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Intestinal tuberculosis [keywords]
- High faecal calprotectin levels in intestinal tuberculosis are associated with granulomas in intestinal biopsies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Infect Dis 2014 Dec 18.:1-7.
Background: The diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) is sometimes difficult to establish and requires endoscopic investigation with biopsies for histopathological examination. This study aimed to evaluate calprotectin as a marker of inflammation in ITB. Methods: Patients with ITB were prospectively recruited in Southern India from October 2009 until July 2012. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic and histological features were examined along with faecal calprotectin (FC), serum calprotectin (SC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: Thirty patients (median age 34.5 years, 19 men) were included. Clinical features were abdominal pain (97%), weight loss (83%), cachexia (75%), fatigue (63%), watery diarrhoea (62%), nausea (55%) and fever (53%). Endoscopy showed transverse ulcers (61%), nodularity of mucosa (55%), aphthous ulcers (39%), strictures (10%) and fissures (10%). The terminal ileum and right colon harboured 81% of the lesions. Histology revealed granulomas in biopsies from 10 of the patients. FC and CRP levels showed a strong positive correlation (rs = 0.70, p < 0.01). FC, SC and CRP levels were higher in the granulomatous than the non-granulomatous patients, respectively (median FC 988 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 940 vs 87 μg/g, IQR 704, p < 0.01; median SC 8.2 μg/ml, IQR 7.3 vs 3.8 μg/ml, IQR 8.9, p = 0.23; median CRP 38.8 mg/L, IQR 42.9 vs 2.3 mg/L, IQR 13.5, p < 0.01). Higher median calprotectin and CRP levels were detected in patients with extensive than localized disease, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: ITB patients with granulomas on histology have high levels of faecal calprotectin and CRP.
- Pulmonary and ileal tuberculosis presenting as Fever of undetermined origin. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Oct; 8(10):PD01-2.
A 12-year-old girl presented with prolonged fever with no obvious focus on either history or clinical examination. High-resolution computerized tomography of the chest revealed the 'tree-in-bud' sign in the right lung and necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes. Barium meal showed multiple ileal strictures. The child was treated with anti-tuberculous therapy for six months. At follow-up six months later, the child had gained weight and had no signs of intestinal obstruction. Tuberculosis is a common cause of fever of undetermined origin and should be investigated for especially in countries with a high prevalence.
- Enterobiasis of anterior rectal wall mimicking a tumour-like lesion. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Trop Gastroenterol 2014 Apr-Jun; 35(2):113-4.
- Infectious Diseases in Immigrant Population Related to the Time of Residence in Spain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Immigr Minor Health 2014 Dec 4.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the data on the main imported infectious diseases and public health issues arising from the risk of transmission of tropical and common diseases in the immigrant population. During the period of study, 2,426 immigrants were attended in the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Hospital of Poniente. For each patient, a complete screening for common and tropical diseases was performed. The prevalence and main features of intestinal and urinary parasites, microfilarias, Chagas disease, malaria, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and syphilis was investigated taking into account the length of stay in Spain. Sub-Saharan Africa patients who had lived for <3 years in Spain had a high significantly number of infections produced by hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Plasmodium spp. In patients who had lived for more than 3 years, there were significantly high rates of HBV infections, although HBV rates in sub-Saharan African patients are high even if the patients have been in Spain for <3 years. However, patients with large stays in Spain had also an important number of parasitological diseases. The main objective of the diagnosis is to avoid important public health problems and further complications in patients. It is advisable to carry out a screening of the main transmissible infections in all immigrant population regardless of the time outside their country. This screening should be individualized according to the geographical area of origin.
- Spontaneous closure of an ileostomy: A rare occurrence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Surg Case Rep 2014 Nov 5.
Ileostomy is an iatrogenic entero-cutaneous (EC) fistula designed for controlled evacuation of bowel contents. Once ileostomy has served its purpose, it is reverted by surgical procedure. We are reporting an interesting case of spontaneous closure of an ileostomy, obviating the need of surgical intervention.A 26 year old lady presented with perforation peritonitis. Upon exploration, a tubercular perforation of terminal ileum was found. Loop ileostomy was formed and patient was discharged on anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) after an uneventful recovery. During follow up visits, stoma was found to be retracting gradually. Retraction was not associated with any signs of peritonitis. Patient was able to pass stools per rectally. Stoma regressed completely within 8 months followed by epithelialisation of stoma site. Patient was leading an essentially normal life until her last follow up visit.Considering the various factors affecting spontaneous healing of EC fistulas, all the intestinal stomas do have favourable characteristics essential for spontaneous closure. However, this is seldom seen in day to day surgical practice. The factors pertaining to this particular case that led to spontaneous closure of stoma remain poorly understood.Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism behind spontaneous regression of a stoma. Relationship between this event and intestinal tuberculosis or ATT needs to be analysed.
- Comparative functional genomics and the bovine macrophage response to strains of the mycobacterium genus. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Immunol 2014.:536.
Mycobacterial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and are also potential zoonotic agents with implications for human health. Despite the implementation of comprehensive animal surveillance programs, many mycobacterial diseases have remained recalcitrant to eradication in several industrialized countries. Two major mycobacterial pathogens of cattle are Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and Johne's disease (JD), respectively. BTB is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract that is spread via aerosol transmission, while JD is a chronic granulomatous disease of the intestines that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Although these diseases exhibit differential tissue tropism and distinct complex etiologies, both M. bovis and MAP infect, reside, and replicate in host macrophages - the key host innate immune cell that encounters mycobacterial pathogens after initial exposure and mediates the subsequent immune response. The persistence of M. bovis and MAP in macrophages relies on a diverse series of immunomodulatory mechanisms, including the inhibition of phagosome maturation and apoptosis, generation of cytokine-induced necrosis enabling dissemination of infection through the host, local pathology, and ultimately shedding of the pathogen. Here, we review the bovine macrophage response to infection with M. bovis and MAP. In particular, we describe how recent advances in functional genomics are shedding light on the host macrophage-pathogen interactions that underlie different mycobacterial diseases. To illustrate this, we present new analyses of previously published bovine macrophage transcriptomics data following in vitro infection with virulent M. bovis, the attenuated vaccine strain M. bovis BCG, and MAP, and discuss our findings with respect to the differing etiologies of BTB and JD.
- Tuberculosis in pregnancy:a challenging differential diagnosisfor inflammatory bowel disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ceska Gynekol 2014; 79(4):305-308.
Objective:To describe a case of tuberculosis with intestinal variant in a pregnant woman in the 17th week of pregnancy.
Setting:Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP, Brazil.
Conclusion:Tuberculosis is a public health problem that concerns many countries in the world. It was declareda public emergency by the World Health Organization in 2005. Its presence during pregnancy brings maternal risk and fetal impairment if not treated quickly and properly. The intestinal variant is not the most common form of the disease and may be confused with inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohns disease. Knowledge of the specific characteristics, combined with a detailed medical history and appropriate diagnostic methods can make all the difference in gestational prognosis. We report the case of a pregnant woman who wrongly underwent treatment for inflammatory bowel disease at another service. After admission to our university hospital, fruitful diagnostic clarification was achieved and the patient was diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis. We describe the details of the investigation and, in particular, review the main characteristics in the literature for differentiating the two diseases.Keywords: tuberculosis, pregnancy, X-ray, colonoscopy, microscopy.
- Faecal calprotectin levels differentiate intestinal from pulmonary tuberculosis: An observational study from Southern India. [Journal Article]
- United European Gastroenterol J 2014 Oct; 2(5):397-405.
Current methods to establish the diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis are inadequate.We aimed to determine the clinical features of intestinal tuberculosis and evaluate inflammatory biomarkers in intestinal as well as pulmonary tuberculosis.We recruited 38 intestinal tuberculosis patients, 119 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 91 controls with functional gastrointestinal disorders between October 2009 and July 2012 for the investigation of clinical features, C-reactive protein (CRP), faecal and serum calprotectin. Faecal calprotectin ≥200 µg/g was used as a cut-off to determine intestinal inflammation of clinical significance. Three patient categories were established: (a) pulmonary tuberculosis and faecal calprotectin <200 µg/g (isolated pulmonary tuberculosis); (b) pulmonary tuberculosis and faecal calprotectin ≥200 µg/g (combined pulmonary and intestinal tuberculosis); (c) isolated intestinal tuberculosis.Common clinical features of intestinal tuberculosis were abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss and watery diarrhoea. Intestinal tuberculosis patients had elevated median CRP (10.7 mg/l), faecal calprotectin (320 µg/g) and serum calprotectin (5.7 µg/ml). Complete normalisation of CRP (1.0 mg/L), faecal calprotectin (16 µg/g) and serum calprotectin (1.4 µg/ml)) was seen upon clinical remission. Patients with combined pulmonary and intestinal tuberculosis had the highest levels of CRP (53.8 mg/l) and serum calprotectin (6.5 µg/ml) and presented with signs of more severe disease.Calprotectin analysis reveals intestinal tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and pinpoints those in need of rigorous follow-up.
- Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110123.
Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under controlled conditions. Furthermore, more research including other important pathogens, such as gastro-intestinal nematodes, will be necessary to complete this picture.
- Visceral fat as a useful parameter in the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease and intestinal tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- Intest Res 2014 Jan; 12(1):42-7.
Because of the similarities in the clinical presentations of Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB), differential diagnosis is critical. Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy and creeping fat are characteristic features of CD. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of visceral fat for the differential diagnosis of CD and ITB.We conducted a retrospective review of 50 patients with findings of CD or ITB between January 2005 and July 2008. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed on all subjects during their first evaluation. The abdominal fat area was assessed using quantitative abdominal CT.The ratio of visceral fat to total fat (VF/TF) was significantly higher in male CD patients than in male ITB patients. The ratio of visceral fat to subcutaneous fat (VF/SF) was also higher in CD patients than in patients with ITB. For a VF/TF cut-off value of 0.46, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CD were 42.1% and 93.3% respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 88.9% and 56.0%, respectively.Measurement of the abdominal fat area using CT can be clinically useful for the differential diagnosis of CD and ITB.