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J Pharm Pharm Sci [keywords]
- Use of proton pump inhibitors as adjunct treatment for triple-negative breast cancers. An introductory study. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):439-46.
Triple negative breast cancers (estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptor-negative) are among the most aggressive forms of cancers with limited treatment options. Doxorubicin is one of the agents found in many of the current cancer treatment protocols, although its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. This work investigates one of the ways to suppress cancer growth by inhibiting tumor cell ability to remove acid accumulated during its metabolism by proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole (a drug with extensive clinical use) which could serve as an addition to doxorubicin therapy.In this work, we have investigated growth suppression of triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-468 by esomeprazole and doxorubicin by trypan blue exclusion assay. Measurement of acidification of treated cancer cells was performed using intracellular pH-sensitive probe, BCECF-AM. Finally, expression of gastric type proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase, a target for esomeprazole) on MDA-MB-468 cells was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting.We have found that esomeprazole suppresses growth of triple-negative breast cancer cell in vitro in a dose-dependent manner through increase in their intracellular acidification. In contrast, esomeprazole did not have significant effect on non-cancerous breast epithelial MCF-10A cells. Esomeprazole increases doxorubicin effects suggesting that dual treatments might be possible. In addition, response of MDA-MB-468 cells to esomeprazole could be mediated by gastric type proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase) in cancer cells contrary to previous beliefs that this proton pump expression is restricted to parietal cells of the stomach epithelia.This study provides first evidence that adjunct use of esomeprazole in breast cancer treatment might be a possible to combat adverse effects of doxorubicin and increase its effectiveness. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
- Tacrine sinusoidal uptake and biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured primary rat hepatocytes. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):427-38.
PURPOSE.The knowledge of hepatic disposition kinetics of tacrine, a first cholinesterase inhibitor was approved by FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), would help to understand its hepatotoxicity, its therapeutic effect, and improve the management of patients with AD. The current study aims to characterize tacrine hepatic transport kinetics and study the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) in tacrine sinusoidal uptake and biliary excretion.
METHODS.Modulation of tacrine hepatic uptake and efflux, biliary excretion index (BEI%), were performed in sandwich-cultured primary rat hepatocytes (SCHs) using transporters inhibitors. Conformation of the integrity of SCHs model was established by capturing images with light-contrast and fluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS.Tacrine uptake in SCHs was carrier-mediated process and saturable with apparent Km of 31.5±9.6 µM and Vmax of 908±72 pmol/min/mg protein. Tetraethyl ammonium (TEA), cimetidine and verapamil significantly reduced tacrine uptake with more pronounced effect observed with verapamil which caused 3-fold reduction in tacrine uptake, indicating role for OCTs. Tacrine has a biliary excretion in SCHs with maximum BEI% value of 22.9±1.9% at 10 min of incubation. Addition of MK571 and valspodar decreased the BEI% of tacrine by 40 and 60% suggesting roles for canalicular MRP2 and P-gp, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS.Our results show that in addition to metabolism, tacrine hepatic disposition is carrier-mediated process mediated by sinusoidal OCTs, and canalicular MRP2 and P-gp.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on
ABSTRACTon the issue's contents page.
- Liposomal drug delivery: a versatile platform for challenging clinical applications. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):401-26.
Liposomes are lipid based vesicular systems that offer novel platform for versatile drug delivery to target cell. Liposomes were first reported by Bangham and his co-workers in 1964 (1). Since then, liposomes have undergone extensive research with the prime aim to optimize encapsulation, stability, circulation time and target specific drug delivery. Manipulation of a liposome's lipid bilayer and surface decoration with selective ligands has transformed conventional liposomes into adaptable and multifunctional liposomes. Development of liposomes with target specificity provide the prospect of safe and effective therapy for challenging clinical applications. Bioresponsive liposomes offer the opportunity to release payload in response to tissue specific microenvironment. Incorporation of novel natural and synthetic materials has extended their application from stable formulations to controlled release targeted drug delivery systems. Integration and optimization of multiple features into one system revolutionized research in the field of cancer, gene therapy, immunotherapy and infectious diseases. After 50 years since the first publication, this review is aimed to highlight next generation of liposomes, their preparation methods and progress in clinical applications.
- Clinical trial risk in type-2 diabetes: importance of patient history. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):393-400.
To determine the risk of clinical trial failure for drugs developed for type-2 diabetes.Drugs were investigated by reviewing phase I to phase III studies that were conducted between 1998 and February 2013. The clinical trial success rates were calculated and compared to the industry standard. The drugs were classified into GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors and "Other". The exclusion criteria for drugs in this study: Drugs that were started in phase I studies prior to January 1998 for this indication and drugs whose primary indications were not for the control of blood glucose levels.Data was extracted from clinicaltrials.gov; there were a total of 131 drug candidates that fit our specified criteria, of which 8 received FDA approval. The cumulative success rate for molecules developed for type-2 diabetes is 10%. Small molecules were more successful than biologics. A strong disparity was observed in phase III, with studies that utilised treatment naïve patients having a 40% success rate, compared to an 83% success rate in patients who have had previous anti-hyperglycemic exposure.1 in 10 drugs that enter clinical testing in this disease will be approved. The DPP-4 inhibitor class of drugs had the highest success rate of all drug classes with a 63% cumulative success rate; while treatment naïve patients carried the greatest clinical trial risk.
- Targeting the C-type Lectins-Mediated Host-Pathogen Interactions with Dextran. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):371-92.
Dextran, the α-1,6-linked glucose polymer widely used in biology and medicine, promises new applications. Linear dextran applied as a blood plasma substitute demonstrates a high rate of biocompatibility. Dextran is present in foods, drugs, and vaccines and in most cases is applied as a biologically inert substance. In this review we analyze dextran's cellular uptake principles, receptor specificity and, therefore, its ability to interfere with pathogen-lectin interactions: a promising basis for new antimicrobial strategies. Dextran-binding receptors in humans include the DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin) family receptors: DC-SIGN (CD209) and L-SIGN (the liver and lymphatic endothelium homologue of DC-SIGN), the mannose receptor (CD206), and langerin. These receptors take part in the uptake of pathogens by dendritic cells and macrophages and may also participate in the modulation of immune responses, mostly shown to be beneficial for pathogens per se rather than host(s). It is logical to predict that owing to receptor-specific interactions, dextran or its derivatives can interfere with these immune responses and improve infection outcome. Recent data support this hypothesis. We consider dextran a promising molecule for the development of lectin-glycan interaction-blocking molecules (such as DC-SIGN inhibitors) that could be applied in the treatment of diseases including tuberculosis, influenza, hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS, etc. Dextran derivatives indeed change the pathology of infections dependent on DC-SIGN and mannose receptors. Complete knowledge of specific dextran-lectin interactions may also be important for development of future dextran applications in biological research and medicine. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on
ABSTRACTon the issue's contents page.
- Effects of PDE4 pathway inhibition in rat experimental stroke. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):362-70.
The first genomewide association study indicated that variations in the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene confer risk for ischemic stroke. However, inconsistencies among the studies designed to replicate the findings indicated the need for further investigation to elucidate the role of the PDE4 pathway in stroke pathogenesis. Hence, we studied the effect of global inhibition of the PDE4 pathway in two rat experimental stroke models, using the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram. Further, the specific role of the PDE4D isoform in ischemic stroke pathogenesis was studied using PDE4D knockout rats in experimental stroke.Rats were subjected to either the ligation or embolic stroke model and treated with rolipram (3mg/kg; i.p.) prior to the ischemic insult. Similarly, the PDE4D knockout rats were subjected to experimental stroke using the embolic model.Global inhibition of the PDE4 pathway using rolipram produced infarcts that were 225% (p<0.01) and 138% (p<0.05) of control in the ligation and embolic models, respectively. PDE4D knockout rats subjected to embolic stroke showed no change in infarct size compared to wild-type control.Despite increase in infarct size after global inhibition of the PDE4 pathway with rolipram, specific inhibition of the PDE4D isoform had no effect on experimental stroke. These findings support a role for the PDE4 pathway, independent of the PDE4D isoform, in ischemic stroke pathogenesis.
- Safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies in arthritis patients. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):324-61.
Purpose. Inflammatory and rheumatic arthritis remain leading causes of disability worldwide. The arthritis therapeutic area commands the largest market for the prescription of biological and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Yet biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies conducting research and providing therapeutics in this area frequently face challenges in patient safety. The purpose of our study was to assess safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies in arthritis patients. The present study systematically reviews adverse events of biologicals alone or in the presence of NSAIDs and other immunosuppressant therapeutics such as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). We assessed the rheumatology literature that included clinical trials with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologicals and case reports published between 2010 and 2014. Currently approved anti-TNF biologicals in arthritis include the monoclonal antibodies infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab, and the fusion protein etanercept. The most frequently-reported adverse event was infection. We grouped the adverse reactions as immune-mediated, hypersensitivity syndrome reactions including cutaneous and hepatic manifestation, neurological, hematological, and malignancy. Most adverse events are due to the failure of host immunological control, which involves susceptibility to the drug itself, or de novo infection or reactivation of a latent bacterial or viral infection, often with a different expression of disease. Drug-induced liver injury associated with anti-TNF biologicals must be kept in mind when evaluating patients with increased liver enzymes. Risk assessment in individuals undergoing treatment with biologicals represents a step towards achieving a personalized medicine approach to identify those patients that will safely benefit from this therapeutic approach. Patients and physicians must be alert of anti-TNF agents as potential causes of drug-induced liver injury and monitor the therapies. Personalizing therapeutic pharmacovigilance promises to optimize benefits while minimizing side effects.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
- Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of changes in antiretroviral regimens for HIV-infected patients. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):316-23.
Antiretroviral therapy is now available for HIV-infected patients, and so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) now makes it possible to strongly suppress viral proliferation and restore immunity. However, the development of new drugs and regimens for HAART is still in progress, with the aim of overcoming a number of associated problems. For this purpose, changes in the prescribed anti-HIV drugs are often made. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the actual effects of such treatment modifications in patients who had been started on HAART.We retrospectively investigated HIV-infected patients who had been started on HAART at Kitasato University Hospital between April 1997 and March 2013. The patients' backgrounds, characteristics and laboratory data were established from the hospital medical records.The total follow-up time was 447.3 person-years. The patients remained on their initial regimen for a median period of 2040 days, and 39 patients took a second regimen for a median of 2714 days. There was no treatment failure due to regimen change. The reason for the regimen change was adverse effects in 49 cases, poor adherence/virological failure in 4, immunological failure in 3, patient request in 2, and proposals made by health care workers, or for simplification, in 11. The number of patients who required regimen change due to renal dysfunction showed a gradual increase. The number of times anti-HIV drugs were taken per day was not altered when the regimen changed, being mainly once or twice a day.In the present study, there were no instances of treatment failure due to regimen change. Through appropriate regimen change, it is possible to avoid serious adverse effects, and to improve patient adherence. Further adverse effects associated with long-term antiretroviral therapy, and reduction of adherence through medication fatigue should be considered. Drug selection and regimen change should be considered in relation to long-term prognosis.
- Herb-drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Carica Papaya Extract and Amiodarone in Rats. [Journal Article]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):302-15.
Purpose - Carica papaya has been traditionally used worldwide in folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments in humans, including the management of obesity and digestive disorders. However, scientific information about its potential to interact with conventional drugs is lacking. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the interference of a standardized C. papaya extract (GMP certificate) on the systemic exposure to amiodarone (a narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. Methods - In the first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. papaya (1230 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in the second study, rats were pre-treated for 14 days with C. papaya (1230 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the herbal extract vehicle. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h following amiodarone administration; in addition, at 24 h post-dose, blood and tissues (heart, liver, kidneys and lungs) were also harvested. Thereafter, the concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were determined in plasma and tissue samples employing a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method previously developed and validated. Results - In both studies was observed a delay in attaining the maximum plasma concentrations of amiodarone (tmax) in the rats treated with the extract. Nevertheless, it must be highlighted the marked increase (60-70%) of the extent of amiodarone systemic exposure (as assessed by AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) in the rats pre-treated with C. papaya comparatively with the control (vehicle) group. Conclusions - The results herein found suggest an herb-drug interaction between C. papaya extract and amiodarone, which clearly increase the drug bioavailability. To reliably assess the clinical impact of these findings appropriate human studies should be conducted.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on
ABSTRACTon the issue's contents page.
- Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2D6-mediated metabolism of leisure and medicinal teas. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 17(3):294-301.
Thirty-five commercially available Camellia sinensis (black and green) and herbal leisure teas and an assortment of Traditional Chinese medicinal teas were randomly selected and examined for their potential to inhibit the drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The study was then extended to examine CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10.Microtiter fluorometric assays were utilized to examine the potential for the teas to inhibit CYP-mediated metabolism. Aqueous or alcoholic extracts of the dried tea plant material were examined.Most of the black and green leisure teas generally inhibited CYP3A4 more than the Chinese medicinal teas. The medicinal Chinese teas were generally more inhibitory towards CYP3A4 compared to the CYP2D6 isozymes, and the aqueous extracts displayed more potency than the alcoholic extracts.Tea whether used for leisure or medicinal purposes has the potential to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism particularly black tea.