Jaundice icterus [keywords]
- Trend and manifestations of falciparum malaria in a tertiary care hospital of India. [Journal Article]
- Adv Biomed Res 2016.:128.
The recent focus is on the increase in the burden of falciparum cases with a varied spectrum of presentation and outcome, especially in developing countries like India. This study was undertaken to analyze the trend and manifestations of falciparum malaria in a tertiary care hospital.This descriptive study was carried out at the Gauhati Government Medical College and Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. The data were collected on demographic and time characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, the outcome of disease and expressed in proportion or percentages.Out of the 100 cases, around 2(nd)/3(rd) (63%) of cases were in the age group of 15-30 years and the mean age was found to be 29.51 years. About 66% of them were males. Clinical presentations included pain abdomen (42, 42%), nausea and vomiting (35, 35%), jaundice (34, 34%), oliguria (24, 24%), altered sensorium (24, 24%), breathing difficulty (10, 10%), and seizures (5, 5%). Number of cases and mortality were more with a peak in the month of May and September. Manifestations of severe falciparum malaria included hepatopathy (38%), renal failure (28%), shock (9%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (7%), hypoglycemia (3%), and severe anemia (1%). Eighty-two cases (82%) recovered and 18 cases (18%) expired.Falciparum malaria is more among younger adult age group and males. Complications and mortality are also more due to falciparum malaria.
- Significant symptoms alleviation and tumor volume reduction after combined simultaneously integrated inner-escalated boost and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy in a patient with unresectable bulky hepatocellular carcinoma: A care-compliant case report. [Journal Article]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Aug; 95(34):e4717.
Clinically, elderly patients with unresectable bulky hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are difficult to manage, especially in those with co-infections of hepatitis B and C virus. Herein, we reported such a case treated with radiotherapy (RT) by using combined simultaneously integrated inner-escalated boost and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (SIEB-VMAT). After RT, significant symptoms alleviation and durable tumor control were observed.At presentation, an 85-year-old male patient complained abdominal distention/pain, poor appetite, and swelling over bilateral lower limbs for 1 month. On physical examination, a jaundice pattern was noted. Laboratory studies showed impaired liver and renal function. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 12.5-cm bulky tumor over the caudate lobe of the liver. Biopsy was done, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was reported histopathologically. As a result, AJCC stage IIIA (cT3aN0M0) and BCLC stage C were classified. Surgery, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and sorafenib were not recommended because of his old age, central bulky tumor, and a bleeding tendency. Thus, RT with SIEB-VMAT technique was given alternatively. RT was delivered in 26 fractions, with dose gradience as follows: 39 Gy on the outer Plan Target Volume (PTV), 52 Gy in the middle PTV, and 57.2 Gy in the inner PTV. Unexpectedly, cyproheptadine (a newly recognized potential anti-HCC agent) was retrospectively found to be prescribed for alleviating skin itching and allergic rhinitis since the last 2 weeks of the RT course (2 mg by mouth Q12h for 24 months).After RT, significant symptoms alleviation and tumor volume reduction were observed for 32 months till multiple bone metastases. Before and after RT, a large tumor volume reduction rate of 88.7% was observed (from 608.4 c.c. to 68.7 c.c.). No severe treatment toxicity was noted during and after RT. The patient died due to aspiration pneumonia with septic shock at 4 months after bone metastases identified.SIEB-VMAT physically demonstrated double benefits of intratumor dose escalation and extra-tumor dose attenuation. Significant tumor regression and symptoms alleviation were observed in this elderly patient with unresectable bulky HCC. Further prospective randomized trials are encouraged to demarcate effective size of SIEB-VMAT with or without cyproheptadine.
- The characteristics and clinical outcome of drug-induced liver injury in a Chinese hospital: A retrospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Aug; 95(34):e4683.
The aim of this cohort study was to determine the characteristics and clinical outcome of 287 patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in a Chinese hospital.Between January 2008 and January 2013, individuals who were diagnosed with DILI were selected. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and factors for the outcome of patients with DILI were extracted and analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis.Two hundred eighty-seven cases identified as DILI were included in the study. A total of 105 different drugs were considered to be related to the hepatotoxicity. The main causative group of drugs was Chinese herb (n = 111). Liver failure developed in 9 (3.1%) patients, and 2 died (0.7%). Overall, complete recovery occurred in 92 (32.1%) patients. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis identified the digestive symptoms, jaundice, total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) as independent factors for the non-recovery of DILI. Then the prediction model, including digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL, was built by using binary logistic regression analysis again. Receiver operating characteristic curve validated the strong power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.907) of prediction model for predicting the DILI non-recovery.DILI is an important cause of liver test abnormalities, and Chinese herb represented the most common drug group. The factors such as digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL have effect on DILI outcomes. The prediction model, including digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL, established in this study is really an excellent predictive tool for non-recovery of DILI patients.
- [Primary Biliary Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Mimicking Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma]. [Case Reports, English Abstract]
- Korean J Gastroenterol 2016 Aug 25; 68(2):114-8.
Primary biliary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is extremely rare. We report a case of primary biliary MALT lymphoma with obstructive jaundice diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy, without surgical intervention. Obstructive jaundice was relieved by endoscopic drainage and endoscopic biopsy was done simultaneously during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided after pathological confirmation of lymphoma. The patient received radiotherapy, and is alive without any evidence of recurrence or biliary obstruction. Diagnosis of primary biliary lymphoma is very difficult because of its low prevalence. However, it should always be considered as a differential diagnosis, since when an accurate diagnosis is made, unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided.
- Primary hydatid cyst of pancreas: Case report and review of literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Surg Case Rep 2016 Aug 2.:74-77.
Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It most commonly affects the liver and lung. Pancreatic hydatid cyst (PHC) is very rare with incidence of 0.14%-2%.A 40year old lady presented with epigastric pain for last 3 months. A 5×5cm abdominal lump occupying the epigastric and left hypochondrial region was noted on physical examination. Ultrasonography (USG) and Contrast enhanced Computed Tomogrpahy (CT) revealed a 55×57mm cystic structure in the pancreatic body. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fluid aspiration cytology revealed normal Carcinoembryonic antigen and Amylase levels. Cytological examination was noncontributory. During open surgical exploration, it was found to be a hydatid cyst. After irrigation with scolicidal agent and evacuation of cystic contents, Partial cystectomy with external drainage was done. Histopathological biopsy revealed Hydatid cyst. Post-operative ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) for Echinococcal antigen was positive.PHC is a rare entity. Most common mode of spread is hematogenous. Cysts in pancreatic head can present as obstructive jaundice. Cysts in body and tail are usually asymptomatic. USG, CT and Hydaitd serology can help in diagnosis and monitoring recurrence. Surgical exploration is treatment of choice. Options include pericystectomy, partial cystectomy+/- external drainage/omentopexy, marsupialization or cysto-enterostomy. Preoperative and Post-operative anti helminthic (Albendazole) is recommended.PHC can masquerade as pseudocyst or cystic neoplasm of pancreas. It should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion in patients from endemic regions.
- Obstructive Jaundice as a Complication of Macrocystic Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas. [Journal Article]
- Acta Med Indones 2016 Apr; 48(2):129-33.
Macrocystic serous cystadenoma is an unusual and essentially benign pancreatic tumor. Herein, we report on a 40-year-old woman diagnosed with macrocystic serous cystadenoma who presented with obstructive jaundice. A cystic lesion in the head and body of the pancreas was revealed by abdominal computed tomography. Intraoperative pancreatic cyst aspiration ruled out mucinous cystic neoplasm which has a malignant potential. The pancreatic cyst fluid cytology was basophilic amorph materials concluded as benign cystic lesion. Internal drainage was performed instead of pancreatic resection which showed good outcome. Biliary obstruction is a rare complication of serous cystadenoma. This case describes an unusual clinical presentation of macrocystic serous cystadenoma.
- Fibromuscular Dysplasia Complicated With Cerebral Stroke in a Child With Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type II. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2016 Aug 19.
Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II belongs to a subtype of bone marrow failure syndrome, which is characterized by monolineage involvement and typical morphologic abnormalities in erythroid precursor cells resulting in different degrees of hyporegenerative anemia. Moreover, reticulocytosis, which is not corresponding to the degree of anemia, with jaundice and splenomegaly are major diagnostic criteria. Causative gene is located at SEC23B. Although stroke among children is rare, it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herein we present a 3-year-old male with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II who presented with stroke-like symptoms, and was diagnosed with fibromuscular dysplasia.
- Dilemmas in autoimmune pancreatitis. Surgical resection or not? [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(8):463-7.
Surgical treatment is not commonly recommended in the management of autoimmune pancreatitis. The article describes a dilemma in diagnostics and treatment of a 68-year old man with the mass in the head of the pancreas that mimicked pancreatic cancer and that was diagnosed as a type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (IgG4-related pancreatitis) after a surgical resection. Diagnosis of the autoimmune pancreatitis is a real clinical challenge, as in the current diagnostic criteria exists some degree of overlap in the findings between autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (indicated by the similarity in radiologic findings, elevation of IgG4, sampling errors in pancreatic biopsy, and the possibility of synchronous autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer). Despite the generally accepted corticosteroids as the primary treatment modality in autoimmune pancreatitis, we believe that surgical resection remains necessary in a specific subgroup of patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).
- Epidemiological investigation of a tap water-mediated hepatitis E virus genotype 4 outbreak in Zhejiang Province, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epidemiol Infect 2016 Aug 22.:1-13.
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT-PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
- The choroid plexus in health and in disease: Dialogues into and out of the brain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurobiol Dis 2016 Aug 18.
This article brings the choroid plexus into the context of health and disease. It is remarkable that the choroid plexus, composed by the monolayer of epithelial cells that lie in a highly vascularized stroma, floating within the brain ventricles, gets so little attention in major physiology and medicine text books and in the scientific literature in general. Consider that it is responsible for producing most of the about 150mL of cerebrospinal fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space and surrounds the spinal cord in the adult human brain, which is renewed approximately 2-3 times daily. As such, its activity influences brain metabolism and function, which will be addressed. Reflect that it contains an impressive number of receptors and transporters, both in the apical and basolateral sides of the epithelial cells, and as such is a key structure for the communication between the brain and the periphery. This will be highlighted in the context of neonatal jaundice, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Realize that the capillaries that lie on the choroid plexus stroma do not possess tight junctions and that the blood flow to the choroid plexus is five times higher than that in the brain parenchyma, allowing for a rapid sensing system and delivery of molecules such as nutrients and metals as will be revised. Recognize that certain drugs reach the brain parenchyma solely through the choroid plexus epithelia, which has potential to be manipulated in diseases such as neonatal jaundice and Alzheimer's disease as will be discussed. Without further notice, it must be now clear that understanding the choroid plexus is necessary for comprehending the brain and how the brain is modulated and modulates all other systems, in health and in disease. This review article intends to address current knowledge on the choroid plexus, and to motivate the scientific community to consider it when studying normal brain physiology and diseases of the central nervous system. It will guide the reader through several aspects of the choroid plexus in normal physiology, in diseases characteristic of various periods of life (newborns-kernicterus, young adults-multiple sclerosis and the elder-Alzheimer's disease), and how sex-differences may relate to disease susceptibility.