(Marchiafava Micheli syndrome) articles in PubMed
- Extravascular hemolysis and complement consumption in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria patients undergoing eculizumab treatment. [Journal Article]
- Immunobiology 2016 Sep 13I
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hemolytic anemia characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis that is effectively treated with eculizumab. However, treatment ...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hemolytic anemia characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis that is effectively treated with eculizumab. However, treatment responses are reported heterogeneous with some patients presenting residual hemolysis and requiring RBC transfusions. Recent reports have shown that both extravascular hemolysis and incomplete C5 blockade can explain these suboptimal hematological responses. Here we have tested our eculizumab-treated PNH patients (n=12) for signs of hemolysis and assessed complement biomarkers. Patients were also genotyped for complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and C5 polymorphisms and evaluated for free eculizumab in plasma. We report that 10 patients (83%) present parameters suggesting persistent hemolysis, although they did not require additional transfusions. Seven of them (58%) become direct Coombs-test positive as a consequence of treatment, including all patients carrying the low-expression CR1-L allele. CH50 and sC5b-9 assays demonstrate that the persistent low-level hemolysis identified in our treated patients is not a consequence of incomplete C5 blockade, supporting that this hemolysis, as has been suggested previously, results from the extravascular removal of C3 opsonized PNH erythrocytes. We also show that continuous alternative pathway activation in eculizumab-treated individuals carrying the CR1-L allele results in abnormally decreased levels of C3 in plasma that could, potentially, increase their susceptibility to bacterial infections. Finally, we encourage a routine evaluation of free eculizumab levels and terminal pathway activity to personalize eculizumab administration.
- PASylated Coversin, a C5-Specific Complement Inhibitor with Extended Pharmacokinetics, Shows Enhanced Anti-Hemolytic Activity in Vitro. [Journal Article]
- Bioconjug Chem 2016 Sep 26BC
- The Ornithodoros moubata Complement Inhibitor (OmCI) binds complement component 5 (C5) with high affinity and, thus, selectively prevents proteolytic activation of the terminal lytic complement pathw...
The Ornithodoros moubata Complement Inhibitor (OmCI) binds complement component 5 (C5) with high affinity and, thus, selectively prevents proteolytic activation of the terminal lytic complement pathway. A recombinant version of OmCI (also known as Coversin and rEV576) has proven efficacious in several animal models of complement-mediated diseases and successfully completed a phase Ia clinical trial. Coversin is a small 17 kDa lipocalin protein which has a very short plasma half-life if not bound to C5; therefore, the drug requires frequent dosing. We have improved the pharmacokinetics of Coversin by N-terminal translational conjugation with a 600 residue polypeptide composed of Pro, Ala, and Ser (PAS) residues. To this end, PAS-Coversin as well as the unmodified Coversin were functionally expressed in the cytoplasm of E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Both versions showed identical affinity to human C5, as determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements, and revealed similar complement inhibitory activity, as measured in ELISAs with human serum. In line with the PEG-like biophysical properties, PASylation dramatically prolonged the plasma half-life of uncomplexed Coversin by a factor ≥50 in mice. In a clinically relevant in vitro model of the complement-mediated disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) both versions of Coversin effectively reduced erythrocyte lysis. Unexpectedly, while the IC50 values were comparable, PAS-Coversin reached a substantially lower plateau of residual lysis at saturating inhibitor concentrations. Taken together, our data demonstrate two clinically relevant improvements of PASylated Coversin: markedly increased plasma half-life and considerably reduced background hemolysis of erythrocytes with PNH-induced phenotype.
- "Diagnostic screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: Prospective multicentric evaluation of the current medical indications". [Journal Article]
- Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2016 Sep 6CB
- CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results demonstrate that the current medical indications for PNH screening by FCM are highly efficient, although improved screening algorithms are needed for patients presenting with thrombosis and normal blood cell counts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Pesg PNH diagnosis, follow-up and treatment guidelines. [Review]
- Am J Blood Res 2016; 6(2):19-27AJ
- PNH Education and Study Group (PESG) have been established in December 2013 as a non-profit, independent, medical organization www.pesg.org. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a multi-syste...
PNH Education and Study Group (PESG) have been established in December 2013 as a non-profit, independent, medical organization www.pesg.org. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a multi-systemic disease that should be treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Patients may apply to the clinics other than the hematology due to variability and diversity of clinical findings which lower the rate of diagnosis due to low awareness about PNH. PNH might be overlooked and diagnosis might be delayed. Regarding these, PESG was established with the collaboration of Immunology, Cardiology, Thorax Diseases (Pulmonology), Neurology, Gastroenterology, General Surgery and Urology specialists in addition to hematologists dealing with PNH. The PESG study group aims to increase the awareness about PNH, including training activities about PNH, strengthening the relations between clinics and planning of clinical studies as a goal. It is the first professional organization focusing on PNH, in Turkey.In this guideline, we want to facilitate the diagnosis attributes of physicians from all specializations that deal with PNH and its systemic complications. One can perceive this as a tailor made guideline of international guidelines but not a compilation.
- Eculizumab in the management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: patient selection and special considerations. [Review]
- Ther Clin Risk Manag 2016; 12:1161-70TC
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a nonmalignant clonal disorder resulting from somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene leading to a deficiency of the membrane-anchoring molecule glycosylphosph...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a nonmalignant clonal disorder resulting from somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene leading to a deficiency of the membrane-anchoring molecule glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The lack of expression of two glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins involved in the regulation of the complement system renders PNH erythrocytes susceptible to complement-mediated lysis. Clinical manifestations include thromboembolic disease, chronic kidney injury, pulmonary hypertension, smooth muscle dysfunction, and chronic hemolysis. Until recently, treatment was mainly supportive with most patients suffering from significant morbidity and shortened survival compared to age-matched controls. The development of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the terminal complement protein C5, has resulted in dramatic improvements of survival and reduction in complications. In this paper, we review some special considerations pertaining to the use of eculizumab for PNH.
- Successful treatment of aplastic anemia-paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria associated with eosinophilic fasciitis with matched unrelated donor allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Clin Case Rep 2016; 4(8):765-7CC
- We report the first patient case of successful treatment intervention for both eosinophilic fasciitis and aplastic anemia with allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from a matched unr...
We report the first patient case of successful treatment intervention for both eosinophilic fasciitis and aplastic anemia with allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from a matched unrelated donor after multiple immunosuppressant failure.
- Stratification of responders towards eculizumab using a structural epitope mapping strategy. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016; 6:31365SR
- The complement component 5 (C5)-binding antibody eculizumab is used to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). As recently report...
The complement component 5 (C5)-binding antibody eculizumab is used to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). As recently reported there is a need for a precise classification of eculizumab responsive patients to allow for a safe and cost-effective treatment. To allow for such stratification, knowledge of the precise binding site of the drug on its target is crucial. Using a structural epitope mapping strategy based on bacterial surface display, flow cytometric sorting and validation via haemolytic activity testing, we identified six residues essential for binding of eculizumab to C5. This epitope co-localizes with the contact area recently identified by crystallography and includes positions in C5 mutated in non-responders. The identified epitope also includes residue W917, which is unique for human C5 and explains the observed lack of cross-reactivity for eculizumab with other primates. We could demonstrate that Ornithodorus moubata complement inhibitor (OmCI), in contrast to eculizumab, maintained anti-haemolytic function for mutations in any of the six epitope residues, thus representing a possible alternative treatment for patients non-responsive to eculizumab. The method for stratification of patients described here allows for precision medicine and should be applicable to several other diseases and therapeutics.
- [THE METHODICAL APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSTIC OF NIGHT PAROXYSMAL HEMOGLOBINURIA]. [Review]
- Klin Lab Diagn 2016; 61(3):151-4, 167-8KL
- The article presents diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is an orphan disease characterized by absence of GPI-anchor on blood cells as a result of mutat...
The article presents diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is an orphan disease characterized by absence of GPI-anchor on blood cells as a result of mutation of PIG-A gene on the short arm of X-chromosome. The particular proteins bounded with GPI-anchor implement function of defense from activation of components of complement and development of membrane-attacking complex. The erythrocytes exposed to destruction in bloodstream are among the most impacted. Therefore, one of the main signs of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is complement-depending intravascular hemolysis which indicators for a long time played a key role in diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The actual technique of diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is flow cytometry. The analysis of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone is recommended to patients with hemolysis of unclear genesis, thrombosis of cerebral and abdominal veins, thrombocytopenia and macrocytosis and also patients with AA, myelodysplastic syndrome, myelofibrosis. The international protocol recommended by the International Society of Clinical Cytometry (2010) is implemented to diagnose night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The original technique of evaluation of reticulocytes was developed with purpose to detect night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone. The high correlation was substantiated between size of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone measured among reticulocytes according to proposed mode and night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone measured among granulocytes and monocytes detected according international standardized approach.
- Eculizumab epitope on complement C5: Progress towards a better understanding of the mechanism of action. [Journal Article]
- Mol Immunol 2016; 77:126-31MI
- Eculizumab is an anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody which has greatly improved the prognosis and outcomes of nocturnal paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic and uremic syndromes. It is...
Eculizumab is an anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody which has greatly improved the prognosis and outcomes of nocturnal paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic and uremic syndromes. It is also known to be very species-specific for human C5, despite an important degree of conservation of the targeted macroglobulin domain, MG7, with that of other primates. However, the published eculizumab linear epitope does not explain this species specificity. Sequence analysis, in silico docking and reverse phase protein array were implemented to fully characterize the eculizumab epitope on human complement C5. Several residues potentially involved in the species specificity were identified outside the known epitope by sequence analysis. In silico docking confirmed the implication of a beta-hairpin located between residues 913 and 922, outside the known epitope, in the binding of eculizumab to C5. This beta-hairpin spreads from S913 to I922 and contains a tryptophan residue on position 917 which is unique to humans. The contribution of both this peptide and the already known one epitope, which spreads between residues C883 and S891, was validated by reverse phase protein assay, clearly demonstrating the discontinuous nature of the epitope. Two residues in particular, Arg885 and Trp917, were defined as major participants in the interaction of C5 and eculizumab. Their important role was confirmed by the recent publication of a crystal structure of eculizumab Fab bound to C5. The beta-hairpin not only explains the fine species specificity of eculizumab but is also an important site at the C5/C5 convertase interface, revealing how eculizumab acts as a competitor of C5 convertases.
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- Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells as a potential source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplant in PNH patients. [Journal Article]
- Ann Hematol 2016; 95(10):1617-25AH
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hemolytic anemia caused by lack of CD55 and CD59 on blood cell membrane leading to increased sensitivity of blood cells to complement. Hematop...
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hemolytic anemia caused by lack of CD55 and CD59 on blood cell membrane leading to increased sensitivity of blood cells to complement. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for PNH, however, lack of HLA-matched donors and post-transplant complications are major concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients are an attractive source for generating autologous HSCs to avoid adverse effects resulting from allogeneic HSCT. The disease involves only HSCs and their progeny; therefore, other tissues are not affected by the mutation and may be used to produce disease-free autologous HSCs. This study aimed to derive PNH patient-specific iPSCs from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), characterize and differentiate to hematopoietic cells using a feeder-free protocol. Analysis of CD55 and CD59 expression was performed before and after reprogramming, and hematopoietic differentiation. Patients' dermal fibroblasts expressed CD55 and CD59 at normal levels and the normal expression remained after reprogramming. The iPSCs derived from PNH patients had typical pluripotent properties and differentiation capacities with normal karyotype. After hematopoietic differentiation, the differentiated cells expressed early hematopoietic markers (CD34 and CD43) with normal CD59 expression. The iPSCs derived from HDFs of PNH patients have normal levels of CD55 and CD59 expression and hold promise as a potential source of HSCs for autologous transplantation to cure PNH patients.