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Jaundice icterus [keywords]
- Photodynamic therapy in cholangiocarcinoma: an overview. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2004 May; 1(1):85-92.
Cholangiocarcinoma is a challenge to manage; mortality rate is nearly as high as the incidence. Unless curative resection is performed, these tumours are rapidly fatal because they respond poorly to current therapies. Symptoms occur late in cholangiocarcinoma and curative resection can be performed in less than half of the patients. In non-resectable disease, endoprostheses insertion can relieve jaundice and improve quality of life, provided that tumour extension does not lead to diffuse intrahepatic stenoses of ductal system. However, tumour growth cannot be influenced and therefore, prognosis remains dismal. Despite the fact, that radiotherapy and chemotherapy could reduce tumour volume and growth, no survival advantage has yet been shown. Photodynamic therapy has been evaluated as an new additional, palliative option. A randomised trial comparing photodynamic therapy plus endoprostheses insertion versus endoprostheses insertion alone, indicates a considerably benefit on survival time, cholestasis and quality of life in large, advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, few specific side effects occurred. Since photodynamic therapy is the first approach leading to an improvement of prognosis, it should be offered to patients with non-resectable cholangiocarcinoma.
- The Natural History of Jaundice in Predominantly Breastfed Infants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2014 Jul 21.
Breastfed newborns are more likely to develop prolonged hyperbilirubinemia than those fed formula, but the prevalence of prolonged hyperbilirubinemia in a largely white, North American breastfed population is unknown. In this population, we documented the natural history of jaundice and the prevalence of prolonged hyperbilirubinemia, and we evaluated the utility of assessing the cephalocaudal progression of jaundice in office-based practices.METHODS: We measured transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) levels during the first month in 1044 predominantly breastfed infants ≥35 weeks of gestation and assigned a cephalocaudal zone score to each infant at the time of the TcB measurement.RESULTS: TcB level was ≥5 mg/dL in 43% of infants at age 21 ± 3 days and 34% were clinically jaundiced. At 28 ± 3 days, the TcB was ≥5 mg/dL in 34% and 21% were jaundiced. There was a strong correlation between the TcB level and the jaundice zone score, but there was a wide range of TcB levels associated with each score.CONCLUSIONS: Practitioners can be reassured that it is normal for 20% to 30% of predominantly breastfed newborns to be jaundiced at age 3 to 4 weeks and for 30% to 40% of these infants to have bilirubin levels ≥5 mg/dL. The jaundice zone score does not provide an accurate assessment of the bilirubin level, but a score of zero (complete absence of jaundice) suggests that the level is unlikely to be >12.9 mg/dL, whereas a score of ≥4 usually predicts a level of ≥10 mg/dL.
- Suboptimal nutrition in moderately preterm infants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Paediatr 2014 Jul 21.
It is recognised that very preterm infants are at risk of later morbidity, including neurodevelopmental impairment (1), respiratory complications and poor growth (2). However, there is increasing evidence that infants born at later preterm gestations are also at greater risk of such adverse outcomes (3, 4), with amalgamated data from follow-up studies showing continuous improvement in IQ scores and decreasing risk of respiratory disease as gestational age at birth increases (5). Moderately preterm infants (32-34 weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), sepsis, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, jaundice and feeding difficulties (6) and account for a high proportion of neonatal unit admissions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- The efficacy of endoscopic palliation of obstructive jaundice in hepatocellular carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2014 Sep 1; 55(5):1267-72.
Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention.From 1999 to 2009, 54 patients with HCC who underwent endoscopic intervention to relieve obstructive jaundice were included. We defined endoscopic intervention as a clinical success when the obstructive jaundice was relieved within 4 weeks.Clinical success was achieved in 23 patients (42.6%). Patients in the clinical success group showed better Child-Pugh liver function (C-P grade A or B/C; 17/6 vs. 8/20), lower total bilirubin levels (8.1±5.3 mg/dL vs. 23.1±10.4 mg/dL) prior to the treatment, and no history of alcohol consumption. The only factor predictive of clinical success by multivariate analysis was low total bilirubin level at the time of endoscopic intervention, regardless of history of alcohol consumption [odds ratio 1.223 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-1.396), p=0.003]. The cut-off value of pre-endoscopic treatment total bilirubin level was 12.8 mg/dL for predicting the clinical prognosis. Median survival after endoscopic intervention in the clinical success group was notably longer than that in the clinical failure group (5.6 months vs. 1.5 months, p≤0.001).Before endoscopic intervention, liver function, especially total bilirubin level, should be checked to achieve the best clinical outcome. Endoscopic intervention can be helpful to relieve jaundice in well selected patients with HCC.
- Hemolytic crisis in a G6PD-deficient infant after ingestion of pumpkin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ital J Pediatr 2014 Jul 21; 40(1):71.
A 8 months-old infant presented with acute onset of severe jaundice, anemia requiring transfusion and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. The infant did not take drugs, he did not consume fava beans, but fava beans DNA was found on pumpkin he consumed the day before jaundice onset. This is the first case of hemolysis triggered by ingestion of food cross-contaminated with fava beans.
- Diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis types 1 and 2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Surg 2014 Jul 22.
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by diffuse or focal swelling of the pancreas. AIP has been divided into types 1 and 2. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the clinicopathological characteristics, therapy and outcome of patients with AIP.The medical records of patients diagnosed with AIP between January 2003 and July 2011 were reviewed. Characteristics of patients with AIP types 1 and 2 were compared with those of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).AIP was classified as type 1 in 40 patients and type 2 in 32 according to the HISORt (Histology, Imaging, Serology, Other organ involvement, Response to therapy) criteria. Patients with histologically confirmed AIP type 2 were younger than those with type 1 (P = 0·005). Some 30 of 32 patients with AIP type 2 were found to have a localized tumour-like pancreatic mass and underwent pancreatectomy, compared with only 16 of 40 with type 1 (P < 0·001). Three of 25 patients with AIP type 2 presented with raised serum levels of IgG4 compared with 21 of 38 with type 1 (P < 0·001). There was no difference in symptoms and involvement of other organs between AIP types 1 and 2. Presentation with weight loss was more common among patients with PDAC than those with AIP, but there was no difference in pain or jaundice between the groups. Raised serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were more prevalent in patients with PDAC.Patients with AIP type 2 frequently present with abdominal pain and a tumour-like mass. Differentiating AIP from PDAC is difficult, so making the clinical decision regarding operative versus conservative management is challenging.
- Thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax Malaria: How Significant? [Journal Article]
- J Trop Med 2014.:567469.
Introduction.Thrombocytopenia is frequently noticed with P. falciparum malaria but is less reported and studied with P. vivax. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, SBKS MI & RC, Pipariya. We included patients who were diagnosed with vivax malaria. The data regarding their clinical and hematological profile was collected and analysed. Result. A total of 66 patients were included. 42 (63%) had platelet count <100000/mm(3). Mean platelet count was 1,18,650, range being 8000/mm(3)-6,10,000/mm(3). Amongst those with thrombocytopenia, 16 (38.09%) had anemia, 14 (33.33%) had serum creatinine >1.2 gm/dL, 15 (35.71%) had jaundice (s. bilirubin > 1.2), 2 (4.76%) had altered sensorium, 6 (14.28%) had ARDS, 2 needed ventilator support, and 1 expired. Amongst those with normal platelet count, 5 (20.83%) had anemia and 1 had jaundice whereas none had elevated s. creatinine, altered sensorium, or lung involvement.
Conclusion.Thrombocytopenia is now being seen more commonly with vivax malaria. Patients with platelet count <1 lac/cumm have more severe disease.
- Cerebral palsy in Al-Quseir City, Egypt: prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors. [Journal Article]
- Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014.:1267-72.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most frequent cause of motor handicap. The present door-to-door survey was conducted in Al-Quseir City, Egypt, to investigate the epidemiology of CP. All inhabitants were screened by three neurologists. Medical and neurological examinations were performed for all residents and suspected cases of CP were confirmed by meticulous neurological assessment, brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and testing with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Forty-six of 12,788 children aged ≤18 years were found to have CP, yielding a childhood prevalence of 3.6 (95% confidence interval 1.48-2.59) per 1,000 live births. Five adults (aged 19-40 years) among 13,056 inhabitants had CP, giving an adult prevalence of 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.72) per 1,000. The risk factors for CP identified in this study were premature birth, low birth weight, neonatal jaundice, neonatal seizures, and recurrent abortion in mothers of children with CP.
- Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hepatology 2014 Jul 12.
Background: The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale: To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results: Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. (Hepatology 2014;).
- 2-year outcomes in Initial survivors with Acute Liver failure: Results from a Prospective, Multicenter Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Liver Int 2014 Jul 12.
The long-term clinical outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure (ALF) are not well known.The aim of the current study is to provide an overview of the 2 year clinical outcomes amongst initial survivors and liver transplant (LT) recipients that were alive 3 weeks after enrollment in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG).Outcomes in adult ALFSG patients that were enrolled between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed.2-year patient survival was significantly higher in the 262 LT recipients (92.4%) compared to the 306 acetaminophen (APAP) spontaneous survivors (SS) (89.5%) and 200 non-APAP SS (75.5%) (p < 0.0001). The causes of death were similar in the 3 groups but the time to death was significantly longer in the LT recipients (p< 0.0001). Independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the APAP group were a high serum phosphate level and patient age (c-statistic = 0.65 (0.54, 0.76)), patient age and days from jaundice to ALF onset in the non-APAP group (c-statistic =0.69 (0.60, 0.78)), and patient age, days from jaundice, and higher coma grade in the LT recipients (c-statistic=0.74 (0.61, 0.87)). The LT recipients were significantly more likely to be employed and have a higher educational level (p < 0.05).Two-year outcomes in initial survivors of ALF are generally good but non-APAP patients have a significantly lower survival which may relate to pre-existing medical co-morbidities. Spontaneous survivors with APAP overdose experience substantial morbidity during follow-up from ongoing psychiatric and substance abuse issues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.