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Jaundice icterus [keywords]
- Weil's disease presenting as atypical pneumonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acute Med 2014; 13(4):178-181.
Leptospirosis is a disease caused by spp. Leptospira, also known as Weil's disease if it manifests with jaundice. It can be associated with respiratory, renal, hepatic and haematological complications and most importantly carries a high mortality when untreated. We describe a case of a 53 year old man presenting with myalgia and fever in whom the diagnosis of leptospirosis was not initially considered. Following a deterioration in his condition a careful history revealed an apparent brief exposure to animal urine and subsequent grossly positive Leptospira serology. Treatment of his condition led to complete resolution after a brief stay on the intensive care unit. This case highlights the atypical nature of a presentation of Leptospirosis, its respiratory complications, and importance of serological testing in its diagnosis.
- Signet ring cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct diagnosed by preoperative biopsy: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Gastroenterol 2014 Sep; 8(3):353-7.
A 73-year-old woman was admitted because of obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed a stricture in the lower bile duct with enhanced bile duct wall. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a tapering stenosis at the lower bile duct. Transpapillary histological biopsy using biopsy forceps through ERCP was performed; the diagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the bile duct was established. Regional lymph node enlargement and distant metastases were not detected on diagnostic imaging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with pylorus preservation was performed. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct coexisting with adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the extrahepatic bile duct with negative resection margins. However, tumor cells directly invaded the pancreatic parenchyma and the muscle layer of the duodenum, prompting us to administer adjuvant chemotherapy to the patient, with no sign of tumor recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Almost all tumors originating from the extrahepatic bile duct are ADC and other histological variants are rare. Of these, SRCC is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding the preoperative diagnosis of SRCC of the bile duct. Current reports indicate that younger age and Asian ethnicity are the clinical features of SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct. Immunohistochemical staining of CK7, CK20 and MUC2 may be useful for predicting prognosis. Chemotherapy has not resulted in increased survival rates and only surgical resection currently serves as a curative treatment.
- An Infant with Biliary Ascites. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014 Nov; 24(11):S250-S252.
Biliary ascites in children due to perforation of bile duct is a rare entity. The exact pathogenesis is not known but there are proposed mechanisms including congenital weakness of ductal wall, pancreaticobiliary malunion, tuberculosis, necrotizing enterocolitis and rupture of choledochal cyst. Presentation may be acute or sub-acute. Progressive insidious course is the common presentation in children with jaundice, clay colored stool, abdominal distension with slightly elevated liver enzymes but well documented cholestasis. Clinical suspicion with ultrasound, CT, MRCP and ascitic tap provides clue to the diagnosis. Both conservative and surgical interventions are in practice for managing these children. We report a 7 months old infant with biliary ascites due to perforation of bile duct.
- [The experience of biliary self-expendable nitinol stents for malignant jaundice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Eksp Klin Gastroenterol 2014; (3):81-7.
to analyze the effectiveness and possible complications of endoscopic biliary drainage (BD) using self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) in patients with malignant jaundice (MJ).From January 2010 to January 2014 in endoscopy department of Pirogov National medical and surgical Center were operated 64 patients with MJ, 38 of them with SEMS. The average patient's age was 65.4 ± 14.5 years. The mean duration of jaundice was 13 ± 5.4 days before drainage. The remaining 6 patients (15.8%) were operated with preliminary PTBD. In all 38 patients were diagnosed unresectable tumors.successful endoscopic BD were achieved in all 38 patients. 35 patients were drained with transpapillary SEMS and 3 patients with EUS-guided choledochoduodenoanastomoses (EUS-CDA). Early postoperative complications were observed in 3 (7.8%) patients with no lethality.endoscopic BD with SEMS is an effective method of internal drainage for inoperable pancreatobiliary tumors, providing adequate BD for the entire duration of life expectancy. In case of failed transpapillary drainage EUS-guided biliodigestive anastomoses were performed. The complication rate of endoscopic BD in patients with malignant pancreatobiliary tumors in our study was 7.8% and comparable with complication level due to ERCP/EST for benign pathology.
- The impact of diabetes mellitus on the course and outcome of pregnancy during a 5-year follow-up. [Journal Article]
- Vojnosanit Pregl 2014 Oct; 71(10):907-14.
Women with diabetes, especially diabetes type 1, have worse pregnancy outcomes, as well as increased incidence of spontaneous abortions, pre-eclampsia, fetal macrosomia, preterm delivery, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the course and outcome of pregnancy in the patients with diabetes in relation to the group of healthy women regarding preterm delivery, perinatal morbidity and mortality. Also, the aim was to compare pregnancy outcomes in the patients with pre-existing diabetes type 1 and the patients with gestational and diabetes type 2.This retrospective study included 156 diabetic women treated at the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases and Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic of the Clinical Center of Vojvodina from 2006 to 2010. There were 94 patients with gestational diabetes, 48 with type 1 diabetes, and 14 patients with type 2 diabetes. The control group included 106 healthy women hospitalized at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic.The women with type 1 diabetes presented with a statistically significantly higher incidence of cesarean section than those without diabetes, or with type 2 or gestational diabetes (p < 0.0001); the women with type 1 diabetes delivered at an earlier week of gestation (WG) in regard to women without diabetes, or with type 2 or gestational diabetes (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.02, respectively). The incidence of perinatal morbidity: hypoglycemia (p < 0.001), pathological jaundice (p = 0.0021), and other neonatal pathologies at birth (p = 0.0031), was statistically significantly higher and Apgar scores after 1 minute (p = 0.0142) and after 5 minutes (p = 0.0003) were statistically significantly lower in the patients with diabetes compared to the healthy women. The women with type 2 and gestational diabetes were statistically significantly older than those with type 1 diabetes (p = 0.001). A higher incidence of fetal macrosomia in the women with gestational and type 2 diabetes compared to those with type 1 diabetes was at the borderline of statistical significance (p = 0.07), whereas the incidence of hypoglycemia of newborn was statistically significantly higher in the patients with type 1 diabetes (p < 0.0001). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were statistically significantly higher in the diabetic women giving birth during and before the week of gestation 36 (p = 0.0087), but there were no differences in HbA1lc levels in regard to fetal macrosomia (p = 0.45) and congenital abnormalities (p = 0.32).The results of our study show a higher incidence of perinatal fetal morbidity (hypoglycemia, jaundice, respiratory distress syndrome) in the patients with type 1, type 2 and gestation diabetes than in the healthy controls. Also, we found a higher incidence of cesarean section in the patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2, gestation diabetes and healthy controls. Although delivery in the patients with type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes was completed approximately one to two weeks earlier compared to the healthy controls there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of preterm delivery (≤ 36th week of gestation) between the women with diabetes and healthy controls. Preterm delivery associated with poorer glycaemic control reflected through higher values of HbA1c in third trimester. Risks from adverse pregnancy outcomes may be reduced to minimum by adequate preconception counseling of diabetic patients and early diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy, in order to achieve glycemic control during organogenesis and within pregnancy and through the teamwork of endocrinologists, gynecologists and pediatricians.
- Hyperactivity in the Gunn rat model of neonatal jaundice: age-related attenuation and emergence of gait deficits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Res 2014 Dec 17.
BackgroundNeonatal jaundice resulting from elevated unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) occurs in 60-80% of newborn infants. Although mild jaundice is generally considered harmless, little is known about its long-term consequences. Recent studies have linked mild bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) with a range of neurological syndromes, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The goal of this study was to measure BIND across the lifespan in the Gunn rat model of BIND.MethodsUsing a sensitive force plate actometer, we measured locomotor activity and gait in jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats versus their non-jaundiced (Nj) littermates. Data were analyzed for young adult (3-4 months), early middle-aged (9-10 months), and late middle-aged (17-20 months) male rats.Resultsjj rats exhibited lower body weights at all ages and a hyperactivity that resolved at 17-20 months of age. Increased propulsive force and gait velocity accompanied hyperactivity during locomotor bouts at 9-10 months in jj rats. Stride length did not differ between the two groups at this age. Hyperactivity normalized and gait deficits, including decreased stride length, propulsive force, and gait velocity, emerged in the 17-20-month-old jj rats.ConclusionsThese results demonstrate that, in aging, hyperactivity decreases with the onset of gait deficits in the Gunn rat model of BIND.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.199.
- Fibrosing Cholestatic Hepatitis C After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Report of 3 Fatal Cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Surg Pathol 2014 Dec 16.
Development of liver disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation is common and the causes diverse. Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be seen in patients who are chronically infected before transplant or from passage of virus from an infected donor; the normal 10-year course of hepatitis C after transplant is one of waxing and waning of serum aminotransferase enzymes, with little morbidity. In the series of 3 patients reported here, the course of hepatitis C was rapidly fatal, with the onset of jaundice at day 60 to 80 after transplant and liver histology typical of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (marked bile ductular proliferation, ballooned hepatocytes, and associated collagenous fibrosis centered around ductules). The bile ductular reaction pattern varied from elongated structures without a recognizable lumen to a pattern of cuboidal cells with a clear lumen. There was significant cholestasis with bile within hepatocytes and canalicular bile plugs. In situ HCV RNA hybridization studies from 1 patient showed a robust infection with high levels of HCV-infected hepatocytes and active viral replication. All 3 patients were on immunosuppressive drugs after transplant, including mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), which irreversibly inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, on which T and B lymphocytes are dependent. We speculate that fatal fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis C in these cases was related to the immunosuppressive effects of MMF, as we had not recognized this presentation of HCV infection before the introduction of MMF.
- Sclerosing cholangitis secondary to bleomycin-iodinated embolization for liver hemangioma. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Dec 14; 20(46):17680-5.
Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is a rarely reported morbidity secondary to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with bleomycin-iodinated oil (BIO) for liver cavernous hemangioma (LCH). This report retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic course of a patient with LDH who presented obstructive jaundice 6 years after TACE with BIO. Preoperative imaging identified a suspected malignant biliary stricture located at the convergence of the left and right hepatic ducts. Operative exploration demonstrated a full-thickness sclerosis of the hilar bile duct with right hepatic duct stricture and right lobe atrophy. Radical hepatic hilar resection with right-side hemihepatectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed because hilar cancer could not be excluded on frozen biopsy. Pathological results showed chronic pyogenic inflammation of the common and right hepatic ducts with SC in the portal area. Secondary SC is a long-term complication that may occur in LCH patients after TACE with BIO and must be differentiated from hilar malignancy. Hepatic duct plasty is a definitive but technically challenging treatment modality for secondary SC.
- Analysis of risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreaticoduodenectomy. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Dec 14; 20(46):17491-7.
To explore the morbidity and risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreaticoduodenectomy.The data from 196 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, performed by different surgeons, in the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between January 1(st), 2013 and December 31(st), 2013 were retrospectively collected for analysis. The diagnoses of POPF and clinically relevant (CR)-POPF following pancreaticoduodenectomy were judged strictly by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula Definition. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze the following factors: patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum CA19-9 level, history of jaundice, serum albumin level, blood loss volume, pancreatic duct diameter, pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatic drainage and pancreaticojejunostomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the main independent risk factors for POPF.POPF occurred in 126 (64.3%) of the patients, and the incidence of CR-POPF was 32.7% (64/196). Patient characteristics of age, sex, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum CA19-9 level, history of jaundice, serum albumin level, blood loss volume, pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy showed no statistical difference related to the morbidity of POPF or CR-POPF. Pancreatic duct diameter was found to be significantly correlated with POPF rates by univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis, with a pancreatic duct diameter ≤ 3 mm being an independent risk factor for POPF (OR = 0.291; P = 0.000) and CR-POPF (OR = 0.399; P = 0.004). The CR-POPF rate was higher in patients without external pancreatic stenting, which was found to be an independent risk factor for CR-POPF (OR = 0.394; P = 0.012). Among the entire patient series, there were three postoperative deaths, giving a total mortality rate of 1.5% (3/196), and the mortality associated with pancreatic fistula was 2.4% (3/126).A pancreatic duct diameter ≤ 3 mm is an independent risk factor for POPF. External stent drainage of pancreatic secretion may reduce CR-POPF mortality and POPF severity.
- Anti-tumour necrosis factor agent and liver injury: Literature review, recommendations for management. [REVIEW]
- World J Gastroenterol 2014 Dec 14; 20(46):17352-17359.
Abnormalities in liver function tests, including transient and self-limiting hypertransaminasemia, cholestatic disease and hepatitis, can develop during treatment with anti-tumour-necrosis-factor (TNF) therapy. The optimal management of liver injury related to anti-TNF therapy is still a matter of debate. Although some authors recommend discontinuing treatment in case of both a rise of alanine aminotransferase more than 5 times the upper limit of normal, or the occurrence of jaundice, there are no standard guidelines for the management of anti-TNF-related liver injury. Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed, using the following key words: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); TNF inhibitors; hypertransaminasemia; drug-related liver injury; infliximab. According to published data, elevation of transaminases in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNF is a common finding, but resolution appears to be the usual outcome. Anti-TNF agents seem to be safe with a low risk of causing severe drug-related liver injury. According to our centre experience, we found that hypertransaminasemia was a common, mainly self-limiting finding in our IBD cohort and was not correlated to infliximab treatment on both univariate and multivariate analyses. An algorithm for the management of liver impairment occurring during anti-TNF treatment is also proposed and this highlights the need of a multidisciplinary approach and suggests liver biopsy as a key-point in the management decision in case of severe rise of transaminases. However, hepatic injury is generally self-limiting and drug withdrawal seems to be an exception.