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- Effects of pneumonia and malnutrition on the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood of pediatric patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Clin Exp Med 2013; 6(10):942-950.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bacterial pneumonia and malnutrition on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood of pediatric patients through flow cytometric analysis. The study was an analytical case-control study carried out on 35 malnourished children with bacterial pneumonia and 20 well-nourished children with bacterial pneumonia, in addition to 20 healthy children as controls. Complete physical examination including; anthropometric measurement, Chest roentgenograms were done for all cases. Assessment of MN was done by FACSCalibur flow cytometry. The frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs) was higher both in the malnourished children with pneumonia and well-nourished children with pneumonia than the controls. Within the malnourished children with pneumonia, patients with kwashiorkor had more micronucleated mature erythrocytes (MN-RBCs) and MN-RETs than patients with marasmus. In conclusion: Pneumonia is associated with an increased frequency of MN and this increment is more pronounced in children with severe malnutrition especially kwashiorkor group.
- Decreased metabolism of 13C-caffeine via hepatic CYP1A2 in marasmus and kwashiorkor based on breath test. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2013 Oct 11.:1-9.
Abstract Background: Hepatic metabolism of drugs has been rarely studied in children with malnutrition. Caffeine breath test (CBT) has been used to determine the activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzymes in children. We used the CBT to assess how marasmus and kwashiorkor differentially affect 13C-caffeine metabolism. Methods: A total of 45 children composed of 15 children per group of malnutrition (marasmus, marasmic-kwashiorkor, and kwashiorkor) were studied during malnutrition and after nutritional recovery. After an overnight fast, patients ingested 3 mg/kg 13C-caffeine at 0900 h. Duplicate breath samples were collected into an Exetainer bottle at -20, -10, and -1 min and at 15-min intervals for 2 h. The mean cumulative percent dose recovered (CPDR) of 13C-caffeine in the expired 13CO2 was determined over the study period. Results: The CPDR in the expired 13CO2 in 2 h significantly increased after nutritional recovery in children with marasmus (from 6.80%±3.00% to 7.67%±2.81%; Student's t-test, p=0.001), marasmic-kwashiorkor (from 6.61%±2.26% to 7.56%±2.46%, p=0.041), and kwashiorkor (from 6.29%±1.06% to 7.20%±1.80%, p=0.002). When the three groups of malnutrition were compared, there was no significant difference in their mean CPDR in 2 h during malnutrition [p=0.820, analysis of variance (ANOVA)] and after nutritional recovery (p=0.810, ANOVA). Conclusions: Hepatic metabolism of caffeine significantly decreased in children with marasmus, marasmic-kwashiorkor, and kwashiorkor compared to after they had recovered nutritionally. This suggests a decreased CYP1A2 activity in all categories of malnutrition.
- Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli in the human gut microbiota may predict weight gain associated with vancomycin treatment. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Diabetes 2013.:e87.
Background:Antibiotics, used for 60 years to promote weight gain in animals, have been linked to obesity in adults and in children when administered during early infancy. Lactobacillus reuteri has been linked to obesity and weight gain in children affected with Kwashiorkor using ready-to-use therapeutic food. In contrast, Escherichia coli has been linked with the absence of obesity. Both of these bacteria are resistant to vancomycin.Objectives and methods:We assessed vancomycin-associated weight and gut microbiota changes, and tested whether bacterial species previously linked with body mass index (BMI) predict weight gain at 1 year. All endocarditis patients treated with vancomycin or amoxicillin in our center were included from January 2008 to December 2010. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Lactobacillus and Methanobrevibacter smithii were quantified using real-time PCR on samples obtained during the 4-6 weeks antibiotic regimen. L. reuteri, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis and E. coli were quantified on stool samples obtained during the first week of antibiotics.
Results:Of the193 patients included in the study, 102 were treated with vancomycin and 91 with amoxicillin. Vancomycin was associated with a 10% BMI increase (odds ratio (OR) 14.1; 95% confidence interval (CI; 1.03-194); P=0.047) and acquired obesity (4/41 versus 0/56, P=0.01). In patients treated with vancomycin, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus increased, whereas M. smithii decreased (P<0.05). The absence of E. coli was an independent predictor of weight gain (OR=10.7; 95% CI (1.4-82.0); P=0.02). Strikingly, a patient with an 18% BMI increase showed a dramatic increase of L. reuteri but no increase of E. coli.
Conclusion:The acquired obesity observed in patients treated with vancomycin may be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota rather than a direct antibiotic effect. L. reuteri, which is resistant to vancomycin and produces broad bacteriocins, may have an instrumental role in this effect.
- Hematologic and Bone Marrow Changes in Children with Protein-Energy Malnutrition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2013 Aug 29.
Background: All systems in an organism are affected by protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), but one of the worst affected is the hematopoietic system. Today PEM remains a very serious problem in developing countries. We examined the relationships between clinical features, hematological, and bone marrow changes with severe PEM from Turkey. Method: We evaluated 34 (11 females and 23 males) consecutive cases of severe PEM, with no underlying diseases aged 3-20 months. The clinical nutritional conditions of the patients were determined using the Wellcome-Trust PEM classification. Ten of the patients were in the Marasmic-Kwashiorkor (M-K) group, 10 were in the Kwashiorkor (KW) group, and 14 were in the Marasmic (M) group. Full blood count, protein, albumin, serum iron (SI), iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, complement-3 (C3), complement-4 (C4), and bone marrow were investigated in all groups. Results: Anemia was detected in 97% of patients. We determined serum iron levels were low in 67.6% of the patients, TS levels were low in 76.4% of the patients and ferritin levels were low in 20.5%. The level of vitamin B12 was normal in all patients. Bone marrow analysis showed erythroid series hypoplasia in 28.5% of patients in the M group, 50% in the KW group, and 30% in the M-K group. Marrow iron was absent in 58.8% of patients. Conclusion: The most common hematologic change in the children with PEM was anemia and major cause of anemia was iron deficiency in this study. Patients with severe PEM have normal Vit B12 and serum folate levels. Most of the patients with severe PEM had normal cellularity with megaloblastic and dysplastic changes in bone marrow due to the inadequate and imbalanced intake of protein and energy.
- Acute effects of rotavirus and malnutrition on intestinal barrier function in neonatal piglets. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 Aug 21; 19(31):5094-102.
To investigate the effect of protein-energy malnutrition on intestinal barrier function during rotavirus enteritis in a piglet model.Newborn piglets were allotted at day 4 of age to the following treatments: (1) full-strength formula (FSF)/noninfected; (2) FSF/rotavirus infected; (3) half-strength formula (HSF)/noninfected; or (4) HSF/rotavirus infected. After one day of adjustment to the feeding rates, pigs were infected with rotavirus and acute effects on growth and diarrhea were monitored for 3 d and jejunal samples were collected for Ussing-chamber analyses.Piglets that were malnourished or infected had lower body weights on days 2 and 3 post-infection (P < 0.05). Three days post-infection, marked diarrhea and weight loss were accompanied by sharp reductions in villus height (59%) and lactase activity (91%) and increased crypt depth (21%) in infected compared with non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). Malnutrition also increased crypt depth (21%) compared to full-fed piglets. Villus:crypt ratio was reduced (67%) with viral infection. There was a trend for reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance with rotavirus infection and malnutrition (P = 0.1). (3)H-mannitol flux was significantly increased (50%; P < 0.001) in rotavirus-infected piglets compared to non-infected piglets, but there was no effect of nutritional status. Furthermore, rotavirus infection reduced localization of the tight junction protein, occludin, in the cell membrane and increased localization in the cytosol.Overall, malnutrition had no additive effects to rotavirus infection on intestinal barrier function at day 3 post-infection in a neonatal piglet model.
- Nutritional disorders in tropical neurology. [Journal Article]
- Handb Clin Neurol 2013.:381-404.
About three-fourths of the total world population live in the tropics but consume only 6% of worldwide food production and contribute 15% of the world's net revenue explaining the short life expectancy, high infantile mortality, and poor daily caloric intake; moreover, lack of clean drinking water and deficient sanitation promote water-borne infections, diarrhea, and risk of malabsorption that contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition in the tropics. One-third of the world's population consumes insufficient iodine increasing the risk for mental retardation and deafness due to maternal hypothyroidism. The main nutritional syndromes comprise protein-energy malnutrition (marasmus and kwashiorkor); nutritional neuropathies, myelopathies and neuromyelopathies, as well as specific deficiencies of vitamins and micronutrients including iodine, iron, zinc, and selenium.
- Improvised peritoneal dialysis in an 18-month-old child with severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor) and acute kidney injury: a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Med Case Rep 2013; 7(1):168.
Severe acute malnutrition is common in developing countries. Children with severe acute malnutrition are prone to complications, including electrolyte imbalance and infections. Our patient was an 18-month-old boy who had severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor) and developed acute kidney injury, which was managed with peritoneal dialysis using improvised equipment. This case report illustrates the importance of improvisation in resource-limited settings in providing lifesaving treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on peritoneal dialysis in a child with severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor).We report a case of an 18-month-old Bantu-African Tanzanian boy who had severe malnutrition and developed anuric acute kidney injury. He had severe renal dysfunction and was managed with peritoneal dialysis using an improvised catheter and bedside constituted fluids (from intravenous fluids) and was diuretic after 7 days of peritoneal dialysis, with complete recovery of renal functions after 2 weeks.Children with severe acute malnutrition who develop acute kidney injury should be offered peritoneal dialysis, which may be provided using improvised equipment in resource-limited settings, as illustrated in this case report.
- Misdiagnosed food allergy resulting in severe malnutrition in an infant. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Pediatrics 2013 Jul; 132(1):e229-32.
As food allergies become increasingly prevalent and testing methods to identify "food allergy" increase in number, the importance of careful diagnosis has become even more critical. Misdiagnosis of food allergy and inappropriate use of unproven testing modalities may lead to a harmful food-elimination diet. This case is an example of an infant who was placed on an overly restrictive elimination diet at the recommendation of her health care providers, resulting in kwashiorkor and acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica.
- Iatrogenic kwashiorkor developing after bypass surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Dermatol 2013 May 10.
- Kwashiorkor and the gut microbiota. [Journal Article]
- N Engl J Med 2013 May 2; 368(18):1746-7.