Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Jaundice icterus [keywords]
- Evaluating eosin-5-maleimide binding as a diagnostic test for hereditary spherocytosis in newborn infants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Perinatol 2014 Nov 6.
Objective:Neonates with undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis (HS) are at risk for developing hazardous hyperbilirubinemia and anemia. Making an early diagnosis of HS in a neonate can prompt anticipatory guidance to prevent these adverse outcomes. A recent comparison study showed that a relatively new diagnostic test for HS, eosin-5-maleimide (EMA)-flow cytometry, performs better than other available tests in confirming HS. However, reports have not specifically examined the performance of this test among neonates.Study design:We compared EMA-flow cytometry from blood samples of healthy control neonates vs samples from neonates suspected of having HS on the basis of severe Coombs-negative jaundice and spherocytes on blood film. The diagnosis of HS was later either confirmed or excluded based on clinical findings and next generation sequencing (NGS) after which we correlated the EMA-flow results with the diagnosis.Result:EMA-flow was performed on the blood of 31 neonates; 20 healthy term newborns and 11 who were suspected of having HS. Eight of the 11 were later confirmed positive for HS and one was confirmed positive for hereditary elliptocytosis (HE). All nine had persistently abnormal erythroid morphology, reticulocytosis and anemia, and eight of the nine had relevant mutations discovered using NGS. The other was confirmed positive for HS on the basis that a parent had HS, and the neonate's spherocytosis, reticulocytosis and anemia persisted. The 20 healthy controls and the 2 in whom HS was initially suspected but later excluded all had EMA-flow results in the range reported in healthy children and adults. In contrast, all nine in whom HS or HE was confirmed had abnormal EMA-flow results consistent with previous reports in older children and adults with HS.Conclusion:Although our sample size is small, our findings are consistent with the literature in older children and adults suggesting that EMA-flow cytometric testing performs well in supporting the diagnosis of HS/HE during the early neonatal period.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 6 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.202.
- Biliary strictures: diagnostic considerations and approach. [REVIEW]
- Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2014 Oct 28.
Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge, especially when no etiology can be ascertained after laboratory evaluation, abdominal imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sampling. These strictures were traditionally classified as indeterminate strictures, although with advances in endoscopic techniques and better understanding of hepato-biliary pathology, more are being correctly diagnosed. The implications of missing a malignancy in patients with biliary strictures-and hence delaying surgery-are grave but a significant number of patients (up to 20%) undergoing surgery for suspected biliary malignancy can have benign pathology. The diagnostic approach to these patients involves detailed history and physical examination and depends on the presence or absence of jaundice, level of obstruction, and presence or absence of a mass lesion. While abdominal imaging helps to find the level of obstruction and provides a 'road map' for further endoscopic investigations, tissue diagnosis is usually needed to make decisions on management. Initially ERCP was the only modality to investigate these strictures but now, with the development of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration and the availability of newer techniques such as intraductal ultrasound, single-operator cholangioscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy, the diagnostic approach to biliary strictures has changed significantly. In this review, we will focus on the decision-making process for patients with biliary strictures and discuss the key decision points that should dictate further diagnostic investigations at each step.
- Loss of α-catenin elicits a cholestatic response and impairs liver regeneration. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:6835.
The liver is unique in its capacity to regenerate after injury, during which hepatocytes actively divide and establish cell-cell contacts through cell adhesion complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of α-catenin, a well-established adhesion component, dramatically disrupts liver regeneration. Using a partial hepatectomy model, we show that regenerated livers from α-catenin knockdown mice are grossly larger than control regenerated livers, with an increase in cell size and proliferation. This increased proliferation correlated with increased YAP activation, implicating α-catenin in the Hippo/YAP pathway. Additionally, α-catenin knockdown mice exhibited a phenotype reminiscent of clinical cholestasis, with drastically altered bile canaliculi, elevated levels of bile components and signs of jaundice and inflammation. The disrupted regenerative capacity is a result of actin cytoskeletal disorganisation, leading to a loss of apical microvilli, dilated lumens in the bile canaliculi, and leaky tight junctions. This study illuminates a novel, essential role for α-catenin in liver regeneration.
- [Experience on the management of a hepatitis A outbreak in a children daycare center.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2014 Nov-Dec; 52(6):630-6.
Since hepatitis A virus is transmitted via the fecal-oral route, outbreaks in nurseries are favored by constant diaper changes and failures in hygienic measures. The purpose of this investigation was to describe an outbreak of hepatitis A between November 2012 and February 2013 at a nursery in Mexicali, Baja California, as well as the measures adopted for its control.A descriptive study was conducted on the outbreak and the control measures, calculating the rates of attack and establishing proportions using the Wilson's scale. Pupils, workers or family members with symptoms consistent with hepatitis A were considered to be suspected cases. First-occurrence hepatitis A records were reviewed on the Weekly Disease Surveillance Report at the involved medical units and on the nursery's infirmary records.The global attack rate was 13.1 %, and in those captive in the nursery, 9.5 %. Jaundice, biliuria and abdominal pain were the most important clinical data. There were no deaths or hospitalizations. The outbreak lasted 86 days. Control measures were based on epidemiological surveillance reinforcement and preventive hygienic measures.The outbreak showed a spreading trend, it affected mainly children and showed the importance of health education and epidemiological surveillance maintenance, extensive to the familial setting.
- Evolution of the food and drug administration approach to liver safety assessment for new drugs: current status and challenges. [Journal Article]
- Drug Saf 2014 Nov.:9-17.
Prompted by approval in 1997 of troglitazone and bromfenac, two drugs that promptly began to show serious and sometimes fatal liver toxicity, we began at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) a series of annual conferences in 1999 to consider issues of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). First inviting reviewers of new drug applications we opened the audiences in 2001 to pharmaceutical industry and academic consultants to industry and FDA, and slides shown at the meetings were posted on the internet to be available at the website of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)-go to ( http://www.aasld.org/dili/Pages/default.aspx ). Observations by Dr. Hyman J. Zimmerman that "drug-induced hepatocellular jaundice is a serious lesion" with possible mortality formed a basis for developing a computer program to plot peak serum values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TBL) in an x-y log-log graph for all subjects enrolled in clinical trials. This program had the capability to show the time course of all liver tests for individuals who had both hepatocellular injury and reduced whole liver function, plus clinical narratives to diagnose the severity and most likely cause of the abnormalities. We called the program eDISH (for evaluation of Drug-Induced Serious Hepatotoxicity), and began in 2004 to use it to assess DILI in clinical trial subjects. From 2008, comments made by the presenters at the conferences about their slides and ensuing discussions have been added to the website. All this has raised awareness of the problem, and since 1997, the FDA has not had to withdraw a single drug because of post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Many issues still remain to be resolved; among the most controversial is the best method to estimate likelihood that a given liver injury was actually caused by the drug in question. On November 9, 2012, a workshop was convened to discuss the best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials.
- Signet-ring cell carcinoma coexisting with adenocarcinoma arising in a choledochal cyst: report of a case. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Today 2014 Oct 29.
Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is rare in the biliary system. We report a case of SRCC coexisting with adenocarcinoma, arising in a choledochal cyst of the extrahepatic bile duct. The patient was a 52-year-old man, hospitalized for the investigation of jaundice and pruritus. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a huge choledochal cyst and distal common bile duct cancer. The patient underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy with extended lymph node dissection. Histologic examination confirmed an SRCC coexisting with adenocarcinoma arising in a choledochal cyst. Postoperative chemotherapy had to be discontinued after only two cycles because the patient suffered serious side effects. Recurrence was detected in the bilioenteric anastomosis 4 months after surgery, and he died 6 months after surgery. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of SRCC arising in a choledochal cyst of the extrahepatic bile duct ever to be reported.
- Unusually difficult clinical presentation of an infant suffering from congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection combined with alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency. [Journal Article]
- Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2014 Oct; 24(3):396-402.
Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency are separately well described entities, but their simultaneous occurrence can pose a special challenge to a clinician, especially dealing with optimal diagnostic as well as therapeutic approach. Congenital CMV infection is the most common vertically transmitted infection in developed countries. In 85-95% of newborns it runs asymptomatic, while in others it is presented with jaundice, petechias, hepatosplenomegaly and central nervous system damage. A1AT deficiency is on the other hand, the most common genetic liver disease in children, and the clinical spectrum varies from the accidentally detected increased levels of transaminases through to the severe infant cholestasis that can progress to cirrhosis. The following case report describes a two-month old male with severe clinical presentation of congenital CMV infection probably exacerbated due to A1AT deficiency comorbidity. The clinical manifestations and unusually difficult clinical signs this infant presented lead to assumption that the additional liver damage exists. Extensive laboratory analyses were performed, including PCR for CMV DNA, A1AT serum concentration, A1AT genotyping, followed and confirmed with phenotyping. Patient was treated parenteral with ganciclovir, what continued with oral valganciclovir and supportive therapy. Intensive and thorough supportive treatment of the infant resulted in satisfactory progress and excellent outcome. Patient was followed-up till the age of 18 months. The presented case provides excellent example about successful overcoming obstacles in differential diagnosis of A1AT in neonates and infants. Medical charts analysis was the methodology used in making this report.
- Gallbladder papillomatosis and cholecystocolonic fistula: a rare combination. [Journal Article]
- Am J Case Rep 2014.:466-70.
Background Biliary papillomatosis (BP) with sole involvement of the gall bladder or gall bladder papillomatosis (GBP) is very rare. Biliary-enteric fistula, particularly the cholecystocolonic fistula (CCF) type, is also very rare. The combination of both types of lesions in a single patient has never previously been reported in the English literature. Case Report We report herein the case of an 81-year-old woman who was diagnosed with both disease entities, which occurred in a cause-and-effect relationship. She underwent resection of the gall bladder with closure of the fistula, and was discharged improved afterwards. Conclusions GBP is a premalignant condition that warrants extensive resection. An absent Murphy's sign or jaundice on physical examination should not rule out this disease or accompanying biliary tract infection because a biliary-enteric fistula may be present. Thorough review of the radiologic images should be performed, since subtle details could be easily missed or dismissed, thus affecting the postoperative course. A CCF should alert the physician that another disease entity is present.
- Effect of head covering on phototherapy-induced hypocalcaemia in icterus newborns; a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2014 Apr; 2(2):121-6.
Although phototherapy has been used for more than 60 years it has some complications. The light waves produced from phototherapy reduce melatonin concentration in newborns with subsequent hypocalcemia. We aimed to assess the effect of head covering on calcium and magnesium levels in full term newborns during phototherapy.In this randomized controlled trial, 72 full-term icterus newborns weighing >2500 gr with indirect hyperbillirubinemia who received phototherapy at the phototherapy ward of Moslemin Hospital, Shiraz, southwest Iran, during March to September 2010 were recruited and divided randomly into two groups. The neonates in the case group received phototherapy while wearing a hat, while phototherapy was performed without hats for the control group. The newborns were in perfect health during the tests. The calcium and magnesium levels of each newborn were tested at baseline, and 24 hours after phototherapy and 48 after treatment. The variables were compared using Student's t, Chi-square and repeat measurement tests.14 (38.8%) newborns in the control group and 5 (13.8%) in the case group had hypocalcemia after phototherapy. A significant difference was found between the incidence of hypocalcemia in these two groups (P=0.03). However, magnesium levels did not change significantly (P>0.05).Phototherapy caused hypocalcemia but it had no effect on magnesium levels. This can be prevented by covering the head during phototherapy with no need for prophylactic administration of calcium.IRCT2013102315134N1.
- Hemorrhagic diathesis as the presenting symptom of neonatal cholestasis. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2014 Sep; 17(3):191-5.
A 4-week-old infant presented with a coagulation disorder resulting from a vitamin K deficiency. The vitamin K deficiency was caused by neonatal cholestasis due to biliary atresia. Jaundice, hepatomegaly and pale stools are the predominant presenting symptoms of biliary atresia, none of which were recognized in our patient before admission. However, the patient presented with bleeding caused by vitamin K deficiency. She was fully breastfed and had received adequate doses of vitamin K at birth and from the age of 1 week. In case of a hemorrhagic diathesis due to neonatal cholestasis, timely identification of treatable underlying disorders, in particular biliary atresia, is important because an early surgical intervention results in a better prognosis. Meticulous history taking and a thorough physical exam can be decisive for an early diagnosis and subsequent intervention.