Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- A Novel Multi-Unit Tablet for Treating Circadian Rhythm Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 May 7.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel multi-unit tablet that combined a pellet with a sustained-release coating and a tablet with a pulsatile coating for the treatment of circadian rhythm diseases. The model drug, isosorbide-5-mononitrate, was sprayed on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-based pellets and coated with Eudragit(®) NE30D, which served as a sustained-release layer. The coated pellets were compressed with cushion agents (a mixture of MCC PH-200/ MCC KG-802/PC-10 at a ratio of 40:40:20) at a ratio of 4:6 using a single-punch tablet machine. An isolation layer of OpadryII, swellable layer of HPMC E5, and rupturable layer of Surelease(®) were applied using a conventional pan-coating process. Central-composite design-response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of these coatings on the square of the difference between release times over a 4 h time period. Drug release studies were carried out on formulated pellets and tablets to investigate the release behaviors, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor the pellets and tablets and their cross-sectional morphology. The experimental results indicated that this system had a pulsatile dissolution profile that included a lag period of 4 h and a sustained-release time of 4 h. Compared to currently marketed preparations, this tablet may provide better treatment options for circadian rhythm diseases.
- Selective terminal function modification of SAMs driven by low-energy electrons (0-15 eV). [Journal Article]
- Phys Chem Chem Phys 2013 Apr 24; 15(19):7220-7.
Low-energy electron induced degradation of a model self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of acid terminated alkanethiol was studied under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions at room and low (∼40 K) temperatures. Low-energy electron induced chemical modifications of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA, HS-(CH2)10-COOH) SAMs deposited on gold were probed in situ as a function of the irradiation energy (<11 eV) by combining two complementary techniques: High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS), a surface sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique, and Electron Stimulated Desorption (ESD) analysis of neutral fragments. The SAM's terminal functions were observed to be selectively damaged at around 1 eV by a resonant electron attachment mechanism, observed to decay by CO, CO2 and H2O formation and desorption. CO2 and H2O were also directly identified at low temperature by vibrational analysis of the irradiated SAMs. At higher irradiation energy, both terminal functions and spacer alkyl chains are damaged upon electron irradiation, by resonant and non-resonant processes.
- Structural Rearrangement in the Formation of Jet-Cooled Complexes of Chiral (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinemethanol with Methyl Lactate: Chirality Effect in Conformer Selection. [Journal Article]
- J Phys Chem A 2013 Apr 11; 117(14):2952-60.
The jet-cooled complexes between the two enantiomers of methyl lactate (ML) and (S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinemethanol (THIQM) are studied by double resonance spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations. Both diastereomer complexes exist in different isomers, involving either direct addition of THIQM on ML with no structural rearrangement of the subunits or formation of very stable structures involving multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonds and extensive deformation of the subunits. Competition between these two processes and its dependence upon chirality are discussed. It is shown that the most stable form of the chromophore (THIQMI with an OH···N hydrogen bond) prefers to directly stick to ML to form the addition complex whereas the second conformer (THIQMII with NH···O hydrogen bond) rearranges to form a strongly bound structure. The two structures are formed for the homochiral as well the heterochiral complex, however with different relative abundance. This shows an enantioselective binding preference of ML for one of the conformers of the chromophore.
- Correlation-mediated processes for electron-induced switching between Néel states of Fe antiferromagnetic chains. [Journal Article]
- Phys Rev Lett 2013 Feb 22; 110(8):087201.
The controlled switching between two quasistable Néel states in adsorbed antiferromagnetic Fe chains has recently been achieved by Loth et al. [Science 335, 196 (2012)] using tunneling electrons from an STM tip. In order to rationalize their data, we evaluate the rate of tunneling electron-induced switching between the Néel states. Good agreement is found with the experiment, permitting us to identify three switching mechanisms: (i) low STM voltage direct electron-induced transitions, (ii) intermediate STM voltage switching via spin-wave-like excitation, and (iii) high STM voltage transitions mediated by domain-wall formation. Spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic chains are the switching driving force, leading to a marked chain-size dependence.
- Non-Hermitian wave packet approximation of Bloch optical equations. [Journal Article]
- J Chem Phys 2013 Jan 14; 138(2):024108.
We introduce a non-Hermitian approximation of Bloch optical equations. This approximation provides a complete description of the excitation, relaxation, and decoherence dynamics of ensembles of coupled quantum systems in weak laser fields, taking into account collective effects and dephasing. In the proposed method, one propagates the wave function of the system instead of a complete density matrix. Relaxation and dephasing are taken into account via automatically adjusted time-dependent gain and decay rates. As an application, we compute the numerical wave packet solution of a time-dependent non-Hermitian Schrödinger equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a quantum nano-structure, and compare the calculated transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra with those obtained from the numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. It is shown that the proposed wave packet scheme is significantly faster than the propagation of the full density matrix while maintaining small error. We provide the key ingredients for easy-to-use implementation of the proposed scheme and identify the limits and error scaling of this approximation.
- Use of random regression model as an alternative for multibreed relationship matrix. [Journal Article]
- J Anim Breed Genet 2013 Feb; 130(1):4-9.
A random regression model is presented as an approximation for multibreed variance model. The approximation is derived using the splitted multibreed model where the single breeding value is split to the breed specific and their segregation terms. The random regression model allows extending the multibreed information easily to genomic data models. We present the approach by a simple example.
- In vitro dissolution and in vivo bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of isosorbide 5-mononitrate sustained release tablets. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Arzneimittelforschung 2012 Dec; 62(12):576-82.
The purpose of the present study was to test a sustained release-tablet newly formulated with synthetic paraffin and compare its bioequivalence to that of the Imdur® Long-Acting tablet, based on the guidelines of the Korean Food and Drug Administration.Dissolution test was performed in 4 different dissolution media. A LC/MS/MS method of isosorbide 5-mononitrate in human plasma was validated. In vivo bioequivalence tests of the 2 isosorbide 5-mononitrate tablets were performed in both preprandial and postprandial states.A comparative dissolution test gave similar results for both tablets in all dissolution media tested: 40% dissolution in pH 1.2 at 2 h and 80% dissolution in pH 4.0, pH 6.8, or water at 10 h. In a bioequivalence study to compare 2 tablets, the mean total area under the curve (AUCt) and peak concentration (Cmax) in the fasted state were 8 476.0 ng · h/mL and 540.4 ng/mL, respectively, for the Imdur® Long Acting Tablet 60 mg, and 8 701.4 ng · h/mL and 564.2 ng/mL, respectively, for the test tablet. The mean AUCt and Cmax in the fed state were 8 793.5 ng · h/mL and 559.9 ng/mL, respectively, for the Imdur® Long-Acting tablet 60 mg, and 8 639.8 ng · h/mL and 617.9 ng/mL, respectively, for the test tablet. The 90% confidence intervals using log transformed data were within the acceptable range of 0.8 - 1.25.Based on these statistical analyses, we conclude that the test tablet is bioequivalent to the Imdur® Long-Acting tablet 60 mg in both the preprandial and postprandial states.
- High resolution imaging of superficial mosaicity in single crystals using grazing incidence fast atom diffraction. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Phys Condens Matter 2012 Nov 7; 24(44):442002.
A new table top technique is used to simultaneously analyze the local morphology of crystalline surfaces as well as the misalignment of large scale domains at the topmost surface layer. The approach is based on fast atom diffraction at grazing incidence (GIFAD); the diffraction pattern yields the structural characteristics and the topology of the surface electronic density with atomic resolution. If superficial mosaicity is present, diffraction patterns arising from each mosaic domain can be distinguished, providing high sensitivity to the properties of each of the domains. Taking NaCl(001) as an example, we observe a discrete tilt angle distribution of the mosaic domains following an arithmetic progression with a 0.025° ± 0.005° difference; a twist mosaic angle of 0.09° ± 0.01° is also observed.
- I take three different blood pressure medications-six pills total-every day. They are isosorbide mononitrate, amlodipine, and atenolol. They seem to do a good job bringing down my blood pressure, but before my 6 p.m. atenolol and then later before my 10 p.m. amlodipine, my blood pressure shoots up. I'm worried about carrying an elevated blood pressure for much of the evening. I know ift goes up in the early hours before I wake up, too. What can you tell me about how these fluctuations are affecting my health? My doctor says I shouldn't worry. And is it possible to keep the blood pressure under control 24 hours a day? [Journal Article]
- Heart Advis 2011 Oct; 14(10):12.
- Isosorbide-5-mononitrate and endothelial function: a wolf in sheep's clothing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Heart J 2012 Sep 24.