Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Marchiafava Micheli syndrome [keywords]
- Recurrent and progressive abdominal pain and enteritis in a Japanese patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Hematol 2014.:310750.
This case report describes a young male patient with recurrent abdominal pain persisting for more than 16 months. Clinical investigations showed signs of inflammation and pancytopenia. A diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was made 9 months after the onset of the abdominal pain, following endoscopic examinations that revealed evidence of a previously unknown hemorrhage. Regular monitoring indicated that the abdominal pain was associated with elevations in lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive proteins, and D-dimer levels. The patient started treatment with the complement inhibitor eculizumab shortly after it was approved for use in Japanese PNH patients with hemolysis. Resolution of the abdominal pain and normalization of clinical parameters were noted within 3 weeks from treatment initiation.
- Severe Aplastic Anemia Manifesting After Complete Remission of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Is it a Fortuitous Association? [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Mar; 30(1):64-7.
Acute leukemia, secondary myelodysplasia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria evolving from severe aplastic anemia (AA) following immunosuppressive therapy are well recognized. However, severe AA occurring after complete remission of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been documented only once in 2009. We report a case of 30-year-old male diagnosed with APL who achieved complete cytogenetic remission with all-trans retinoic acid based induction regimen and developed severe AA few months later during maintenance therapy.
- Genetic variants in C5 and poor response to eculizumab. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- N Engl J Med 2014 Feb 13; 370(7):632-9.
Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets complement protein C5 and inhibits terminal complement-mediated hemolysis associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The molecular basis for the poor response to eculizumab in a small population of Japanese patients is unclear.We assessed the sequences of the gene encoding C5 in patients with PNH who had either a good or poor response to eculizumab. We also evaluated the functional properties of C5 as it was encoded in these patients.Of 345 Japanese patients with PNH who received eculizumab, 11 patients had a poor response. All 11 had a single missense C5 heterozygous mutation, c.2654G → A, which predicts the polymorphism p.Arg885His. The prevalence of this mutation among the patients with PNH (3.2%) was similar to that among healthy Japanese persons (3.5%). This polymorphism was also identified in a Han Chinese population. A patient in Argentina of Asian ancestry who had a poor response had a very similar mutation, c.2653C → T, which predicts p.Arg885Cys. Nonmutant and mutant C5 both caused hemolysis in vitro, but only nonmutant C5 bound to and was blocked by eculizumab. In vitro hemolysis due to nonmutant and mutant C5 was completely blocked with the use of N19-8, a monoclonal antibody that binds to a different site on C5 than does eculizumab.The functional capacity of C5 variants with mutations at Arg885, together with their failure to undergo blockade by eculizumab, account for the poor response to this agent in patients who carry these mutations. (Funded by Alexion Pharmaceuticals and the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan.).
- Peptide inhibitors of C3 activation as a novel strategy of complement inhibition for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood 2014 Feb 4.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis due to the lack of CD55 and CD59 on affected erythrocytes. The anti-C5 antibody eculizumab has proven clinically effective, but uncontrolled C3 activation due to CD55 absence may result in opsonization of erythrocytes, possibly leading to clinically meaningful extravascular hemolysis. We investigated the effect of the peptidic C3 inhibitor compstatin Cp40 and its long-acting form (PEG-Cp40) on hemolysis and opsonization of PNH erythrocytes in an established in vitro system. Both compounds demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hemolysis with IC50 ~ 4 µM and full inhibition at 6 µM. Protective levels of either Cp40 or PEG-Cp40 also efficiently prevented deposition of C3 fragments on PNH erythrocytes. We further explored the potential of both inhibitors for systemic administration and performed pharmacokinetic evaluation in non-human primates. A single intraveneous injection of PEG-Cp40 resulted in a prolonged elimination half-life of >5 days but may potentially affect the plasma levels of C3. Despite faster elimination kinetics, saturating inhibitor concentration could be reached with unmodified Cp40 through repetitive subcutaneous administration. In conclusion, peptide inhibitors of C3 activation effectively prevent hemolysis and C3 opsonization of PNH erythrocytes and are excellent, and potentially cost-effective, candidates for further clinical investigation.
- Increasing FcγRIIa affinity of an FcγRIII-optimized anti-EGFR antibody restores neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- MAbs 2014 Mar 1; 6(2):409-21.
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been suggested as an essential mechanism for the in vivo activity of cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting therapeutic antibody. Thus, enhancing the affinity of human IgG1 antibodies to natural killer (NK) cell-expressed FcγRIIIa by glyco- or protein-engineering of their Fc portion has been demonstrated to improve NK cell-mediated ADCC and to represent a promising strategy to improve antibody therapy. However, human polymorphonuclear (PMN) effector cells express the highly homologous FcγRIIIb isoform, which is described to be ineffective in triggering ADCC. Here, non-fucosylated or protein-engineered anti-EGFR antibodies with optimized FcγRIIIa affinities demonstrated the expected benefit in NK cell-mediated ADCC, but did not mediate ADCC by PMN, which could be restored by FcγRIIIb blockade. Furthermore, eosinophils and PMN from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients that expressed no or low levels of FcγRIIIb mediated effective ADCC with FcγRIII-optimized anti-EGFR antibody. Additional experiments with double FcγRIIa/FcγRIII-optimized constructs demonstrated enhanced PMN-mediated ADCC compared with single FcγRIII-optimized antibody. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that FcγRIIIb engagement impairs PMN-mediated ADCC activity of FcγRIII-optimized anti-EGFR antibodies, while further optimization of FcγRIIa binding significantly restores PMN recruitment.
- [Current therapeutic strategy for hemolytic anemia: paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria]. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Ketsueki 2014 Jan; 55(1):22-8.
- Baseline characteristics and disease burden in patients in the international paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria registry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Haematologica 2014 Jan 31.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare, acquired disease associated with hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, thrombosis, and, frequently, poor quality of life. The International PNH Registry is a worldwide, observational, noninterventional study collecting safety, effectiveness, and quality-of-life data from patients with a confirmed paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria diagnosis or detectable paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone, irrespective of treatment. In addition to evaluating the long-term safety and effectiveness of eculizumab in a global population, the registry aims to improve diagnosis, optimize patient management and outcomes, and enhance the understanding of the natural history of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Here we report the characteristics of the first 1610 patients enrolled. Median disease duration was 4.6 years. Median granulocyte paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone size was 68.1% (range, 0.01%-100%). Overall, 16% of patients had a history of thrombotic events and 14% a history of impaired renal function. Therapies included anticoagulation (31%), immunosuppression (19%), and eculizumab (25%). Frequently reported symptoms included fatigue (80%), dyspnea (64%), hemoglobinuria (62%), abdominal pain (44%), and chest pain (33%). Patients suffered from poor quality of life; 23% of patients had been hospitalized due to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-related complications and 17% stated that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was the reason they were not working or were working less. This international registry will provide an ongoing, valuable resource to further the clinical understanding of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01374360.
- The presence of CD55- and/or CD59-deficient erythrocytic populations in patients with rheumatic diseases reflects an immune-mediated bone-marrow derived phenomenon. [Journal Article]
- Med Sci Monit 2014.:123-39.
Complement has the potential to provoke severe impairment to host tissues, as shown in autoimmune diseases where complement activation has been associated with diminished CD55 and/or CD59 expression on peripheral blood cell membranes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of CD55- and/or CD59-deficient erythrocytic populations in patients with different rheumatic diseases and to investigate possible correlations with clinical or laboratory parameters.CD55 and CD59 expression was evaluated in erythrocytes of 113 patients with rheumatic diseases, 121 normal individuals, and 10 patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) using the Sephacryl gel microtyping system. Ham and sucrose tests were also performed.Interestingly, the majority of patients (104/113, 92%) demonstrated CD55- and/or CD59-deficient erythrocytes: 47 (41.6%) with concomitant deficiency of CD55 and CD59, 50 (44.2%) with isolated deficiency of CD55, and 6 (6.2%) with isolated deficiency of CD59. In normal individuals, only 2 (1%) had concomitant CD55/CD59 negativity and 3 (2%) had isolated CD55 or CD59 deficiency. All PNH patients exhibited simultaneous CD55/CD59 deficiency. Positive Ham and sucrose tests were found only in PNH patients. There was no association between the CD55- and/or CD59-deficient erythrocytes and hemocytopenias or undergoing treatment. However, CD55 expression significantly influenced hemoglobin values (F=6.092, p=0.015).This study provides evidence supporting the presence of erythrocytes with CD55 and/or CD59 deficiency in patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, CD55 deficiency on red cells influences hemoglobin concentration. Further studies using molecular techniques will clarify the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of this deficiency.
- Diffuse renal parenchyma uptake with bone scintigraphy in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and normal kidney function. [Journal Article]
- Clin Nucl Med 2014 Mar; 39(3):274-6.
A 41-year-old woman with a Harrington spondylodesis presented with lower back pain. Bone scintigraphy showed diffusely increased parenchymal uptake in both kidneys. She reported 2 previous periods of dark, almost black, urine. Additional flow cytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The increased renal parenchyma uptake is very probably due to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-related renal hemosiderosis. Remarkably, the patient did not develop any abnormality of renal function.