. In Germany, however, nitrofurantoin should only be applied if more effective and less risky antibiotics cannot be used. Nitrofurantoin is contraindicated in the last three months of pregnancy and in patients suffering from renal impairment of each degree. Despite compatibility concerns, nitrofurantoin has also been recommended for the re-infection prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Germany and several other countries.