(MS Contin) articles in PubMed
- Trajectory of Post-operative Wound Pain within the First Two Weeks following Posterior Spinal Fusion Surgery in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. [Journal Article]
- Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2016 Sep 23S
- CONCLUSIONS: With an adequate post-operation pain regime, significant pain should subside to a tolerable level by post-operative day 4 and negligible by post-operative day 7. Patient usually can be discharged on post-operative day 4 when the usage of PCA morphine was not required.
- Modeling the Effects of Morphine on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Dynamics. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Comput Biol 2016; 12(9):e1005127PC
- Complications of HIV-1 infection in individuals who utilize drugs of abuse is a significant problem, because these drugs have been associated with higher virus replication and accelerated disease pro...
Complications of HIV-1 infection in individuals who utilize drugs of abuse is a significant problem, because these drugs have been associated with higher virus replication and accelerated disease progression as well as severe neuropathogenesis. To gain further insight it is important to quantify the effects of drugs of abuse on HIV-1 infection dynamics. Here, we develop a mathematical model that incorporates experimentally observed effects of morphine on inducing HIV-1 co-receptor expression. For comparison we also considered viral dynamic models with cytolytic or noncytolytic effector cell responses. Based on the small sample size Akaike information criterion, these models were inferior to the new model based on changes in co-receptor expression. The model with morphine affecting co-receptor expression agrees well with the experimental data from simian immunodeficiency virus infections in morphine-addicted macaques. Our results show that morphine promotes a target cell subpopulation switch from a lower level of susceptibility to a state that is about 2-orders of magnitude higher in susceptibility to SIV infection. As a result, the proportion of target cells with higher susceptibility remains extremely high in morphine conditioning. Such a morphine-induced population switch not only has adverse effects on the replication rate, but also results in a higher steady state viral load and larger CD4 count drops. Moreover, morphine conditioning may pose extra obstacles to controlling viral load during antiretroviral therapy, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and post infection treatments. This study provides, for the first time, a viral dynamics model, viral dynamics parameters, and related analytical and simulation results for SIV dynamics under drugs of abuse.
- Pharmacokinetics of heroin and its metabolites in vitreous humor and blood in a living pig model. [Journal Article]
- Forensic Toxicol 2016; 34(2):277-285FT
- Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. Th...
Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure heroin and metabolite concentrations in blood and VH after injection of heroin in a living pig model. Six pigs were under non-opioid anesthesia during the surgical operation and experiment. Ocular microdialysis was used to acquire dialysate from VH, and a venous catheter was used for blood sampling. Twenty milligrams of heroin was injected intravenously with subsequent sampling of blood and dialysate for 6 h. The samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Heroin was not detected in VH; 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine were first detected in VH after 60 min. The morphine concentration in VH thereafter increased throughout the experimental period. For 6-MAM, C max was reached after 230 min in VH. In blood, 6-MAM reached C max after 0.5 min, with a subsequent biphasic elimination phase. The blood and VH 6-MAM concentrations reached equilibrium after 2 h. In blood, morphine reached C max after 4.3 min, with a subsequent slower elimination than 6-MAM. The blood and VH morphine concentrations were in equilibrium about 6 h after injection of heroin. In conclusion, both 6-MAM and morphine showed slow transport into VH; detection of 6-MAM in VH did not necessarily reflect a recent intake of heroin. Because postmortem changes are expected to be small in VH, these experimental results could assist the interpretation of heroin deaths.
- Role of Autophagy in HIV Pathogenesis and Drug Abuse. [Review]
- Mol Neurobiol 2016 Sep 22MN
- Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorga...
Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorganisms has made it an important cellular defense mechanism in a variety of clinical situations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy is extensively involved in the pathology of HIV-1. To ensure survival of the virus, HIV-1 viral proteins modulate and utilize the autophagy pathway so that biosynthesis of the virus is maximized. At the same time, the abuse of illicit drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, morphine, and alcohol is thought to be a significant risk factor for the acquirement and progression of HIV-1. During drug-induced toxicity, autophagic activity has been proved to be altered in various cell types. Here, we review the current literature on the interaction between autophagy, HIV-1, and drug abuse and discuss the complex role of autophagy during HIV-1 pathogenesis in co-exposure to illicit drugs.
- NALOXONE BLOCKS THE AVERSIVE EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE PARABRACHIAL COMPLEX IN A PLACE DISCRIMINATION TASK. [Journal Article]
- Neurobiol Learn Mem 2016 Sep 19NL
- The parabrachial complex is known to participate in various rewarding and aversive processes, including those related to the learning of taste or place discrimination and the motivational effects of ...
The parabrachial complex is known to participate in various rewarding and aversive processes, including those related to the learning of taste or place discrimination and the motivational effects of drugs of abuse, such as morphine. This study shows that electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial (LPBe) subnucleus induces consistent place avoidance or place preference in three-compartment rectangular mazes. Administration of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, blocks both motivational effects induced by the intracranial electrical stimulation. Subsequent re-administration of the electrical stimulation was found to recover its aversive but not its rewarding effects after vehicle administration. These results are discussed in relation to different natural and artificial agents involved in the induction of avoidance and preference motivational processes, especially with regard to the opioid system.
- The narrative review on morphine in acute coronary syndrome: Recognizing opioidergic cardioprotection-reply. [Letter]
- Am Heart J 2016; 180:e7-8AH
- The narrative review on morphine in acute coronary syndrome: Recognizing opioidergic cardioprotection. [Letter]
- Am Heart J 2016; 180:e5-6AH
- Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). [Journal Article]
- J Genet 2016; 95(3):705-17JG
- The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NB...
The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis were also higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhance the yield potential.
- Postoperative analgesic effect, of preoperatively administered dexamethasone, after operative fixation of fractured neck of femur: randomised, double blinded controlled study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Anesthesiol 2016; 16(1):79BA
- CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of intravenous dexamethasone 0.1 mg kg (-1) administered before operative fixation of fractured neck of femur improve significantly the early postoperative analgesia.
New Search Next
- Morphine addiction in ants: a new model for self-administration and neurochemical analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Exp Biol 2016 Sep 15; 219(Pt 18):2865-2869JE
- Conventional definitions of drug addiction are focused on characterizing the neurophysiological and behavioral responses of mammals. Although mammalian models have been invaluable in studying specifi...
Conventional definitions of drug addiction are focused on characterizing the neurophysiological and behavioral responses of mammals. Although mammalian models have been invaluable in studying specific and complex aspects of addiction, invertebrate systems have proven advantageous in investigating how drugs of abuse corrupt the most basic motivational and neurochemical systems. It has recently been shown that invertebrates and mammals have remarkable similarities in their behavioral and neurochemical responses to drugs of abuse. However, until now only mammals have demonstrated drug seeking and self-administration without the concurrent presence of a natural reward, e.g. sucrose. Using a sucrose-fading paradigm, followed by a two-dish choice test, we establish ants as an invertebrate model of opioid addiction. The ant species Camponotus floridanus actively seeks and self-administers morphine even in the absence of caloric value or additional natural reward. Using HPLC equipped with electrochemical detection, the neurochemicals serotonin, octopamine and dopamine were identified and subsequently quantified, establishing the concurrent neurochemical response to the opioid morphine within the invertebrate brain. With this study, we demonstrate dopamine to be governing opioid addiction in the brains of ants. Thus, this study establishes ants as the first non-mammalian model of self-administration that is truly analogous to mammals.