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Klinefelter Syndrome [keywords]
- Ambiguous genitalia in a 48, XXYY newborn: a casual relationship or a coincidence? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013 May 24.:1-3.
Abstract 48, XXYY is a very rare sex chromosome aneuploidy, characterized by both an extra X and Y chromosome with a prevalence of 1:18,000-1:40,000. Most patients are diagnosed prenatally by cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid, or during the first years of life because of severe developmental delay, cognitive impairment and behavioural disorders. This syndrome shares two findings with Klinefelter syndrome, namely tall stature and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism but at this time no genital anomalies have been reported in patients with this tetrasomy. We describe a 48, XXYY neonate and a clinical picture characterized by small penis, bifid scrotum, scrotal hypospadias and testes palpable in the labioscrotal folds.
- A qualitative exploration of mothers' and fathers' experiences of having a child with Klinefelter syndrome and the process of reaching this diagnosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Hum Genet 2013 May 22.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a common genetic condition that is currently under-diagnosed. The phenotype is broad, with physical, medical and psychosocial features ranging from mild to severe. When a child is diagnosed with KS, the parents may spend months to years searching for a diagnosis. This study used a qualitative methods approach to explore parents' experiences of having a child with KS and receiving a diagnosis. Fifteen semistructured one-to-one in-depth interviews were conducted to explore their experiences and views. The interviews were then transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. The interviews revealed that parents had diverse experiences related to: the timing of the diagnosis of their child and reasons why their child was investigated for KS; the information that was provided at the time of diagnosis; the supports that were available and the concerns that parents held for the future of their child. The conclusions from this study were that parents' experiences of having a child with KS and receiving a diagnosis were complex and multifaceted. This experience was shaped by the timing of when the diagnosis was received, who provided the diagnosis, what information was provided from health-care professionals and that which parents may have encountered on the internet. The long-term experiences for parents were also impacted by the level of support they received. These findings have implications for the process by which KS is recognised by the health-care community and supports available for families.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.102.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in paediatric psychoneuroendocrinology: a new frontier for understanding the impact of hormones on emotion and cognition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroendocrinol 2013 May 9.
Mounting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research is characterising the neurobiological trajectories of healthy human brain development. In parallel, studies increasingly acknowledge the relevance of perturbations of these trajectories for adolescent and adult psychopathology. While an influence of steroid hormones on mood and anxiety disorders has been demonstrated in adults, very little is known how steroid hormones alter human brain development and contribute to adolescent psychopathology. This review will focus on recent evidence from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/fMRI) in children and adolescents with genetic endocrine disorders with characteristic fluctuations in androgen or estrogen levels (Familial Male Precocious Puberty, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Klinefelter Syndrome, and Turner Syndrome). It aims to highlight how neurobiological findings from these paediatric endocrine disorders can provide insight into the contribution of sex steroids to the development of neurocircuitry involved in affective processing (amygdala, hippocampus) and cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, striatum). In addition, findings from these populations may also provide important information on aberrant psychological processes relevant for the clinical care and management of these populations. Finally, the findings are discussed within the context of current frameworks in animal models such as the organisational-activational hypothesis or the aromatisation hypothesis. The review ends with a discussion of open questions for future enquiry with the goal to integrate translational models with current knowledge of endocrine disorders and developmental studies in healthy populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Cognitive and medical features of chromosomal aneuploidy. [Journal Article]
- Handb Clin Neurol 2013.:273-9.
This chapter describes the physical characteristics, medical complications, and cognitive and psychological profiles that are associated with chromosomal aneuploidy conditions, a group of conditions in which individuals are born with one or more additional chromosome. Overall, chromosomal aneuploidy conditions occur in approximately 1 in 250 children. Information regarding autosomal disorders including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), and trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) are presented. Sex chromosome aneuploidy conditions such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), XYY, trisomy X, and Turner syndrome (45,X), in addition to less frequently occurring tetrasomy and pentasomy conditions are also covered. Treatment recommendations and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.
- Klinefelter syndrome diagnosed by prenatal screening tests in high-risk groups. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Urol 2013 Apr; 54(4):263-5.
Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal disorder present in 1 out of 400 to 1,000 male newborns in Western populations. Two-thirds of affected newborns show a karyotype of 47,XXY. Few studies have examined the incidence of Klinefelter syndrome in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Klinefelter syndrome by use of prenatal screening tests.From January 2001 to December 2010, 18,049 pregnant women who had undergone a chromosomal study for fetal anomalies were included. For fetuses that were diagnosed as having Klinefelter syndrome, the patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Both parents' ages, the reason for the chromosomal studies, and karyotypes were investigated.We found that 22 of 18,049 (0.12%) fetuses were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. The incidence of this disorder in male fetuses was 22 of 9,387 (0.23%). Also, 19 of the newborns (86.4%) showed a karyotype of 47,XXY; the other newborns showed karyotypes of 48,XXY,+21; 48,XXY,+12/46,XY; and 47,XXY/45,X/46,XY. The mean age of the mothers was 36.1 years, and 2 women had a past history of a Down syndrome pregnancy. Nine mothers had a normal spontaneous delivery, 9 mothers underwent artificial abortion, and 2 fetuses were spontaneously aborted.The incidence of Klinefelter syndrome as reported in this study is higher than in previous studies. Further studies with a broader population should be considered to confirm these results.
- Spontaneous pelvic rupture as a result of renal colic in a patient with klinefelter syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Urol 2013.:374973.
We present the case of a young man with Klinefelter syndrome, who was admitted to our clinic with renal colic. Shortly after admittance, spontaneous decrease in pain has occurred. Ultrasound and intravenous contrast computed tomography were performed, which showed the evidence of urine extravasation at the level of left renal pelvis and a 4 mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter. The management with a double-J ureteric stent for three weeks was successful. Then, the stent was removed and computed tomography confirmed the absence of urine extravasation. We also analyze the literature related to this case and discuss the main mechanisms of collecting system rupture.
- A time stamp comparative analysis of frequent chromosomal abnormalities in Romanian patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Jun 5.
Abstract Chromosome abnormalities represent the leading cause in many human genetic disorders. Gain or loss of genetic material can disrupt the normal expression of genes important in fetal development and result in abnormal phenotypes. Approximately 60% of first-trimester spontaneous abortions exhibit karyotype abnormalities. The majority of these abnormalities consist of numerical chromosomal changes, such as autosomal trisomy, monosomy X and polyploidy. In our current study, 411 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years, which reflected the incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in Romania. Down syndrome showed the highest frequency at 79%. At 2.6% structural chromosome abnormality syndromes and Turner syndrome followed suit. Next were the Edwards and Patau syndromes with an incidence of 1.2%. Klinefelter, Cri du chat and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes all had an incidence of 0.7%. Finally, the lowest frequencies were shown by Williams at 0.4% and only one case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with abnormal karyotype. The average maternal age at childbirth was 31.15 years (SD = 6.96) and the average paternal age was 33.41 years (SD = 7.17).
- Sertoli cell only syndrome: Status of sertoli cell maturation and function. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2):S512-3.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Mature and functional Sertoli cells are essential for the survival of germ cells in testes. In Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS), there is no germ cells. Then, question arises whether absence of germ cells in SCOS secondary to Sertoli cells immaturity or mal function. Sertoli cells maturational and functional status is unclear in SCOS. This study investigated status of maturation and function of Sertoli cells in patients with SCOS.The present study was comprised of 37 cases of SCOS and 50 normal control males. Detailed clinical examination and investigation were carried out as per pre-determined proforma. Semen analysis, hormonal analysis (FSH, LH, testosterone, etc.), and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of testes (bilateral) were performed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with XY probes was carried out in addition to conventional chromosome analysis to find out chromosomal abnormalities, in particular sex chromosome aneuploidy, including mosaicism. Yq microdeletion status was also investigated. The anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and seminal lactate were estimated by ELISA methods.The study did not find any case of high AMH. About 78% cases had low inhibin B, and 60% had low AMH. FSH was high in about 78% cases. Low level of lactate was found in 49% cases. There was one case of high level of inhibin B. There were 6 (16.2%) cases of chromosomal abnormality (2 mosaic Klinefelter and 4 Klinefelter syndrome) and 4 (10.8%) cases of Yq microdeletion.We conclude that Sertoli cell immaturity does not play any role in SCOS (no case of high AMH). It seems, in majority cases, Sertoli cells are functionally- and/or numerically-deficient (low inhibin B, AMH and lactate). However, in about 22% cases, Sertoli cell function and/or number remains normal (normal inhibin B, AMH). Inhibin B and FSH seems best predictor/marker of Sertoli cell function.
- The prepubertal testis: biomarkers and functions. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2013 Jun; 20(3):224-33.
Biomarkers of prepubertal testicular function have become widely available only in recent years. The aim of this review is to update the knowledge on key biomarkers used to assess hypogonadism in boys.Sertoli cells are the most representative cells of the prepubertal testis. Anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B are essential biomarkers of Sertoli cell function. Also, INSL3 arises as an additional marker of Leydig cell dysfunction.The widespread use of these biomarkers has enhanced our knowledge on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of prepubertal male hypogonadism. Beyond their well known germ-cell toxicity, oncologic treatments may also affect Sertoli cell function. Pathophysiology is not the same in all aneuploidies leading to infertility: while hypogonadism is not evident until mid-puberty in Klinefelter syndrome, it is established in early infancy in Down syndrome. In Noonan syndrome, the occurrence of primary hypogonadism depends on the existence of cryptorchidism, and Prader-Willi syndrome may present with either primary or combined forms of hypogonadism. Prepubertal testicular markers have also provided insights into the effects of environmental disruptors on gonadal function from early life, and helped dissipate concerns about testicular function in boys born preterm or small for gestational age or conceived by assisted reproductive technique procedures.
- The feasibility of fertility preservation in adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Hum Reprod 2013 Jun; 28(6):1468-79.
Is fertility preservation feasible after the onset of puberty in adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fertility preservation counseling should be an integral part of the care of XXY adolescents. Frozen ejaculated or testicular spermatozoa and even frozen immature germ cells can give them the potential to conceive their genetic progeny. However, no biological or clinical parameters were predictive of mature or immature germ cell retrieval. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: KS is the commonest sex chromosome disorder observed in azoospermic infertile males. Testicular sperm extraction success decreases with age and after testosterone therapy. Arguably, spermatozoa should be retrieved from KS males at the onset of puberty and before testosterone therapy to increase the chance of success. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective study was performed in eight KS adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, who were referred for counseling about their future fertility to the center CECOS (Centre d'Etude et de Conservation des Oeufs et du Sperme humain) at Rouen University Hospital between October 2008 and December 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The patients were first seen with their parents and then separately. It was proposed to them that they should provide a semen sample, if this was azoospermic, two other semen samples spaced by 3 months were collected. If azoospermia was confirmed, a bilateral testicular biopsy was proposed for sperm retrieval and testicular tissue preservation. Each adolescent met the psychologist before undergoing testicular biopsy. Paraffin-embedded testicular tissue was evaluated after staining with hematoxylin-eosin and saffron and immunostaining using vimentin, anti-Müllerian hormone, androgen receptor and MAGE-A4 antibodies. Sertoli cell maturity, germ cell identification and lamina propria alteration were assessed on seminiferous tubules. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: KS adolescents were not deeply concerned about their future fertility and only became involved in the process of fertility preservation after at least three medical consultations. The parents agreed immediately that fertility preservation should be attempted. Seven non-mosaic XXY adolescents presented with azoospermia and one XXY/XY adolescent had oligozoospermia. Increased plasma levels of FSH and LH as well as bilateral testicular hypotrophy were observed in all patients. The XXY/XY adolescent banked four semen samples before testosterone replacement therapy. Two patients refused testicular biopsy. Five patients accepted a bilateral testicular biopsy. Spermatozoa were retrieved in one patient, elongated spermatids and spermatocytes I in a second patient. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients enrolled in our study was low because the diagnosis of KS is only rarely made before or at the onset of puberty. Most XXY males are diagnosed in adulthood within the context of male infertility. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Spermatozoa can be retrieved in semen sample and in testicular tissue of adolescent Klinefelter patients. Furthermore, the testis may also harbor spermatogonia and incompletely differentiated germ cells. However, the physician should discuss with the patient and his parents over a period of several months before collecting a semen sample and performing bilateral testicular biopsy. Fertility preservation might best be proposed to adolescent Klinefelter patients just after the onset of puberty when it is possible to collect a semen sample and when the patient is able to consider alternative options to achieve fatherhood and also to accept the failure of spermatozoa or immature germ cell retrieval. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by Rouen University Hospital and grant from the University of Rouen dedicated to the research team 'Gametogenesis and gamete quality'. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.Not applicable.