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J Pharm Pharm Sci [keywords]
- Preventive effects of selenium yeast, chromium picolinate, zinc sulfate and their combination on oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired angiogenesis and atherogenesis in myocardial infarction in rats. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):848-67.
Accumulating evidences suggest a critical role of trace metal dyshemostasis in oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the cardioprotective effects of selenium yeast (Se), chromium picolinate Cr(pic)3, zinc sulfate (Zn) and their combination on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI.Rats were divided into six groups: normal control, ISO control, Se-pretreated (0.1 mg/kg), Cr(pic)3-pretreated (400 µg/kg), Zn-pretreated (30 mg/kg) and metal combination-pretreated groups. All metals were administered for 28 days and at the 27th day, MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg) once for two consecutive days.ISO control group showed hyperlipidemia, elevation of cardiac biomarkers and lipid peroxidation and increased immunostaining of p47 phox NADPH oxidase subunit in addition to decreased levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Cardiac levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were increased, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the major angiogenic factor) was decreased. Pretreatment with Se normalized the cardiac enzymes, lipid peroxidation, GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, TNF-α and VEGF (P<0.001) and reduced the immunostaining of p47 phox subunit. However, Se failed to correct the dyslipidemia. Cr(pic)3 significantly improved lipid profile (P<0.001) and all other biochemical deviations except for VEGF. Zn, but to lesser extent, reduced the oxidative damage and TNF-α levels and improved both dyslipidemia and angiogenesis. Combination therapy exhibited less prominent protection compared to individual metals.Daily supplementation with trace metals is promising for improving myocardial performance via preventing oxidative damage, induction of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory and/or anti-hyperlipidemic mechanisms.
- Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: an update of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and renal complications. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):821-47.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used chronically to reduce pain and inflammation in patients with arthritic conditions, and also acutely as analgesics by many patients. Both therapeutic and adverse effects of NSAIDs are due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. NSAIDs are classified as non-selective and COX-2-selective inhibitors (COXIBS) based on their extent of selectivity for COX inhibition. However, regardless of their COX selectivity, reports are still appearing on the GI side effect of NSAIDs particularly on the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the harmful role of their controlled release formulations. In addition, previously unpublished data stored in the sponsor's files, question the GI sparing properties of rofecoxib, a COXIB that has been withdrawn due to cardiovascular (CV) side effects. Presently, the major side effects of NSAIDs are the GI complications, renal disturbances and CV events. There is a tendency to believe that all NSAIDs are associated with renal and CV side effects, a belief that is not supported by solid evidence. Indeed, lower but still therapeutics doses of some NSAIDs may be cardioprotective. In this review, we briefly discuss the GI toxicity of the NSAIDs and assess their renal and CV adverse effects in more detail.
- Phyto-extracts in wound healing. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):760-820.
Data generated through systematic investigation, carried out on the evaluation of phyto-extracts on wound healing research during the last 20 years have been compiled. About 450 plant species having wound healing properties have been identified. The present knowledge of the wound healing process comprise coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, formation and accumulation of fibrous tissues, collagen deposition, epithelialization, contraction of wound with formation of granulation tissues, remodeling and maturation. The constituents of the plant extracts modulate one or more of the above stages. It was the endeavor to identify the active constituents responsible for antimicrobial activity, free radical scavenging properties, stimulators of enhanced collagen production and/or angiogenesis promoters with identification of lead scaffold chemical structures. Multiple phytochemicals concentrated and blended in optimal concentrations, are expected to be available in future years to carry out multi-tasking efforts in wound healing as more knowledge about the properties of the key constituents are unveiled.
- Alkylphospholipids - a promising class of chemotherapeutic agents with a broad pharmacological spectrum. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):742-59.
Since when alkylphospholipds (ALPs) were discovered and, even further after miltefosine's approval for the treatment of cutaneous metastasis of breast cancer and leishmaniasis, their activity against many other diseases have been extensively studied. This review aims to provide a summary of the alkylphospholipids' applications investigated so far.The mechanism of action of ALPs is not fully understood, however it is believed that they interfere with lipid homeostasis leading to cell apoptosis. Due to ALPs cytotoxic activity, this class of molecules has shown to be effective against many diseases and conditions. Besides the approval of miltefosine for application in cutaneous metastasis of breast cancer and visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, several other analogs have proved efficacy and are promising as less toxic alternatives. ALPs have also shown in vitro and in vivo activity against Trypanosoma spp., amoebae, Tricomonas vaginalis, Schistosoma mansoni, HIV, and some fungi and bacteria species. The use of ALPs for intraocular lens coating is also under investigation. In addition, a clinical trial comparing miltefosine with usual treatments to spontaneous urticaria is also being conducted.Alkylphospholipids present such a broad pharmacological spectrum that justifies the need for further investigations of the drug class mechanisms of action, as well as the search for new analogs with improved activity and toxicological profiles.
- Osthole regulates TGF-β1 and MMP-2/9 expressions via activation of PPARα/γ in cultured mouse cardiac fibroblasts stimulated with angiotensin II. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):732-41.
Our previous studies have demonstrated that osthole, an active constituent isolated from the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, can prevent isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear.The mouse cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of osthole. The mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γ, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method, and the protein expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and TGF-β1 were detected by Western blot method, respectively.Following treatment of cells with osthole at 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL, the NF-κB and TGF-β1 expressions were dose-dependently decreased, while the expressions of PPARα/γ and MMP-2/9 were dose-dependently increased. After the cells were preincubated with PPARα antagonist (MK886) or/and PPARγ antagonist (GW9662), the inhibitions of osthole on the NF-κB and TGF-β1 expressions were decreased or completely halted and the increment of osthole on the MMP-2/9 expressions were also decreased or completely cancelled.Osthole could inhibit the NF-κB and TGF-β1 expressions by activation of PPARα/γ, and subsequently enhance the MMP-2/9 expressions in cultured CFs, and these effects of osthole may play the beneficial roles in the prevention and treatment of myocardial fibrosis.
- Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion suppresses biliary excretion of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides substrate. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):722-31.
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut dysfunction and promotes multi-organ failure. The liver and kidney can be affected by multi-organ failure after intestinal I/R. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are recognized in a broad spectrum from endogenous compounds to xenobiotics, including clinically important drugs. Therefore, it is important for understanding the pharmacokinetics to obtain evidence of alterations in OATPs and OATs expression and transport activities. In the present study, we investigated the expression of rat Oatps and Oats after intestinal I/R.We used intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model rats. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression levels. Plasma concentration and biliary excretion of sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which is used as a model compound of organic anion drugs, were measured after intravenous administration in intestinal I/R rats.Although Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA levels were not altered in the kidney, Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2 and Oatp2b1 mRNA levels in the liver were significantly decreased at 1-6 h after intestinal I/R. Moreover, Oatp1a1 and Oatp2b1 protein expression levels were decreased at 1 h after intestinal I/R. Plasma concentration of BSP, which is a typical substrate of Oatps, in intestinal I/R rats reperfused 1 h was increased than that in sham-operated rats. Moreover, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC₀₋₉₀) in intestinal I/R rats reperfused 1 h was significantly increased than that in sham-operated rats. The total clearance (CL(tot)) and the biliary clearance (CL(bile)) in intestinal I/R rats reperfused 1 h were significantly decreased than those in sham-operated rats.Oatp1a1 and Oatp2b1 expression levels are decreased by intestinal I/R. The decreases in these transporters cause alteration of pharmacokinetics of organic anion compound. The newly found influence of intestinal I/R on the expression and function of Oatps may be a key to perform appropriate drug therapy.
- Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):708-21.
Linagliptin is a novel, highly selective and long acting DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Linagliptin exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics (PK) due to saturable binding to plasma and tissue DPP-4. The aim of this study was to characterize the PK and PK/DPP-4 inhibition relationship of linagliptin in Japanese patients with T2DM using a population PK/DPP-4 model and to support the rationale for the therapeutic dose in Japanese patients by simulation.Linagliptin plasma concentration and DPP-4 inhibition measurements from a placebo-controlled, parallel group multiple (28 days) dose trial that included 36 T2DM patients (18 patients each in 2.5 mg and 10 mg dose group) were used for analysis. Modeling was performed using FOCE INTERACTION estimation method implemented in NONMEM V. The linagliptin plasma concentration- and DPP-4 inhibition- time profiles were simulated for Japanese patients receiving 5 mg linagliptin once daily by the model established.Nonlinear PK of linagliptin in T2DM patients were well described by a 2-compartment model assuming concentration-dependent binding to DPP-4 in the central and peripheral compartment. Plasma DPP-4 inhibition was integrated in the model by relating the model-predicted DPP-4 occupancy with linagliptin linearly to DPP-4 inhibition. The simulation predicted that for the 5 mg dose group the trough DPP-4 inhibition at steady-state was 84.2%, which is higher than the target inhibition (≥80%) for an effective dose of DPP-4 inhibitor. In 2.5 mg dose group, steady-state DPP-4 inhibition of >80% was not maintained over 24 hours (observed and simulated).The nonlinear PK of linagliptin and its plasma DPP-4 inhibition in patients were well characterized by a target-mediated drug disposition model relating DPP-4 occupancy with linagliptin to DPP-4 inhibition. Simulations of plasma DPP-4 inhibition suggest that 5 mg linagliptin once daily is an appropriate therapeutic dose for Japanese patients with T2DM.
- The role of xenobiotic transporters in ophthalmic drug delivery. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):683-707.
The eye is a very complex sensory organ consisting of numerous structures to coordinate the function of sight. It has a series of physical and chemical barriers to help maintain its homeostasis, and mediate environmental exposures. Transporters in the eye play a very important role in maintaining homeostasis by facilitating the movement of ions, nutrients and xenobiotics to various tissues in the eye, especially to non-vascular tissues like the lens and cornea. They also ensure proper cell signaling by shuttling neurotransmitters within the retina. Thus, they are expected to play an important role in determining the ocular exposure of drugs and other pharmacotherapeutics. However, the role of ocular transporters in ophthalmic drug delivery and their clinical relevance has not been well characterized. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current evidence in the literature on ocular drug transporters and their role in ocular drug delivery, with the emphasis predominantly on their role in ocular pharmacokinetics.
- Determination of bioequivalence for drugs with narrow therapeutic index: reduction of the regulatory burden. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):676-82.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently suggested that the bioequivalence (BE) for products of drugs with narrow therapeutic indices (NTI) be assessed by the approach of reference-scaled average BE (SABE). Subsequently, in December, 2012, the FDA issued draft guidances for the comparison of products of warfarin sodium and of tacrolimus. The guidances expect that 4-period studies be performed, that the results be evaluated by SABE, and that the analysis include also unscaled average BE as well as the comparison of the estimated within-subject variations (sW) of the test and reference drug products. This communication discusses the new guidances and suggests considerations to reduce the regulatory burden. It is demonstrated that SABE could be applied when the within-subject variation of the reference product is not higher than 21.42%. Beyond this variation, the BE limits would remain 80% to 125%, as usual. No further testing by unscaled average BE is needed. It is also suggested that a comparison of the within-subject variations of the two drug products although interesting for both NTI and other drugs, is not essential for the determination of BE. In addition, when the within-subject variabilities are low then their ratio depends mainly on the non-product dependent factors. Moreover, introduction of an additional test would affect the probabilities involved in the primary comparison of the two means. Therefore, the test of comparing variances is not needed and replicate measurements of the test formulation need not be performed. Alternative considerations and approaches, including the use of partial AUC's, are suggested for the determination of BE for NTI drugs.
- Artificial neural network modeling for drug dialyzability prediction. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(5):665-75.
The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict drug removal during dialysis based on drug properties and dialysis conditions. Nine antihypertensive drugs were chosen as model for this study.Drugs were dissolved in a physiologic buffer and dialysed in vitro in different dialysis conditions (UFRmin/UFRmax, with/without BSA). Samples were taken at regular intervals and frozen at -20ºC until analysis. Extraction methods were developed for drugs that were dialysed with BSA in the buffer. Drug concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Dialysis clearances (CLDs) were calculated using the obtained drug concentrations. An ANOVA with Scheffe's pairwise adjustments was performed on the collected data in order to investigate the impact of drug plasma protein binding and ultrafiltration rate (UFR) on CLD. The software Neurosolutions was used to build ANNs that would be able to predict drug CLD (output). The inputs consisted of dialysis UFR and the herein drug properties: molecular weight (MW), logD and plasma protein binding.Observed CLDs were very high for the majority of the drugs studied. The addition of BSA in the physiologic buffer statistically significantly decreased CLD for carvedilol (p= 0.002) and labetalol (p<0.001), but made no significant difference for atenolol (p= 0.100). In contrast, varying UFR does not significantly affect CLD (p>0.025). Multiple ANNs were built and compared, the best model was a Jordan and Elman network which showed learning stability and good predictive results (MSEtesting = 129).In this study, we have developed an ANN-model which is able to predict drug removal during dialysis. Since experimental determination of all existing drug CLDs is not realistic, ANNs represent a promising tool for the prediction of drug CLD using drug properties and dialysis conditions.