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Jaundice icterus [keywords]
- Complications due to breastfeeding associated hypernatremic dehydration. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Neonatol 2014 Jul; 3(3):153-7.
The aim was to assess the incidence, presenting features, and complications of breastfeeding associated hypernatremic dehydration among hospitalized neonates.A retrospective study over a period of 18 months to identify term and near term (≥35 weeks of gestation) breastfed neonates, who were admitted with serum sodium concentration of ≥150 mEq/l and no apparent explanation for their hypernatremia other than inadequate breastmilk intake.The incidence of breastfeeding associated hypernatremic dehydration among 2100 term and near term neonates was 1.38%. The median serum sodium at presentation was 164 mEq/l (range: 151-191 mEq/l). The mean weight loss in these patients was 10.16% ±6.6%. The reasons for seeking medical attention were refusal of feeds (72.41%), lethargy (68.96%), decreased urine output (44.82%), jaundice (27.58%) and fever (24.13%). Five patients (17.24%) had seizures and three (10.34%) had coagulopathy. Other complications included hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, acute kidney injury (AKI) (37.93%) and intraventricular hemorrhage. The mean serum creatinine was 1.82 ± 2.5 mg/dl (range: 0.19-9.6). A statistically significant association was seen between serum sodium concentration at presentation and AKI. It was also found that those patients who had AKI had a higher weight loss and had presented later to the hospital than those without AKI. One patient died within 12 h of admission. This child had disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, AKI, and hypoglycemia.Breastfeeding associated hypernatremic dehydration is a serious condition with many serious complications and even results in death if detected late. Health care providers have increasing responsibilities of promoting proper breastfeeding techniques and taking measures for early diagnosis and treatment of this problem.
- Obstructive jaundice caused by intraductal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Onco Targets Ther 2014.:1847-50.
Obstructive jaundice caused by metastases to the porta hepatis is often observed in patients with various advanced cancers; however, metastasis of lung cancer to the common bile duct with subsequent development of jaundice is rare. A 75-year-old female with lung adenocarcinoma harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (15-bp in-frame deletion in exon 19 and T790M in exon 20) developed obstructive jaundice during therapy. Obstruction of the common bile duct caused by an intraductal tumor was identified by computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography. Although primary cholangiocarcinoma was highly suspected according to the imaging findings, immunohistochemical evaluation of the intraductal tumor demonstrated thyroid transcription factor-1 positive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp analysis showed that the tumor contained the same EGFR mutation as that in the primary lung cancer. Thus, we confirmed intraductal metastasis from a lung adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the second report of obstructive jaundice caused by intraductal metastasis of lung cancer.
- Choledochal cyst mimicking Mirizzi's syndrome A case report. [Journal Article]
- Ann Ital Chir 2014.
Choledochal cysts are cystic dilatations of the intra or extra-hepatic biliary tract with an incidence of 1 case per 150.000 live births. Cysts usually are diagnosed in childhood, but diagnosis can be delayed until adulthood in the 20-50% of cases. Clinical manifestations comprise abdominal pain with biliary or pancreatic features. Mirizzi's syndrome is a late and rare complication, that occurs in 1% of patients with cholelithiasis due to extrinsic compression of the common bile duct by stones impacted either in the gallbladder or in the cystic duct. Clinical symptoms include extrahepatic obstructive jaundice, ascending cholangitis, or, in the later course, cholecystocholedocal fistula. For both pathologies the Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography and the Magnetic Resonance Cholangio Pancreatography should lead to the diagnosis with a sensibility and a specificity up to 100%. We report the case of a 66 year old patient admitted to the Emergency Department of our hospital for jaundice and abdominal pain, whom both the endoscopic and radiologic examination showed a Mirizzi's syndrome but surgery revealed a type I choledocal cyst.Choledochal cyst, Mirizzi's syndrome, ERCP, MRI.
- Early term infants, length of birth stay and neonatal readmission for jaundice. [Journal Article]
- Paediatr Child Health 2014 Aug; 19(7):353-4.
- Primary bone marrow lymphoma presenting with cold-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):271-4.
We report a rare case of primary bone marrow lymphoma with cold-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). A 70-year-old Japanese woman with suspected liver disorder presented to our hospital with palpitation. On physical examination, she had jaundice and signs of anemia. No lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly was noted. A direct antiglobulin test was positive for complement C3b and C3d. Anti-IgG testing was negative. Cold agglutinin was positive with a titer of 1:≥8,192, and haptoglobin was absent. A diagnosis of cold-type AIHA was made. Bone marrow biopsy revealed involvement with a population of lymphocytes that were positive for CD20 (L-26), CD79a, and Bcl-2. No lymphoma lesion was detected on computerized tomography or on upper and lower endoscopy. The patient was diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) presenting with cold-type AIHA. She was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone, resulting in complete remission after six cycles. As of 22 months after presentation, no signs of cold-type AIHA or lymphoma were present.
- Chediak-higashi syndrome presented as accelerated phase: case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):223-6.
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, recurrent pyogenic infections (skin, mucosa and respiratory system), and neurologic deficit. The hallmark of this syndrome is the presence of abnormal intracytoplasmic giant granules in all granule containing cells including leukocytes in blood and bone marrow. A majority (85 %) of patients with CHS develop an accelerated phase consisting of a lymphoproliferative syndrome with hemophagocytosis and infiltration of most tissues. This phase is characterized by fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia and neurological abnormalities. In this paper, we report a case of CHS presented as accelerated phase in a 9-month-old girl child.
- Concurrent pancreatic and renal leukemic cell infiltration. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):57-9.
Pancreatic involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is uncommon more so in adults. It can present as obstructive jaundice, pancreatitis or can be asymptomatic. We report here the clinical and imaging features in a 28 years old man with B cell ALL with simultaneous involvement of pancreas and bilateral kidneys. Computed tomography of abdomen showed diffuse infiltration of pancreas by multiple tiny hypodense lesions and multiple hypodense lesions in both kidneys. Although leukemic involvement of pancreas is unusual and our patient was asymptomatic, one should consider the possibility of pancreatic infiltration in a leukemic patient presenting with pancreatic enlargement, cholestatic jaundice or pancreatitis.
- Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):21-3.
A 26 year old lady came with intermittent fever since eight months. She also complained of abdominal pain and decreased appetite for six months. She had swelling of feet and distension of abdomen due to ascites since one month. There was history of jaundice one month back. On radiological examination, hepatomegaly with dilated portal vein, massive splenomegaly and ascites without any lymphadenopathy was noted. Chest X-ray was normal. Blood examination and bone marrow studies were inconclusive. We received her liver biopsy, which showed normal architecture and sinusoidal infiltration by a monomorphic population of small to intermediate sized lymphoid cells. Portal tracts were free of such infiltrate. These lymphoid cells were LCA, CD3, CD43 positive and negative for CD20, CD34, CD4, CD8 and c-kit. Based on all these features, a diagnosis of Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma was made. She was treated symptomatically, however she died within two months of diagnosis.
- Serum Bilirubin and Bilirubin/Albumin Ratio as Predictors of Bilirubin Encephalopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2014 Oct 20.
Bilirubin/albumin ratio (B/A) may provide a better estimate of free bilirubin than total serum bilirubin (TSB), thus improving identification of newborns at risk for bilirubin encephalopathy. The objective of the study was to identify thresholds and compare specificities of TSB and B/A in detecting patients with acute and posttreatment auditory and neurologic impairment.A total of 193 term/near-term infants, admitted for severe jaundice to Cairo University Children's Hospital, were evaluated for neurologic status and auditory impairment (automated auditory brainstem response), both at admission and posttreatment by investigators blinded to laboratory results. The relationships of TSB and B/A to advancing stages of neurotoxicity were compared by using receiver operating characteristic curves.TSB and B/A ranged from 17 to 61 mg/dL and 5.4 to 21.0 mg/g, respectively; 58 (30%) of 193 subjects developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy, leading to kernicterus in 35 infants (13 lethal). Auditory impairment was identified in 86 (49%) of 173 infants at admission and in 22 of 128 at follow-up. In the absence of clinical risk factors, no residual neurologic or hearing impairment occurred unless TSB exceeded 31 mg/dl. However, transient auditory impairment occurred at lower TSB and B/A (22.9 mg/dL and 5.7 mg/g, respectively). Intervention values of TSB and B/A set at high sensitivity to detect different stages of neurotoxicity had nearly the same specificity.Both TSB and B/A are strong predictors of neurotoxicity, but B/A does not improve prediction over TSB alone. Threshold values detecting all affected patients (100% sensitivity) increase with advancing severity of neurotoxicity.
- Adrenal haemorrhage in term neonates: a retrospective study from the period 2001-2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Oct 20.:1-16.
Abstract Objective: To assess the incidence, risk factors and clinical presentations of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage (NAH) in uncomplicated, singleton, term deliveries. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 26,416 term neonates delivered between 2001 and 2013, and screened with abdominal ultrasonography. Results: Of the 26,416 neonates, 74 (0.28%) displayed NAH; the male/female ratio was 1.55:1. Vaginal delivery was significantly more frequent than caesarean section among them (71 vs. 3; 95.9% vs. 4.1%). Unilateral bleeding occurred on the right side in 36 (48.7%), and on the left in 34 (45.9%), without a significant difference; bilateral haematomas were found in 4 cases (5.4%). The most common risk factors were macrosomia (16, 21.6%) and fetal acidaemia (23, 31%), while 4 (5.4%) neonates exhibited pathological acidaemia. Clinical presentations included jaundice in 37 (50%), anaemia in 6 (8.1%) and an adrenal insufficiency in only 1 (1.3%) case. In 3 cases, neuroblastoma was diagnosed. Conclusions: Vaginal delivery, macrosomia and fetal acidaemia are the most important risk factors for NAH. The adrenal glands on both sides were similarly involved. In the healthy neonates with NAH, the clinical presentations were mild, with spontaneous regression. Differentiation of NAH from tumours is of considerable importance.