- Utilizing the partitioning properties of silicone for the passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air. [Journal Article]
- Chemosphere 2016 Oct.:280-6.
The former use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials can lead to elevated indoor air concentrations. We studied the partitioning of PCB congeners between indoor air and silicone with a view to establish passive sampling of PCBs. The release of PCB congeners from silicone followed first order kinetics and confirmed air-side rate-limited mass transfer. Logarithmic elimination rate constants decreased linearly with the logKOA values of the PCB congeners, but varied in a non-linear way with air velocity. Linear uptake of PCBs was found for silicone disks (0.5 mm thickness) in a petri dish, while PCBs reached equilibrium in silicone-coated paper sheets (0.001 mm silicone on each side) exposed to indoor air for 1-2 weeks. The ratios of equilibrium concentrations in silicone and conventionally measured air concentrations were roughly comparable with silicone-air partition coefficients, but further research is required for the determination of silicone-air partition coefficients. Avoiding performance reference compounds (PRCs) because of the indoor setting, the two formats were calibrated against conventional active measurements. Comparisons of air concentrations derived from active and kinetic passive sampling showed a divergence by factors of 2.4 and 2.0 (median values) for the petri dishes and the silicone-coated paper, respectively. With promising results for sensitivity and precision, the calibration of kinetic passive samplers remains the main challenge and will need suitable, non-hazardous PRCs. Equilibrium sampling indicated promising alternatives.
- What Is Your KVO? Historical Perspectives, Review of Evidence, and a Survey About an Often Overlooked Nursing Practice. [Journal Article]
- J Infus Nurs 2016 Jan-Feb; 39(1):32-7.
Like many nursing "sacred cows," the practice of keeping a vein open with a small infusion of intravenous solution does not have clear origins or robust evidence. A survey of Canadian nurses was conducted to determine current practices. More than 50% of respondents reported regularly using a keep-vein-open (KVO) rate between doses of intermittent medication. Frequently, the rate was not specified by the prescriber; in this case, nurses preferred 21 to 30 mL/h. Given the absence of evidence and the frequent use, it is important to ensure that KVO is used properly in the context of a medical prescription or an organizational protocol.
- An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Sci Total Environ 2016 Jan 15.:1463-76.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.
- Toxaphene in the aquatic environment of Greenland. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Environ Pollut 2015 May.:140-8.
The octa- and nonachlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) CHBs 26, 40, 41, 44, 50 and 62 were analysed in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), ringed seal (Pusa hispida) and black guillemot eggs (Cepphus grylle) from Greenland. Despite their high trophic level, ringed seals had the lowest concentrations of these species, with a Σ6Toxaphene median concentration of 13-20 ng/g lipid weight (lw), suggesting metabolisation. The congener composition also suggests transformation of nona- to octachlorinated congeners. Black guillemot eggs had the highest concentrations (Σ6Toxaphene median concentration of 971 ng/g lw). Although concentrations were higher in East than in West Greenland differences were smaller than for other persistent organic pollutants. In a circumpolar context, toxaphene had the highest concentrations in the Canadian Arctic. Time trend analyses showed significant decreases for black guillemot eggs and juvenile ringed seals, with annual rates of -5 to -7% for Σ6Toxaphene. The decreases were generally steepest for CHBs 40, 41 and 44.
- Novel brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in Greenland air and biota. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Environ Pollut 2015 Jan.:284-91.
Following the ban of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, other halogenated flame retardants (FRs) might be used increasingly. This study has analyzed hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and dechloraneplus (DP) in Greenland air over the course of a year. Moreover, BTBPE, DPTE, DP, 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were analyzed in samples of polar bear, ringed seal, black guillemot and glaucous gull from Greenland. HBCD in air appeared low, while mean concentrations of syn- and anti-DP were 2.3 and 5.2 pg/m(3), respectively. BTBPE and DPTE were undetectable in air. Detection frequencies in biota were <50% for BTBPE, TBPH and DBDPE, but near 100% for the remaining compounds. Ringed seals from East Greenland had highest mean concentrations of TBB, DPTE, syn- and anti-DP (1.02, 0.078, 0.096 and 0.42 ng/g wet weight, respectively). Our study documents the long-range transport and, to some extent, bioaccumulation of these novel FRs.
- A review of new and current-use contaminants in the Arctic environment: evidence of long-range transport and indications of bioaccumulation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Chemosphere 2014 Sep.:379-95.
Systematic monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic has been conducted for several years, in combination with assessments of POP levels in the Arctic, POP exposure and biological effects. Meanwhile, environmental research continues to detect new contaminants some of which could be potential new Arctic pollutants. This study summarizes the empirical evidence that is currently available of those compounds in the Arctic that are not commonly included in chemical monitoring programmes. The study has focused on novel flame retardants, e.g. alternatives to the banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), current-use pesticides and various other compounds, i.e. synthetic musk compounds, siloxanes, phthalic acid esters and halogenated compounds like hexachlorobutadiene, octachlorostyrene, pentachlorobenzene and polychlorinated naphthalenes. For a number of novel brominated flame retardants, e.g. 2,3-bibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and hexabromobenzene (HBBz), transport to the Arctic has been documented, but evidence of bioaccumulation is sparse and ambiguous. For short-chain chlorinated paraffins and dechlorane plus, however, increasing evidence shows both long-range transport and bioaccumulation. Ice cores have documented increasing concentrations of some current-use pesticides, e.g. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and trifluralin, and bioaccumulation has been observed for pentachloroanisole, chorpyrifos, endosulfan and metoxychlor, however, the question of biomagnification remains unanswered.
- New priority substances of the European Water Framework Directive: biocides, pesticides and brominated flame retardants in the aquatic environment of Denmark. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sci Total Environ 2014 Feb 1.:459-68.
The biocides cybutryn (Irgarol) and terbutryn, the herbicides aclonifen and bifenox, the insecticides cypermethrin and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are new priority substances of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union. In order to gain knowledge about their presence in the aquatic environment in an off-season situation with regard to pesticide and biocide applications, these substances were analysed in freshwater, seawater and fish samples from Denmark. Aclonifen, bifenox, cypermethrin and heptachlor were below the limits of detection (LODs) in all samples. However, the LODs for cypermethrin and heptachlor exceeded the annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQSs). Cybutryn, terbutryn, heptachlor epoxide and HBCD were detected in the majority of samples, with detection frequencies of 100% for heptachlor epoxide and HBCD in water and 90% in fish. No concentration was above maximum allowable concentration (MAC)-EQS values, but AA-EQS values were exceeded for all four compounds by several samples, including 100% of the water samples with regard to heptachlor epoxide. Methodological issues remain for cypermethrin, and to a certain extent for heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide, for which water LODs were above AA-EQSs although a water volume of 12L was combined with very sensitive high resolution mass spectrometry.
- Levels and trends of toxaphene and chlordane-related pesticides in peregrine falcon eggs from South Greenland. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Sci Total Environ 2014 Jan 15.:614-21.
Peregrine falcon eggs were collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 and analysed for 6 congeners of toxaphene and 5 chlordane-related pesticides (cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane). Oxychlordane had the highest median concentration of 1448 ng/g lipid weight (lw) or 79 ng/g wet weight (ww) of all compounds. Of the toxaphene congeners, CHB-50 was the predominant congener, with a median concentration of 215 ng/g lw (15.5 ng/g ww). Chlordane-related concentrations were comparable with results from the USA, but lower than those from Canada and Norway. Toxaphene was considerably higher than in eggs of Norwegian peregrine falcon eggs, possibly reflecting different toxaphene usage in the areas of peregrine falcon migration. Toxaphene information in birds of prey is limited and comparisons with other species indicate differences in concentrations and organochlorine pattern. Temporal trends showed significant log-linear decreases for cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane, but no significant trends for other chlordanes or the toxaphene congeners, probably affected by the large variation between eggs, also of the same bird. Correlations between chlordanes and toxaphene in the Greenland peregrine falcon eggs might suggest similar sources of exposure.
- Species-specific time trends and enantiomer fractions of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in biota from East Greenland. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Environ Sci Technol 2012 Oct 2; 46(19):10549-55.
Time trends of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers were studied for glaucous gull and ringed seal from East Greenland. The ringed seal results extended a previous time trend (1986-2008) to 2010. α-HBCD was the only isomer consistently above quantification limits. For glaucous gull liver, annual median values of α-HBCD (1994-2010) ranged from 22 to 120 ng/g lipid weight (lw) with no significant trend, while HBCD in ringed seal blubber from the same area showed a significant increase from 3.9 to 11 ng/g lw (1986-2010). Reasons for this difference are unknown, but might include different feeding habits and species-specific metabolisation processes. Concentrations of several organochlorine (OC) compounds were determined for glaucous gull and ringed seal samples collected from the same area in 2004. HBCD concentrations in glaucous gull liver appeared relatively low when compared to OC concentrations in the same tissue and to both HBCD and OCs in ringed seal blubber from the same area. Enantiomer fractions (EF) deviated significantly from racemic for all annual mean EFs in glaucous gull suggesting metabolisation processes toward an enrichment of (-)α-HBCD. For ringed seal, this enrichment was less pronounced and only significant for two of the ten years. For neither species, significant changes in EF were found over time.
- Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a one-off global survey of bivalves. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Environ Monit 2010 May; 12(5):1141-52.
During the Danish Galathea 3 expedition, bivalve samples were collected at the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Chile, US Virgin Islands, Boston, Newfoundland and Shetland Islands and analysed for organochlorines and PAHs. Concentration differences of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, with the highest concentrations at Boston harbour (SPCB 338 ng g(-1) dw, ΣSPAH 5966 ng g(-1) dw) and the Sydney estuary (ΣSPCB 282 ng g(-1) dw, SPAH 1453 ng g(-1) dw). Local impacts were also found for the Greenland capital Nuuk in terms of PCB and PAH levels, while other Greenland samples came closest to representing PAH background levels. Several locations had undetectable organochlorine levels, including Hobart and Chile, which had the lowest SPAH concentrations (<200 ng g(-1) dw). It was possible to group the stations according to their pyrogenic/petrogenic influence using Principal Component Analyses, and indications of petroleum sources were found at Nuuk.