Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Laboratory tests AND Anemia, normocytic [keywords]
- Red blood cell morphology. [Journal Article]
- Int J Lab Hematol 2013 Jun; 35(3):351-7.
The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis.
- Extramedullary plasmacytoma imitating neoplasm of the gallbladder fossa after cholecystectomy. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Coll Antropol 2012 Mar; 36(1):331-3.
Extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that arise outside of the bone marrow. They account for approximately 3% of plasma cell neoplasms and are most frequently located in the head and neck region. Five months after undergoing cholecystectomy, a 69-year-old patient presented with the pain under the right costal margin and a 12 kg weight loss. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated irregular, vascular mass in the gallbladder fossa that dents towards the duodenum and the pylorus and lowers caudally to the hepatic flexure. His laboratory tests indicated normocytic anemia and showed elevated sedimentation rate. During operative procedure, a tumorous mass in the gallbladder fossa was found, inseparable of the peritoneum of the hepatoduodenal ligament and the IVb liver segment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining determined the diagnosis of the plasmacytoma. Total resection of the tumor was achieved and after 24-month follow-up patient showed no signs of local recurrence or dissemination of the disease.
- [A case of hereditary pyropoikilocytosis with mild expression and delayed onset]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2012 Jul-Aug; 70(4):483-8.
We report on a case of hereditary pyropoïkilocytosis fortuitously diagnosed in a 34-year old woman issued from Benin. Laboratory tests indicated a moderate haemolytic anaemia with a marked microcytosis. Blood film examination revealed a striking anisopoikilocytosis characterized by elliptocytes, numerous red blood cells (RBC) fragments and microspherocytes. The histogram of RBC volume distribution showed two populations of RBC: a normocytic and a very microcytic population, this later corresponding to the RBC fragmentation. These features strongly suggested a membrane disorder, particularly an hereditary pyropoïkilocytosis (HPP). The thermal unstability of the cytoskeleton was demonstrated by enhanced red cell fragmentation after in vitro exposure to heat which occurs at a lower temperature as compared to normal red cells. The diagnosis of HPP was confirmed by specialized investigations (osmotic gradient ektacytometry and erythrocytic membrane proteins electrophoresis). HPP is considered as a severe form of hereditary elliptocytosis characterized by jaundice and a severe haemolytic anaemia which usually appears during the neonatal period and the childhood. Our report is intriguing because of the delayed diagnosis of HPP in a patient who presented moderate clinical manifestations.
- [A case of POEMS syndrome associated with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and treated with lenalidomide]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2012; 52(3):186-9.
This report deals with a 46-year-old male with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), who developed POEMS syndrome four years after diagnosis. The patient was diagnosed with WM, based on the presence of IgM-κ type monoclonal (M) protein and infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells identified in bone marrow aspirates. Four years later, the patient presented with progressive weakness and paresthesia of the limb extremities, and he was admitted to our hospital. Physical and neurological examination on admission revealed polyneuropathy, hepatosplenomegaly, hypothyroidism, IgM-κ M protein, leg edema, and cutaneous hyperpigmentation. He fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for POEMS syndrome. Laboratory tests showed normocytic normochromic anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and increased levels of soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-6 and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). He was started on lenalidomide. After therapy, the leg edema and limb dysesthesia improved, and the VEGF level decreased from 608 pg/ml to 380 pg/ml. This is a very rare case of POEMS syndrome associated with WM, and is the first case treated with lenalidomide in Japan. VEGF presumably producted WM may be associated with development of POEMS syndrome.
- Characteristics of anemia in elderly: a hospital based study in South India. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2011 Mar; 27(1):26-32.
Anemia is a common concern in older people and can have significant morbidity and mortality. Because anemia is a sign, not a diagnosis, an evaluation is almost always warranted to identify the underlying cause. The purpose of this study was to study the clinical profile of elderly patients with anemia and to study characteristics of hematological types of anemia in such patients as well as the closest possible etiological profile. Hundred patients above the age of 60 years were included in the study. Clinical profile with laboratory studies of Hemoglobin and diagnostic tests to fix the etiology. Majority of patients had normocytic blood picture. Renal failure was the most common underlying chronic disease. Significant number of patients were on non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which could contribute to the anaemia. 14% of the patients had an underlying malignancy. 73.3% of the patients in the microcytic group had an underlying GI lesion on endoscopy. Identifying anemia as an important aspect of a comprehensive geriatric assessment is absolutely essential further to clinical detection. Confirming the type of anemia is critical to direct the investigation for profiling the etiology since it is well known that the treatment of anemia goes a long way in improving the overall outcome and quality of life.
- Pancreatic cancer in an 18-year-old boy. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Afr Health Sci 2011 Sep; 11(3):449-53.
We report a case of histopathologically proven pancreatic cancer in an 18-year-old boy. Complete blood picture revealed moderate normochromic normocytic anaemia with anisocytosis. Other laboratory results including liver function tests, renal functions tests, serum amylase, fasting blood sugar level and serum electrolytes were all of normal values. Abdominal US showed a focal mass of the pancreatic body and tail with involvement of the spleen and the transverse colon. Laparotomy confirmed the sonographic findings and demonstrated adhesions of the transverse colon to the mass at the splenic hilum. Histology of the mass showed a well differentiated adenocarcinona of the body and tail of the pancreas. This highlights the differentiation of pancreatic cancer from autoimmune pancreatitis and, to a lesser extent, other forms of pancreatitis and benign pancreatic lesions.
- [Jaundice and pancreatic mass: typical clinical presentation of a rare disease]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2012 Jan; 137(3):74-7.
History and admission findings: An 81-year-old man presented with jaundice and a pancreatic tumor. 6 years ago transperitoneal nephrectomy had been performed because of a clear cell renal cancer (pT3b pN0 pM0).Investigations: Laboratory tests showed normocytic anemia and signs of cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a well-defined mass of the head of the pancreas with a diameter of about 4 cm, and a previously diagnosed adrenal mass which had slightly increased in size. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound demonstrated a hyperenhancing of the pancreatic mass, untypical for primary adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration disclosed a metastasis of the previously resected renal cancer.Treatment and course: Bilary spincterotomy and stent insertion were performed. Because of proven pancreatic metastasis and suspected adrenal metastasis of renal cancer palliative treatment with multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib was initiated.
Conclusion:Renal cell carcinomas are the most common primary tumors leading to pancreatic metastasis. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma pancreatic metastasis shows hyperenhancement when examined by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration helps to confirm the suspected diagnosis.
- Syncope in cardiac amyloidosis and chronic ischemic heart disease: A case report. [Journal Article]
- Exp Clin Cardiol 2011; 16(2):51-3.
Primary systemic amyloidosis is a relatively uncommon disease characterized by the production and deposition of pathological insoluble fibrillar proteins in organs and tissues. It has been estimated that between one-third and one-half of all patients with primary amyloidosis experience clinically significant cardiac involvement. The present study reports a case involving a 77-year-old woman with ischemic heart disease who presented to the cardiology department because of syncope due to slow atrial fibrillation. Laboratory tests revealed a monoclonal spike in the gamma fraction and impairment of renal function, normocytic anemia, mild hypercalcemia, hypoalbuminemia and increased levels of beta-2 microglobulin. Suspicion of cardiac involvement was supported by the echocardiographic pattern and increased levels of troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, along with clinical signs of heart failure and systemic amyloidosis diagnosis, confirmed by abdominal fat aspiration.
- Seroprevalence and risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Dias D'Avila, State of Bahia, Brazil. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2010 Jul-Aug; 43(4):400-4.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in relation to public health systems. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir. This study aimed to investigate occurrences of canine VL in Dias D'Avila, State of Bahia, Brazil.The prevalence was evaluated by means of clinical and laboratory tests on a population of 312 domestic dogs from 23 localities in this municipality, using indirect immunofluorescence and immunoenzymatic assays.Among the animals examined, 3.2% and 6.7% showed signs of VL, confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoenzymatic assays, respectively, with a distribution of 29.9% (24 dogs) in the rural zone and 4.9% (288 dogs) in the urban zone (p = 0.001). The clinical evaluation on seropositive dogs showed both asymptomatic animals (2.4%) and symptomatic animals (47.6%), along with other abnormalities (e.g. normocytic and normochromic anemia, with leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia). Observations relating to phenotypic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, breed and hair) did not present statistical significance, although high seropositivity among male, short-haired and mixed-breed dogs was observed.The findings showed that VL was a predominantly rural zoonosis and that close contact between poultry and domestic dogs significantly increased the risk of canine infection in this region.
- Evaluation of anemia in children. [Journal Article, Review]
- Am Fam Physician 2010 Jun 15; 81(12):1462-71.
Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level of less than the 5th percentile for age. Causes vary by age. Most children with anemia are asymptomatic, and the condition is detected on screening laboratory evaluation. Screening is recommended only for high-risk children. Anemia is classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic, based on the mean corpuscular volume. Mild microcytic anemia may be treated presumptively with oral iron therapy in children six to 36 months of age who have risk factors for iron deficiency anemia. If the anemia is severe or is unresponsive to iron therapy, the patient should be evaluated for gastrointestinal blood loss. Other tests used in the evaluation of microcytic anemia include serum iron studies, lead levels, and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Normocytic anemia may be caused by chronic disease, hemolysis, or bone marrow disorders. Workup of normocytic anemia is based on bone marrow function as determined by the reticulocyte count. If the reticulocyte count is elevated, the patient should be evaluated for blood loss or hemolysis. A low reticulocyte count suggests aplasia or a bone marrow disorder. Common tests used in the evaluation of macrocytic anemias include vitamin B12 and folate levels, and thyroid function testing. A peripheral smear can provide additional information in patients with anemia of any morphology.