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- Factors associated with hospitalization of patients with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2013 May; 34(3):267-73.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I)-induced angioedema can be life-threatening without emergent intervention. The putative mediator is believed to be bradykinin, similar to hereditary angioedema, so these patients respond poorly to corticosteroids and antihistamines. This study was designed to determine characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) with ACE-I angioedema. This was a retrospective chart review of 100 patients presenting to the ED from 2007 to 2008 with an ICD-9 code of 995.1 (angioedema) or 995.2 (drug-induced angioedema). Two hundred fifty-two patients with these ICD-9 codes were identified and placed in random order, and the first 100 meeting inclusion criteria were included. Statistical analysis was primarily descriptive. All 100 patients had an ICD-9 code of 995.1 (angioedema). Patients presented in every month, with spring months (April-June) having the most presentations (32%). The median age was 59 years, 75% were African American, and 66% were admitted to the hospital. Two patients (2%) required endotracheal intubation. Lisinopril was the most commonly prescribed ACE-I (84%). The most common symptom was moderate lip and tongue swelling (89%) followed by mild difficulty breathing (12%). Tongue swelling was significantly associated with admission. Time from symptom onset to ED presentation was not associated with need for admission. Concomitant medications did not differ between admitted and discharged patients. ACE-I angioedema is associated with significant morbidity and health care use because many patients require hospitalization, suggesting an unmet need for novel therapies targeted to treat this condition.
- Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species on in vitro Filtration of Water and Albumin across Glomerular Basement Membrane. [Journal Article]
- Int J Biomed Sci 2006 Jun; 2(2):121-34.
Most of the interest in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) stems from the observation that it undergoes morphological changes in renal disease. Studies on persistent proteinuria in experimental animal models have shown that the permeability properties of the GBM have been altered as a result of protein degradation and cross-linking of type IV collagen via its NC1 domains promoted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and extrusion of tubular cell contents. We used the in vitro ultrafiltration technique to assess permeability properties of bare isolated GBM films to water and albumin in the Munich Wistar Fromter rat model of glomerular injury. Hydraulic permeability for water and albumin solutions and albumin fractional clearances were measured for rats treated with lisinopril [an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor] and were compared with those measured for rats treated with dimethylthiouria (an ROS scavenger) and their control groups, at four pressure levels (50, 100, 200, and 300 mmHg). The ACE inhibitors and ROS scavengers treatment regimens for studied rats in addition to significantly lowering their systolic blood pressure and urinary protein excretion values to normal levels, have significantly increased their in vitro hydraulic and Darcy permeability, which is a measure of the intrinsic hydraulic conductance of the GBM, either in the absence or presence of albumin; in comparison with control animals. We believe that these favorable effects may derive from ROS scavenging beneficial effects that preserve the GBM protein structure by reducing entactin and laminin degradation and type IV collagen cross-linking.
- Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Molecular Docking Studies of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme with Inhibitor Lisinopril and Amyloid Beta Peptide. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Protein J 2013 May 10.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cleaves amyloid beta peptide. So far this cleavage mechanism has not been studied in detail at atomic level. Keeping this view in mind, we performed molecular dynamics simulation of crystal structure complex of testis truncated version of ACE (tACE) and its inhibitor lisinopril along with Zn(2+) to understand the dynamic behavior of active site residues of tACE. Root mean square deviation results revealed the stability of tACE throughout simulation. The residues Ala 354, Glu 376, Asp 377, Glu 384, His 513, Tyr 520 and Tyr 523 of tACE stabilized lisinopril by hydrogen bonding interactions. Using this information in subsequent part of study, molecular docking of tACE crystal structure with Aβ-peptide has been made to investigate the interactions of Aβ-peptide with enzyme tACE. The residues Asp 7 and Ser 8 of Aβ-peptide were found in close contact with Glu 384 of tACE along with Zn(2+). This study has demonstrated that the residue Glu 384 of tACE might play key role in the degradation of Aβ-peptide by cleaving peptide bond between Asp 7 and Ser 8 residues. Molecular basis generated by this attempt could provide valuable information towards designing of new therapies to control Aβ concentration in Alzheimer's patient.
- Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments for Episodic Migraine in Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gen Intern Med 2013 Apr 17.
OBJECTIVES:Systematic review of preventive pharmacologic treatments for community-dwelling adults with episodic migraine.
DATA SOURCES:Electronic databases through May 20, 2012. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: English-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive drugs compared to placebo or active treatments examining rates of ≥50 % reduction in monthly migraine frequency or improvement in quality of life. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS
METHODS:We assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence and conducted random effects meta-analyses of absolute risk differences and Bayesian network meta-analysis.
RESULTS:Of 5,244 retrieved references, 215 publications of RCTs provided mostly low-strength evidence because of the risk of bias and imprecision. RCTs examined 59 drugs from 14 drug classes. All approved drugs, including topiramate (9 RCTs), divalproex (3 RCTs), timolol (3 RCTs), and propranolol (4 RCTs); off-label beta blockers metoprolol (4 RCTs), atenolol (1 RCT), nadolol (1 RCT), and acebutolol (1 RCT); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors captopril (1 RCT) and lisinopril (1 RCT); and angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan (1 RCT), outperformed placebo in reducing monthly migraine frequency by ≥50 % in 200-400 patients per 1,000 treated. Adverse effects leading to treatment discontinuation (68 RCTs) were greater with topiramate, off-label antiepileptics, and antidepressants than with placebo. Limited direct evidence as well as frequentist and exploratory network Bayesian meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences in benefits between approved drugs. Off-label angiotensin-inhibiting drugs and beta-blockers were most effective and tolerable for episodic migraine prevention.
LIMITATIONS:We did not quantify reporting bias or contact principal investigators regarding unpublished trials.
CONCLUSIONS:Approved drugs prevented episodic migraine frequency by ≥50 % with no statistically significant difference between them. Exploratory network meta-analysis suggested that off-label angiotensin-inhibiting drugs and beta-blockers had favorable benefit-to-harm ratios. Evidence is lacking for long-term effects of drug treatments (i.e., trials of more than 3 months duration), especially for quality of life.
- REFRACTORY HENOCH-SCHÖNLEIN PURPURA: ATYPICAL AETIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ren Care 2013 Apr 2.
BACKGROUND:A 27-year-old white male was referred with recently diagnosed refractory Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). He had a past medical history of hypertension of four years duration and was prescribed lisinopril. He was switched from a brand to a generic lisinopril two days before the onset of first symptoms. On two occasions symptoms had worsened while trying to switch back to the generic drug. He had 9 g/day protein in his urine with haematuria and serum creatinine was up to 123.76 µmol/l (normal value < 106 µmol/l). TREATMENT: The patient underwent two renal biopsies; the first was carried out early after having HSP symptoms and the second was performed a month later. The first biopsy showed mild segmental endocapillary hypercellularity with IgA deposits consistent with HSPN. The second biopsy showed proliferative IgA nephropathy with focal active cellular crescent formation in 38% of the glomeruli.
RESULTS:He did not respond to steroids, cyclophosphamide and plamapheresis. However, his renal and extra-renal manifestations eventually improved after he had received three doses of 1,000 mg rituximab by infusion, two weeks apart.
CONCLUSION:Rituximab might be efficacious in treatment of hspn, more studies are needed to assess long-term safetey and efficacy.
- Effects of add-on nebivolol on blood pressure and glucose parameters in hypertensive patients with prediabetes. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2013 Apr; 15(4):270-8.
In this multicenter trial, the effects of nebivolol added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) were assessed in patients with hypertension (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] 80-110 mm Hg) and prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL and/or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] 140-199 mg/dL). After a 4-week run-in period (in which lisinopril [10 mg/d] or losartan [50 mg/d] treatment was initiated), patients with DBP 90-110 mm Hg were randomized (2:2:1) to 12-week, double-blind treatment with nebivolol (n=223; 5-40 mg/d), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; n=212; 12.5-25 mg/d), or placebo (n=102), titrated to achievement of 130/80 mm Hg. The primary outcome measure was DBP (last observation carried forward, intent to treat population); secondary measures included systolic blood pressure (SBP) and glucose levels. At baseline, overall mean values for body mass index, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 32.3 kg/m(2) , 1.7 mmol/L, and 1.3 mmol/L, respectively. At week 12, nebivolol and placebo groups demonstrated a decrease of -9.4 and -5.0 mm Hg, respectively (P<.001) for DBP and -10.4 and -7.8 mm Hg for SBP (P=.147). The mean changes in area under the curve OGTT were 0.0 mg/dL (nebivolol), 6.9 mg/dL (HCTZ; P=.024 vs nebivolol), and -1.0 mg/dL (placebo). Adverse event-related discontinuation rates were 10.3%, 6.6%, and 2.0%, respectively. Nebivolol, added to an ACE inhibitor or ARB, provides additional blood pressure reduction with little or no effect on glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients with prediabetes.
- Visual hallucinations related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use: case reports and review. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2013 Apr; 15(4):230-3.
Four patients experienced visual hallucinations that appear to have been precipitated by lisinopril. Other cases of visual hallucinations have been reported with other angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Older patients, particularly those with a history of either dementia or mild cognitive impairment, may be at higher risk. Hallucinations resolved within 1 to 30 days after cessation of ACE inhibitors. Development of visual hallucinations after initiation of ACE inhibitors should prompt discontinuation of therapy. Visual hallucinations have been reported in one case involving an ARB. Visual hallucinations have not been associated with direct renin inhibitors. Consideration should be given to use of alternative, unrelated antihypertensive drug classes.
- ECG of the month. Irregular rhythm in a 25-year-old man with three prior cardiac operations. Coarse atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response, left anterior fascicular block, left ventricular hypertrophy with repolarization abnormality. [Journal Article]
- J La State Med Soc 2013 Jan-Feb; 165(1):40-1.
The patient underwent closure of an atrial septal defect at age 3, had a leaking "mitral" valve repaired at age 9, and at age 13 had a "mitral" valve replacement. He began taking warfarin sodium at that time and remained symptom-free until 10 days before his initial visit here when he presented to another hospital with dyspnea and palpitations. Treatment there consisted of lisinopril 10 mg qd, carvedilol 6.25 mg bid, aldactone 25 mg qd, furosemide 40 mg qd, digoxin 0.25 mg qd, and a continuation of warfarin sodium 7.5 mg qd. An echocardiogram showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%. After diuresis, he was referred to our cardiology clinic. On his initial visit here, his heart rate was an irregular 120 beats/min, his blood pressure was 106/77 mmHg, and closing and opening snaps of a normally functioning mechanical mitral valvular prosthesis were heard. He was obese (height, 5' 9"; weight, 272 lbs). An electrocardiogram was recorded (Figure 1).
- [Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme lisinopril on the state of vascular bed in premenopausal women with arterial hypertension]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Kardiologiia 2013; 53(2):38-42.
We assessed effect of lisinopril on structural-functional state of vascular bed in 82 premenopausal women with hypoestrogenia and arterial hypertension (AH). Test with postocclusion reactive hyperemia showed that at the background of significant lowering of endothelial vasomotor function before treatment 47.5% of women had inertial type of vasomotor reaction. This evidenced for considerable role of dyshormonal states in progression of AH first of all at the account of increase of vascular stiffness and development of endothelial dysfunction. Lisinopril improved structural-functional state of vascular wall of common carotid arteries, affected positively dysfunction of endothelium, lowered stiffness of arterial vascular wall.
- Mortality and morbidity during and after antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial: results by sex. [Journal Article]
- Hypertension 2013 May; 61(5):977-86.
To determine whether an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) or calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) is superior to a diuretic (chlorthalidone) in reducing cardiovascular disease incidence in sex subgroups, we carried out a prespecified subgroup analysis of 15 638 women and 17 719 men in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Total follow-up (active treatment + passive surveillance using national administrative databases to ascertain deaths and hospitalizations) was 8 to 13 years. The primary outcome was fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, stroke, combined cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, angina, coronary revascularization, heart failure [HF], or peripheral vascular disease), and end-stage renal disease. In-trial rates of HF, stroke, and combined cardiovascular disease were significantly higher for lisinopril compared with chlorthalidone, and rates of HF were significantly higher for amlodipine compared with chlorthalidone in both men and women. There were no significant treatment sex interactions. These findings did not persist through the extension period with the exception of the HF result for amlodipine versus chlorthalidone, which did not differ significantly by sex. For both women and men, rates were not lower in the amlodipine or lisinopril groups than in the chlorthalidone group for either the primary coronary heart disease outcome or any other cardiovascular disease outcome, and chlorthalidone-based treatment resulted in the lowest risk of HF. Neither lisinopril nor amlodipine is superior to chlorthalidone for initial treatment of hypertension in either women or men. Clinical Trial Registration- clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00000542.