Intestinal tuberculosis [keywords]
- Quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: the results of a multinational web-based survey in the 2(nd) Asian Organization of Crohn's and Colitis (AOCC) meeting in Seoul. [Journal Article]
- Intest Res 2016 Jul; 14(3):240-7.
The quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been systematically estimated. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of quality of IBD care in Asian countries.A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between March 2014 and May 2014. The questionnaire was adopted from "An adult inflammatory bowel disease physician performance measure set" developed by the American Gastroenterological Association. If the respondent executed the performance measure in more than 70% of patients, the measure was regarded as well performed.A total of 353 medical doctors from Asia completed the survey (116 from Korea, 114 from China, 88 from Japan, 17 from Taiwan, 8 from Hong-Kong, 4 from India, 3 from Singapore, and 1 each from the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia). The delivery of performance measures, however, varied among countries. The documentation of IBD and tuberculosis screening before anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy were consistently performed well, while pneumococcal immunization and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolisms in hospitalized patients were performed less frequently in all countries. Physician awareness was positively associated with the delivery of performance measures. Variations were also noted in reasons for non-performance or low performance of quality measures, and the two primary reasons cited were consideration of the measure to be unimportant and lack of time.The delivery of performance measures varies among physicians in Asian countries, and reflects variations in the quality of care among the countries. This variation should be recognized to improve the quality of care in Asian countries.
- Cecal Tuberculosis Mimicking Submucosal Tumor. [Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2016; 55(14):1859-63.
A 41-year-old man presented with abdominal fullness in late August 2012. Abdominal CT showed ileus caused by stenosis of the ileum and an enlargement of the ileocecal lymph nodes. Colonoscopy showed a steep elevated protruding tumor in the cecum, with multiple ulcerative lesions on top. A pathological analysis of the lesions confirmed chronic inflammatory infiltration and epithelioid granuloma. The findings of a tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold test were positive. As a result, we treated the patient for tuberculosis of the cecum. After 4 months of treatment, colonoscopy confirmed the disappearance of the tumor. In conclusion, intestinal tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis when protruding lesions appear in the cecum.
- Experimental Infection of Goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis: a Model for Comparative Tuberculosis Research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 14.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in man and animals. In this study, 18 goat kids were inoculated orally with a high dose of MAH. One group of goats (n = 9) developed severe clinical disease for up to 2-3 months post inoculation (mpi). At necropsy examination, there were ulcerative and granulomatous lesions in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and granulomas with extensive necrosis in the lymph nodes (LNs) of the cranial mesenteric lymphocentre (CMLNs). Culture revealed growth of MAH in all lesions with systemic spread. A second group of goats were healthy at the end of the trial (13 mpi); however, all had extensive granulomas in the CMLNs, but no extra-intestinal spread of bacteria. Moderate faecal shedding occurred in all goats up to 2 mpi. Microscopical characterization of the granulomas revealed solid non-necrotic, necrotic, calcified and fibrocalcified granulomas with resemblance to those seen in human and bovine tuberculosis. The two different courses of disease, with highly heterogenic lesions, systemic spread in goats with severe clinical disease and the development of granulomas of all stages in the surviving goats, makes the experimental infection of goats with MAH a valuable model for tuberculosis research. This model might allow new insights into host-pathogen interaction and anti-mycobacterial compound testing.
- Intestinal tuberculosis versus crohn's disease: Clinical and radiological recommendations. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Radiol Imaging 2016 Apr-Jun; 26(2):161-72.
Intestinal tuberculosis is a common clinical problem in India. The clinical features of this disease are nonspecific and can be very similar to Crohn's disease. Radiological evaluation of the small bowel has undergone a paradigm shift in the last decade. This long tubular organ that has traditionally been difficult to evaluate can now be well-visualized by some innovative imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article highlights the state-of-the-art evaluation of ulceroconstrictive diseases of the bowel and provides recommendations for the differentiation of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease.
- [A Meta-analysis of the accuracy of interferon-γ release assays in differentiating intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease in Asia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2016 Jul 1; 55(7):535-40.
This meta-analysis assessed the value of interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) in the differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) from Crohn's disease (CD).Systematic search without language restriction was conducted in the main computerized databases until June 2015. Studies that have evaluated the performance of IGRAs (QuantiFERON-TB Gold or T-SPOT.TB) in distinguishing ITB from CD were eligible. Main outcome measures included sensitivity and specificity. Area under the curve (AUC) of the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of IGRAs.Twelve studies (all from Asia) were finally included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of IGRAs for the differential diagnosis of ITB from CD were 82.8% (95%CI 78.4%-86.6%) and 86.7% (95%CI 83.2%-89.6%) respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 6.870 (95%CI 5.345-8.830) and 0.171 (95%CI 0.105-0.279). The diagnostic odds ratio was 44.030 (95%CI 27.964-69.325). And the AUC of sROC was 0.939.IGRAs have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ITB, and specificity is consistent from study to study. IGRAs may be considered as a supplementary method in the differential diagnosis of ITB from CD.
- Lipid Nanocarrier-Mediated Drug Delivery System to Enhance the Oral Bioavailability of Rifabutin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2016 Jun 27.
Rifabutin (RFB) is prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis infections as well as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in immunocompromised individuals and HIV patients. With a view to develop a sustained release oral solid lipid nanoformulation (SLN), RFB was encapsulated in glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles. The rifabutin solid lipid nanoparticles (RFB-SLNs), prepared by the solvent diffusion evaporation method, had a size of 345 ± 17.96 nm and PDI of 0.321 ± 0.09. The stability of RFB-SLNs was investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) pH 2.0, simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) pH 6.8 and physiological buffer (PBS) pH 7.4. The gastric medium did not affect the SLNs and were found to be stable, while a sustained release was observed in SIF up to 48 h and in PBS up to 7 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of a single oral administration of RFB-SLNs in mice showed maintenance of therapeutic drug concentrations in plasma for 4 days and in the tissues (lungs, liver and spleen) for 7 days. Oral administration of free RFB showed clearance from plasma within 24 h. The relative bioavailability of RFB from SLNs was five fold higher as compared to administration with free RFB. The intent of using lipid nanocarriers is primarily to enhance the oral bioavailability of rifabutin and eventually decrease the dose and dosing frequency for successful management of MAC infection.
- Current Role of Ultrasound in Small Bowel Imaging. [Journal Article]
- Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2016 Aug; 37(4):301-12.
Bowel ultrasound is cheap, relatively quick, allows dynamic evaluation of the bowel, has no radiation burden, is well tolerated by patients, and allows repeat imaging. Bowel ultrasound requires a systematic assessment of the entire bowel using high-frequency probes. In addition, hydrosonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be performed. We present the normal sonographic appearances of large and small bowel and the sonographic appearances of acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, intestinal tuberculosis, small bowel ileus and obstruction, small bowel ischemia, and malignant tumors.
- Small-Bowel Tuberculosis: A Comparative Study of MR Enterography and Small-Bowel Follow-Through. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AJR Am J Roentgenol 2016 Jun 24.:1-7.
The purpose of this article is to describe the MR enterographic findings of small-bowel tuberculosis (TB) and to compare the imaging findings of small-bowel follow-through (SBFT) with those of MR enterography.Thirty patients (20 male and 10 female) presenting with suspected intestinal TB were enrolled in this prospective study. MR enterography and SBFT were performed within 2 weeks of each other.Nineteen of the 30 patients were confirmed to have TB. Of these 19 patients, MR enterography depicted ileocecal involvement in nine patients (47%), mural thickening in any other segment of the small bowel in 11 patients (58%), lymphadenopathy in 17 patients (89%), ascites in five patients (26%), and peritoneal enhancement in six patients (32%). In addition, MRI also depicted a splenic granuloma, spondylodiscitis with prevertebral abscess, and small-bowel perforation with collections in one patient each. There was good correlation between MR enterography and SBFT in the depiction of ileocecal involvement and small-bowel mural thickening. However, MR enterography was able to show a higher number of strictures than was SBFT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of TB were 100%, 73%, 86%, and 100%, respectively, for MR enterography and 88%, 70%, 83%, and 78%, respectively, for SBFT. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.24).MR enterography depicts intestinal as well as extraintestinal manifestations of TB. The intestinal manifestations correlate well with SBFT findings. MR enterography has the potential to become the one-stop radiation-free tool in the evaluation of small-bowel TB.
- Predictive Factors for Differentiating Between Crohn's Disease and Intestinal Tuberculosis in Koreans. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2016 Jun 14.
A differential diagnosis between intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and Crohn's disease (CD) is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features and to create a predictive score model for differentiating CD and ITB.In total, 261 patients, 99 with ITB and 162 with CD, were recruited from seven tertiary centers from 2005 to 2013 and reviewed retrospectively. For the creation of a validated model, parameters were selected by univariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Then, the prediction model was established on the basis of β-coefficients of the multivariate logistic regression. For the validation of the model, the same regression equation was tested on the other group.Age, diarrhea, ring-shaped ulcer, longitudinal ulcer, sigmoid involvement, suspicious radiological pulmonary tuberculosis, and gender were selected as the factors for a seven-marker model. In the seven-marker model of the validation data set, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value with a cutoff level of 0.35 were 98.0, 92.4, 88.9, and 98.6, respectively.The seven-marker model seems to be highly reliable for differentiating between ITB and CD and could be conveniently used by clinicians to obtain results.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 14 June 2016; doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.212.
- Differences in Clinical Manifestations according to the Positivity of Interferon-γ Assay in Patients with Intestinal Tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- Gut Liver 2016 Jul 16; 10(4):649-52.
Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) remains prevalent in Asia. An interferon-γ assay (QuantiFERON-TB gold test [QFT]) is considered to be an effective supplementary tool for diagnosing ITB. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of ITB patients based on the initial results of QFT. A total of 109 patients with ITB were enrolled, and 82 patients (75.2%) showed positive QFT results. In the QFT-positive group, the mean age (44.1±12.0 years) was significantly higher than that in the QFT-negative group (37.0±14.8, p=0.0096). Abdominal pain (p=0.006) and diarrhea (p=0.030) were more frequent in the QFT-negative group. Further, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in the QFTnegative group (6.4±9.9 mg/dL) than in the QFT-positive group (1.3±2.3, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that younger age (p=0.016), diarrhea (p=0.042), and high levels of CRP (p=0.029) were independent predictors of QFTnegative results in patients with ITB. These results suggest that prior exposure to TB, reflected by QFT positivity, may cause mild inflammation in patients with ITB.