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Interstitial pneumonitis, acute [keywords]
- Berberine Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflammation 2013 Apr 21.
Berberine (Ber), the major constituent of Coptidis Rhizoma, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ber on cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated acute lung inflammation. C57BL/6 mice (6-8 weeks) were exposed to CS to induce acute lung injury. Ber was used to pretreat CS-exposed mice (50 mg/kg, intragastrically). Lung tissues were collected for histological examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay, Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured for cell counts and cytokine analysis. Histological examination showed that CS exposure caused infiltration of inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces and interstitial edema. Pretreatment with Ber significantly attenuated CS-induced lung inflammation. The numbers of total cells, macrophages, and neutrophils in BALF were decreased by 43, 40, and 53 %, respectively, by Ber pretreatment in CS-exposed mice, accompanied by decreased MPO activity, a marker of neutrophil accumulation. Ber pretreatment also profoundly diminished CS-induced secretions of macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in BALF, along with less nuclear translocation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit and lower NF-κB DNA-binding activity (P < 0.01). Thus, our results indicated that Ber ameliorates CS-induced acute lung injury through its anti-inflammatory activity.
- Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus lung infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 May 9.
Background:Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis may be severe, even lethal, following congenital infection or in premature infants with perinatal infection.
Objective:To review the epidemiological, pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic features of prenatal and perinatal CMV lung diseases.
Methods:Evaluation of all published papers listed on PubMed describing CMV pneumonitis in infants.
Results:CMV is frequent and severe in immunosuppressed infants but infrequent in full-term neonates and occurs more frequently after perinatal than after congenital infection, particularly in premature infants. In premature infants, CMV infection is often protracted and causes a diffuse interstitial pneumonitis leading to fibrosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Congenital CMV infection should also be considered in newborns with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory respiratory failure with progression to early chronic lung disease. The association between breast milk-transmitted CMV and development of cystic lung disease and Wilson-Mikity syndrome has also been reported. Data on the efficacy of antiviral therapy for infants with respiratory CMV diseases are lacking and only anecdotal case reports are available.
Conclusions:Persistent CMV infection appears to cause a diffuse necrotizing pneumonitis with fibrosis leading to BPD, in both immunocompromised or preterm infants and, less frequently in immunocompetent infants. The role of antiviral therapy remains to be elucidated.
- Skin ulcer is a predictive and prognostic factor of acute or subacute interstitial lung disease in dermatomyositis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatol Int 2013 Apr 4.
The aim of this study was to determine whether skin ulcer can be used as a predictive and prognostic factor of acute/subacute interstitial lung disease (ILD) in Japanese patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We reviewed the medical records of 39 consecutive DM patients who were admitted to Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital from January 2000 to December 2009. The mean follow-up period was 63.9 ± 51.6 months. Fifteen patients had acute/subacute ILD and 11 patients had chronic ILD. Seven out of 15 acute/subacute ILD led to respiratory failure and 3 of them died due to ILD. Skin ulcers were observed in 5 out of 15 patients with acute/subacute ILD (33.3 %) and in 2 out of 24 patients without acute/subacute ILD (8.3 %). The presence of skin ulcers was revealed to be a significant predictive factor for acute/subacute ILD among various parameters by multivariate analysis. In the 15 patients with acute/subacute ILD, the presence of skin ulcers was a significant poor prognostic factor (p = 0.0231) and the cumulative survival rate of patients with skin ulcers was 53.3 % for 12 months. Skin ulcer is a significant predictive and prognostic factor of acute/subacute ILD in patients with DM.
- Respiratory failure in a patient with dermatomyositis. [Journal Article]
- Multidiscip Respir Med 2013; 8(1):27.
Since its original description in 1956 the association between interstitial lung disease and polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) has become well established. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can be a significant complication in rheumatic diseases (RDs). Although most patients with RD do not develop clinically evident ILD, these systemic autoimmune disorders are estimated to be responsible for approximately 25% of all ILD deaths and 2% of deaths due to all respiratory causes. Radiologic abnormalities in DM are characterized by a high incidence of airspace consolidation. Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) is the most common form of lung disease, with a frequency in biopsies 4-fold greater than that of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) in PM and a slightly smaller predominance in DM.We report a case of a female patient, 57 years old, no former smoker, whose clinical history was onset in November 2008 with asthenia with muscle and osteoarticular pain especially located in the upper limbs and then also expanded to the lower limbs. The EMG was compatible with dermatomyositis in the acute phase. The patient received therapy with steroids and tacrolimus, also making several rounds of treatment with immunoglobulin. Given the recurrence of myositis in association with signs of poorly controlled interstitial lung disease, immunosuppressive therapy with Rituximab was administered. The Computed Tomography (CT) scans showed "bronchiectasis and traction bronchiolectasis, hypodense areas consistent with the phenomena of air trapping. The pattern of interstitial lung disease with fibrotic evolution seems consistent with NSIP.The arterial blood gas analysis showed a pattern of hypoxic-hypercapnic respiratory failure (pH: 7,34, PaO2: 67 mmHg; PaCO2: 55 mmHg).As a result of an episode of marked desaturation unresponsive to supplemental oxygen at high flows we proceeded to noninvasive mechanical ventilation with Helmet for 24 hours/24. This ventilatory support was maintained for a week, with resolution of the respiratory failure.In this brief case report we want to highlight various pulmonary complications as a result of dermatomyositis. The progression of respiratory complications may also lead to a situation of respiratory failure, as in our patient, and require a noninvasive ventilatory treatment.
- A case of acute onset interstitial pneumonitis in patient with spondyloarthropathy. [Journal Article]
- Minerva Med 2013 Apr; 104(2):233-5.
- Infusion of freshly isolated autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells prevents endotoxin-induced lung injury in an ex-vivo perfused swine model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stem Cell Res Ther 2013 Mar 4; 4(2):26.
INTRODUCTION:The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), affects up to 150,000 patients per year in the United States. We and other groups have demonstrated that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells prevent ARDS induced by systemic and local administration of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in mice.
METHODS:A study was undertaken to determine the effects of the diverse populations of bone marrow derived cells on the pathophysiology of ARDS, using a unique ex-vivo swine preparation, in which only the ventilated lung and the liver are perfused with autologous blood. Six experimental groups were designated as: 1) endotoxin alone, 2) endotoxin + total fresh whole bone marrow nuclear cells (BMC), 3) endotoxin + non-hematopoietic bone marrow cells (CD45 neg), 4) endotoxin + hematopoietic bone marrow cells (CD45 positive), 5) endotoxin + buffy coat and 6) endotoxin + in vitro expanded swine CD45 negative adherent allogeneic bone marrow cells (cultured CD45neg). We measured at different levels the biological consequences of the infusion of the different subsets of cells. The measured parameters were: pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), gas exchange (PO2), lung edema (lung wet/dry weight), gene expression and serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6.
RESULTS:Infusion of freshly purified autologous total BMCs, as well as non-hematopoietic CD45(-) bone marrow cells significantly reduced endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia and reduced the lung edema. Also, in the groups that received BMCs and cultured CD45neg we observed a decrease in the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in plasma. Infusion of hematopoietic CD45(+) bone marrow cells or peripheral blood buffy coat cells did not protect against LPS-induced lung injury.
CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that infusion of freshly isolated autologous whole bone marrow cells and the subset of non-hematopoietic cells can suppress the acute humoral and physiologic responses induced by endotoxemia by modulating the inflammatory response, mechanisms that do not involve engraftment or trans-differentiation of the cells. These observations may have important implications for the design of future cell therapies for ARDS.
- Safety and efficacy of platinum agents plus etoposide for patients with small cell lung cancer with interstitial lung disease. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Anticancer Res 2013 Mar; 33(3):1175-9.
The safety and efficacy of combination of platinum agents plus etoposide for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with pre-existing interstitial lung disease (ILD) is uncertain.Fifty-two patients received platinum agents plus etoposide as first-line chemotherapy for SCLC with pre-existing ILD. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcome and survival of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.During first-line chemotherapy, only one (2%) out of the 52 patients developed an acute exacerbation of ILD. The median number of treatment cycles was four. The overall response rate was 69%. The median progression-free survival period was 4.5 months. The median survival time was 9.4 months. Thirty-three patients (63%) received at least one subsequent chemotherapy regimen, and five of these patients developed acute exacerbation of ILD.The combination of platinum agents plus etoposide is feasible and effective in SCLC patients with pre-existing ILD, compared with regimens after second-line chemotherapy.
- [Lymphatics in non-tumoral pulmonary diseases. Review.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Pneumol Clin 2013 Jun; 69(3):170-174.
Whereas lymphatics in pulmonary non-tumoral diseases have been less studied than blood microcirculation, they clearly play a significant role. This review is a short update on lymphatics in various non-tumoral pulmonary diseases, from asthma to interstitial pneumonitis, excluding lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A lymphatic remodelling has been evidenced in asthma as well as in acute or chronic (UIP as NSIP) interstitial lung diseases. Such a remodelling can be explained as a side effect of local changes in fluidics but could also be an active player in the fibrosing process. Moreover the association of juxta-alveloar lymphatics and granulomas provides new insights in the emergence of these lesions in pulmonary sarcoidosis.
- [Pulmonary sarcoidosis: current diagnosis and treatment]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2013 Mar; 138(11):537-41.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disorder of unknown origin, which can involve multiple organs. However the lymph node and lung manifestations dominate. Most frequent symptoms are cough, fatigue, dyspnea and exercise limitations. About one third of the patients have no symptoms. The lung function test is mostly restrictive. The clinical course is very variable, spontaneous remissions occur in about 60 %. Acute sarcoidosis is a highly inflammatory disease with a very good prognosis even without steroid therapy. Chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to progressive loss of lung function. Indications to therapy are severe symptoms and loss of lung function as well as progressive lung involvement with fibrosis pattern. In chronic disease corticosteroids are effective in the majority of patients. Other immunosuppressives, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory agents are reserved for patients with severe side-effects to steroid-therapy or for patients, who cannot maintained on reasonable low doses of steroids. Lung transplantation is an option for life-threatening cases failing medical therapy.
- Are clinical features in Löfgren's syndrome-related erythema nodosum different from idiopathic erythema nodosum? [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Multicenter Study]
- Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2012 Oct; 29(2):128-31.
We retrospectively evaluated acute sarcoidosis (Löfgren's syndrome) patients diagnosed at 2 centers and compared the clinical features of Löfgren's syndrome (LS) related erythema nodosum (EN) to patients with idiopathic IEN who were diagnosed within the same time frame.Thirty patients (10 males, 20 females) who were diagnosed with LS and were being followed up for the last 8 years at 2 centers were included. Thirty patients (4 males, 26 females) who were admitted to the rheumatology outpatient clinics for IEN during that time period were taken as controls. The clinical and laboratory features at the initial admission, treatment modalities and response were recorded.Twentyfour (80%) patients with LS related EN had arthritis and/or arthralgia. Fifteen of them had only findings of periarticular ankle inflammation and 4 had polyarthritis. When LS related EN patients were compared to IEN patients, the former group had more arthritis and/or arthralgia (p < 0.001), leucocytosis (p = 0.02), lymphopenia (p = 0.005) and thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), and higher ESR (p = 0.02). Twentyfive (83.3%) patients with LS related EN were administered oral corticosteroids. In 21 patients, hilar lymphadenopathy disappeared on control chest x-ray and CT; in 3 patients, minimal residual lymph node enlargement was persistent. During a median follow-up of 54 months (range: 10-84 months), none of the LS related EN patients had clinical relapse.Apart from BHL, arthritis and/or arthralgia especially periarticular ankle inflammation is the feature which could be used to differentiate LS related EN from IEN. There is more need for steroids in LS patients and the symptoms quickly resolve with steroids.