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Ketotifen Ophthalmic [keywords]
- Ophthalmic antihistamines and H1-H4 receptors. [Journal Article, Review]
- Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2012 Oct; 12(5):510-6.
Antihistamines exert pharmacologic effects by binding to four histamine receptors (H1-H4) at different affinities, producing variable effects depending on the receptor they predominantly bind to. This review's purpose is to determine the relative potency of antihistamines by comparing their binding affinities to these receptors. Studies on binding affinities of antihistamines to histamine receptors were reviewed and the dissociation constant for inhibitor binding (Ki) analyzed to determine the most and least potent antihistamine for each receptor.We retrieved the binding affinities for nineteen antihistamines. For H1 receptors, pyrilamine exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 0.8 nM), and thioperamide the lowest (Ki = 280, 000 nM). For H2 receptors, ranitidine exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 187 nM), and olopatadine the lowest (Ki = 100 ,000 nM). For the recently discovered H3 and H4 receptors, thioperamide exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 1.1 nM), and olopatadine exhibited the lowest (Ki = 79 ,400 nM), to H3. Data on binding affinities to the H4 receptor exist for: ketotifen, pheniramine, ranitidine, cimetidine and thioperamide. Of these, thioperamide exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 27 nM), whereas cimetidine and ranitidine exhibited the lowest affinity (Ki = >10, 000 nM) for H4 receptors.This review summarizes the relative potency of antihistamines based on their binding affinities to the four histamine receptors. Although data on binding affinities of antihistamines to the H4 receptor are sparse, it is apparent that further research on these histamine subtypes may open new venues for more direct treatment with a higher therapeutic efficacy on allergic disorders including those affecting the ocular surface.
- Delivery of ketotifen fumarate by commercial contact lens materials. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Optom Vis Sci 2012 Aug; 89(8):1140-9.
To investigate the uptake and delivery of the anti-allergy drug ketotifen fumarate (KF) by commercially available contact lenses.A total of 14 different commercially available contact lenses were investigated, including five frequent-replacement silicone hydrogels, three conventional hydrogels, and six daily disposable lenses. Lenses were soaked in a 0.025% KF loading solution for 24 h, and the concentration of KF in solution over time was determined by ultraviolet absorbance at 297 nm. After the 24-h loading period, lenses were placed in fresh vials containing borate buffered saline, and the release of drug into solution at 34°C was monitored for 24 h.All the lenses studied demonstrated significant uptake and release of KF into the borate buffered saline (p < 0.05 compared with initial time point). Lenses with charged surfaces [balafilcon A, etafilcon A, and etafilcon A (daily disposable)] demonstrated the greatest uptake and release of KF. Etafilcon A released 284.5 ± 29.8 μg/lens, whereas balafilcon A released 227.6 ± 14.7 μg/lens, which was substantially more (p < 0.05) than the lowest releasing lenses [nelfilcon A (40.4 ± 4.1 μg/lens) and comfilcon A (110.4 ± 8.9 μg/lens)]. The majority of lenses were able to match or exceed the total amount of KF commonly administered to the eye using twice-daily dosing of commercially available (0.025%) eye drop formulations. Most of the lenses surveyed reached a plateau concentration of KF relatively quickly, and no lens was able to release KF for longer than 4 h.Commercially available lenses demonstrated the ability to release a clinically relevant amount of KF compared with conventional eye drops. The use of commercially available contact lenses as a KF delivery system in a daily wear scenario may be feasible.
- Neurogenic airway microvascular leakage induced by toluene inhalation in rats. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2012 Jun 15; 685(1-3):180-5.
Toluene is a representative airborne occupational and domestic pollutant that causes eye and respiratory tract irritation. We investigated whether a single inhalation of toluene elicits microvascular leakage in the rat airway. We also evaluated the effects of CP-99,994, a tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist, and ketotifen, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist with mast cell-stabilizing properties, on the airway response. The content of Evans blue dye that extravasated into the tissues was measured as an index of plasma leakage. Toluene (18-450 ppm, 10 min) concentration-dependently induced dye leakage into the trachea and main bronchi of anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats. Toluene at concentrations of ≥ 50 and ≥ 30 ppm caused significant responses in the trachea and main bronchi, respectively, which both peaked after exposure to 135 ppm toluene for 10 min. This response was abolished by CP-99,994 (5 mg/kg i.v.), but not by ketotifen (1mg/kg i.v.). Nebulized phosphoramidon (1 mM, 1 min), a neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, significantly enhanced the response induced by toluene (135 ppm, 10 min) compared with nebulized 0.9% saline (1 min). These results show that toluene can rapidly increase airway plasma leakage that is predominantly mediated by tachykinins endogenously released from airway sensory nerves. However, mast cell activation might not be important in this airway response.
- First and second generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists produce different sleep-inducing profiles in rats. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2012 May 15; 683(1-3):179-85.
First generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists, such as d-chlorpheniramine (d-CPA) and diphenhydramine, produce drowsiness in humans. They are currently used as over-the-counter sleep aids. However, the mechanisms underlying drowsiness induced by these H₁ histamine receptor antagonists remain obscure because they produce heterogeneous receptor-independent actions. Ketotifen is a second generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonist which is more permeable to the brain than newer H₁ histamine receptor antagonists. Therefore, to access sleep-inducing profiles by H₁ histamine receptor blocking actions, the present study compared the dose-dependent effects of diphenhydramine and ketotifen (1-40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection at dark onset time) on daily sleep-wake patterns in rats. Ketotifen dose-dependently decreased rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and increased non-REM sleep by amplifying slow-wave electroencephalogram powers. Diphenhydramine at 4 mg/kg transiently increased non-REM sleep and reduced REM sleep similar to the effects of ketotifen. The larger injections of diphenhydramine (10-40 mg/kg), however, reduced non-REM sleep, abolished slow-wave enhancements and facilitated wakefulness. The bi-directional action of diphenhydramine on sleep is similar to our former results using d-CPA. Taken together, the arousal effects caused by over-dose administrations of the first generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists may be mediated by H₁ histamine receptor-independent actions. To further examine the tolerance of ketotifen-induced sleep, 3 mg/kg ketotifen was injected daily for 5 days 3 h before light onset time. These experiments consistently enhanced non-REM-sleep at the end of the active phase of rats, suggesting that ketotifen may function as a desirable sleep aid although the coincidental REM sleep reduction requires attention.
- Sustained in vivo release from imprinted therapeutic contact lenses. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Control Release 2012 Feb 10; 157(3):391-7.
In this paper, we demonstrate the successful in vivo extended release of a small molecular weight therapeutic, ketotifen fumarate (MW=425), from molecularly imprinted, therapeutic contact lenses. This is the first time that a steady, effective concentration of drug is maintained in the tear film from a contact lens for an extended period of time for the entire duration of lens wear. Poly(HEMA-co-AA-co-AM-co-NVP-co-PEG200DMA) soft contact lenses were prepared (100±5 μm thickness, diameter 11.8 mm, power zero), and a constant tear film concentration of 170±30 μg/mL was measured for up to 26 hrs in a New Zealand white rabbit model. The results showed a dramatic increase in ketotifen mean residence time (MRT) and bioavailability compared to topical drop therapy and drug soaked lenses. The MRT for imprinted lenses was 12.47±3.99 hrs, ~4 and 50 fold greater than non-imprinted lenses and 0.035% eye drops (Zaditor®), respectively. Furthermore, AUC(0-26 hrs) was 9 and 94 fold greater for imprinted lenses than non-imprinted lenses and eye drops, respectively. The results indicate that molecular imprinting provides an exciting rational engineering strategy for sustained release. It is clear that imprinted lenses are very promising combination devices and are much more effective and efficient delivery devices than eye drops.
- Multiple endpoint analysis of BAC-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on a 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mol Vis 2011.:745-55.
To compare the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on the human 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model (3D-HCE).3D-HCE were treated for 24 h followed or not by a 24 h post-incubation recovery period (24 h+24 h) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.01% BAC, unpreserved formulations of ketotifen, N Acetyl-Aspartyl Glutamic Acid (NAAGA), cromoglycate, or BAC-preserved commercial formulations of ketotifen, olopatadine, epinastine, and levocabastine. The 3D-HCE viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) test at 24 h and 24 h+24 h. At 24 h, the numbers of Cluster of Differentiation 54 (CD54)- and Ki67-immunopositive cells as well as the number of apoptotic deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were evaluated on 3D-HCE frozen sections. The expression of the tight junction-associated protein occludin was also assessed using fluorescence confocal microscopy on flat-mounted 3D-HCE epithelia.The MTT and the TUNEL tests revealed a significant decrease of cell viability and an increased apoptosis in the superficial layers of the 3D-HCE only when treated with BAC-containing formulations and in a BAC concentration-dependent manner. The expression of CD54 and Ki67 in the basal layers was also increased in this group. A concentration-dependent disorganization of occludin distribution in the epithelium treated with BAC-containing solutions was also observed. The unpreserved formulations induced effects comparable to the control.BAC-preserved solutions decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they induced CD54 expression, proliferation in the basal layers, and changes in the distribution of occludin, which is consistent with a disorganization of the tight-junctions and suggests the loss of the epithelial barrier function. On the contrary, the unpreserved solutions did not impair cell structures and viability, suggesting a better tolerance for the ocular surface. As allergic patients often exhibit impaired and inflammatory ocular surface, BAC-free compounds should be the first choice when treating allergic conjunctivitis.
- A nuclear magnetic resonance approach to the comparison of mucoadhesive properties of polysaccharides for ophthalmic uses. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Pharm 2011 Mar 15; 406(1-2):78-83.
Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and larch arabinogalactan (AG), which are developed for ophthalmic applications, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Polysaccharide to mucin affinities were compared by using ketotifen fumarate as low molecular weight interaction probe. Proton selective relaxation rate measurements revealed enhanced affinity of TSP to mucin with respect to AG.
- Preserved and unpreserved 12 anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions and ocular surface toxicity: in vitro assessment in four cultured corneal and conjunctival epithelial cell lines. [Journal Article]
- Biocontrol Sci 2010 Dec; 15(4):143-8.
In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions in cultured corneal and conjunctival cells, namely SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells). The viability of cell cultures was determined following the exposure of cells to 12 commercially available anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions for varying exposure times and at various dilutions using the MTT and neutral red assays. The cell viability score (CVS) was used to compare the toxicity of different drugs. Based on CVS data, the order of cell viability after exposure to the drugs was Zepelin ≥ Tramelas PF ≥ Cumorol PF ≥ Ketotifen PF ≥ Eyevinal = Fumarton ≥ Cumorol > Intal ≥ Rizaben ≥ Tramelas ≥ Patanol Livostin. In conclusion, cell viability was mostly affected by the concentration of benzalkonium chloride rather than the active component and/or the anti-allergic action of the drug. The CVS was useful in comparing the toxicity of different drugs.
- In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ketotifen fumarate-loaded silicone hydrogel contact lenses for ocular drug delivery. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Drug Deliv 2011 Feb; 18(2):150-8.
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the usefulness of silicone hydrogel contact lenses loaded with ketotifen fumarate for ocular drug delivery. First, silicone contact lenses were prepared by photopolymerization of bitelechelic methacrylated polydimethylsiloxanes macromonomer, 3-methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane, and N,N-dimethylacrylamide using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and Darocur 1173 as an initiator followed by surface plasma treatment. Then, the silicone hydrogel matrices of the contact lenses were characterized by equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR), tensile tests, ion permeability, and surface contact angle. Finally, the contact lenses were loaded with ketotifen fumarate by pre-soaking in drug solution to evaluate drug loading capacity, in vitro and in vivo release behavior of the silicone contact lenses. The results showed that ESR and ion permeability increase, and the surface contact angle and tensile strength decreased with the increase of DMA component in the silicone hydrogel. The drug loading and in vitro releases were dependent on the hydrogel composition of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase of the contact lenses. In rabbit eyes, the pre-soaked contact lenses sustained ketotifen fumarate release for more than 24 h, which leads to a more stable drug concentration and a longer mean retention time in tear fluid than that of eye drops of 0.05%.
- Synergistic interaction between TS-polysaccharide and hyaluronic acid: implications in the formulation of eye drops. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Pharm 2010 Aug 16; 395(1-2):122-31.
An interaction between tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in aqueous solution has been ascertained. Various TSP/HA mixtures have been studied as the basis for the development of a potential excipient for eye drops synergistically improved over those of the separate polymers. Information about the nature of interpolymer interactions, and their dependence on TSP/HA ratios were obtained by NMR spectroscopy in solution. Superior mucin affinity of TSP/HA mixtures with respect to the single polysaccharides was assessed by NMR proton selective relaxation rate measurements. The mucoadhesivity of the TSP/HA (3/2) mixture, evaluated in vitro by NMR or viscometry, and in vivo by its mean and maximum residence time in rabbit precorneal area, is stronger than that of the component polysaccharides or the TSP/HA mixtures of different composition. TSP/HA (3/2) is little viscous and well tolerated by rabbit eyes. It stabilizes the tear film, thereby prolonging the residence of ketotifen fumarate and diclofenac sodium in tear fluid, but is unable to permeabilize the cornea. In conclusion, mucoadhesivity is responsible for the TSP/HA (3/2) synergistic enhancement of either extra- or intra-ocular drug bioavailability.