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Marchiafava Micheli syndrome [keywords]
- Eculizumab in the Treatment of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephron Clin Pract 2014 Nov 11.
A major shift in our understanding of the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) lesion is the focus on which components of the complement pathway are involved in mediating renal injury. Hence, MPGN is no longer classified solely by ultrastructural findings on biopsy but instead divided into immune complex-mediated lesions versus complement-mediated lesions. This emphasis on complement, in turn, leads to interest in therapies that target complement as potential disease-modifying agents. Eculizumab, the first available anticomplement therapy, blocks at the level of C5 and has revolutionized the treatment of complement-mediated diseases such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Whether this agent will work equally well for the far more heterogeneous complement-mediated MPGN lesions, also known as C3 glomerulopathy, remains unclear. To date, the experience and published data on using eculizumab in MPGN suggests this agent will work for some, but not all, patients with this pathologic lesion. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms and recurrent thrombotic events in patients undergoing liver transplantation for budd-Chiari syndrome: a single-center experience. [Journal Article]
- Ann Transplant 2014.:591-7.
Background Budd-Chiari syndrome is a heterogeneous disease. The role of liver transplantation as a treatment option has been discussed since 1976. Many cases are related to underlying myeloproliferative neoplasms associated with prothrombotic propensity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome after liver transplantation for Budd-Chiari syndrome at our center, with special emphasis on recurrent thrombosis and underlying myeloproliferative disorders. Material and Methods A medical records search revealed 25 patients transplanted at our center for Budd-Chiari syndrome between 2000 and 2009. Indications for transplantation were complications of end-stage liver disease or acute liver failure. Results Ten patients were men (40.0%). Median age of recipients at transplantation was 29.0 (17-51) years. Eighteen patients (72%) had evidence of myeloproliferation, 1 had paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and 6 had idiopathic disease. In 55.5% of cases eventually diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms, Budd-Chiari syndrome was their initial presentation. All patients were maintained on long-term post-transplant anticoagulation protocol. The median follow-up time was 58.8 months. Four patients (16%) died during follow-up. Acute graft rejection occurred in 16% of cases. During the observation period, 5 patients had recurrent thrombotic events. The 5-year patient and graft survival rate was 84%. No case of transformation to acute leukemia was seen. Conclusions Our data show satisfactory long-term survival of patients and grafts in the study group. Occult course of myeloproliferative neoplasms is frequent in this population and exceeds 50%. We observed recurrent thrombosis in 20% of recipients.
- Extracellular vesicles in hematological disorders. [Journal Article]
- Rambam Maimonides Med J 2014 Oct; 5(4):e0032.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), comprised of exosomes, microparticles, apoptotic bodies, and other microvesicles, are shed from a variety of cells upon cell activation or apoptosis. EVs promote clot formation, mediate pro-inflammatory processes, transfer proteins and miRNA to cells, and induce cell signaling that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. This paper will review the contribution of EVs in hematological disorders, including hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease, thalassemia), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hematological malignancies (lymphomas, myelomas, and acute and chronic leukemias).
- Eculizumab for treating patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014.:CD010340.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a chronic, not malignant, disease of the hematopoietic stem cells, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 1.3 new cases per one million individuals per year. The treatment of PNH has been largely empirical and symptomatic, with blood transfusions, anticoagulation, and supplementation with folic acid or iron. Eculizumab, a biological agent that inhibits complement cascade, was developed for preventing hemolytic anemia and severe thrombotic episodes.To assess the clinical benefits and harms of eculizumab for treating patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).We conducted a comprehensive search strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 to 15 May 2014), EMBASE (from 1980 to 25 June 2014), and LILACS (from 1982 to 25 June 2014). We did not apply any language restrictions.We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) irrespective of their publication status or language. No limits were applied with respect to period of follow-up. We excluded quasi-RCTs. We included trials comparing eculizumab with placebo or best available therapy. We included any patient with a confirmed diagnosis of PNH. Primary outcome was overall survival.We independently performed a duplicate selection of eligible trials, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean differences (MDs) and 95% CIs for continuous outcomes. We used a random-effects model for analysis.We identified one multicenter (34 sites) phase III RCT involving 87 participants. The trial compared eculizumab versus placebo, and was conducted in the US, Canada, Europe, and Australia with 26 weeks of follow-up. This small trial had high risk of bias in many domains (attrition and selective reporting). It was sponsored by a pharmaceutical company. No patients died during the study. By using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (scores can range from 0 to 100, with higher scores on the global health status and functioning scales indicating improvement), the trial showed improvement in health-related quality of life in patients treated with eculizumab (mean difference (MD) 19.4, 95% CI 8.25 to 30.55; P = 0.0007; low quality of evidence). By using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue instrument (scores can range from 0 to 52, with higher scores indicating improvement in fatigue), the trial showed a reduction in fatigue (MD 10.4, 95% CI 9.97 to 10.83; P = 0.00001; moderate quality of evidence) in the eculizumab group compared with placebo. Eculizumab compared with placebo showed a greater proportion of patients with transfusion independence: 51% (22/43) versus 0% (0/44); risk ratio (RR) 46.02, 95% CI 2.88 to 735.53; P = 0.007; moderate quality of evidence; and withdrawal for any reason: 4.7% (2/43) versus 22.72% (10/44); RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.88; P = 0.03; moderate quality of evidence. Due to the low rate of events observed, the included trial did not show any difference between eculizumab and placebo in terms of serious adverse events: 9.3% (4/43) versus 20.4% (9/44); RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.37; P = 0.16; low quality of evidence. We did not observe any difference between intervention and placebo for the most frequent adverse events. One participant receiving placebo showed an episode of thrombosis. The trial did not assess overall survival, transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia, or development or recurrence of aplastic anemia on treatment.This review has detected an absence of evidence for eculizumab compared with placebo for treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), in terms of overall survival, nonfatal thrombotic events, transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia, and development and recurrence of aplastic anemia on treatment. Current evidence indicates that compared with placebo, eculizumab increases health-related quality of life and increases transfusion independence. During the execution of the included trial, no patients died. Furthermore, the intervention seems to reduce fatigue and withdrawals for any reason. The safety profile of eculizumab is unclear. These conclusions are based on one small trial with risk of attrition and selective reporting bias.Therefore, prescription of eculizumab for treating patients with PNH can neither be supported nor rejected, unless new evidence from a large high quality trial alters this conclusion. Therefore, we urge the reader to interpret the trial results with much caution. Future trials on this issue should be conducted according to the SPIRIT statement and reported according to the CONSORT statement by independent investigators, and using the Foundation of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research recommendations.
- A Novel Antibody against Human Factor B that Blocks Formation of the C3bB Proconvertase and Inhibits Complement Activation in Disease Models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Immunol 2014 Oct 29.
The alternative pathway (AP) is critical for the efficient activation of complement regardless of the trigger. It is also a major player in pathogenesis, as illustrated by the long list of diseases in which AP activation contributes to pathology. Its relevance to human disease is further emphasized by the high prevalence of pathogenic inherited defects and acquired autoantibodies disrupting components and regulators of the AP C3-convertase. Because pharmacological downmodulation of the AP emerges as a broad-spectrum treatment alternative, there is a powerful interest in developing new molecules to block formation and/or activity of the AP C3-convertase. In this paper, we describe the generation of a novel mAb targeting human factor B (FB). mAb FB48.4.2, recognizing with high affinity an evolutionary-conserved epitope in the Ba fragment of FB, very efficiently inhibited formation of the AP C3-proconvertase by blocking the interaction between FB and C3b. In vitro assays using rabbit and sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that FB28.4.2 was a potent AP inhibitor that blocked complement-mediated hemolysis in several species. Using ex vivo models of disease we demonstrated that FB28.4.2 protected paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes from complement-mediated hemolysis and inhibited both C3 fragment and C5b-9 deposition on ADP-activated HMEC-1 cells, an experimental model for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Moreover, i.v. injection of FB28.4.2 in rats blocked complement activation in rat serum and prevented the passive induction of experimental autoimmune Myasthenia gravis. As a whole, these data demonstrate the potential value of FB28.4.2 for the treatment of disorders associated with AP complement dysregulation in man and animal models.
- [The evaluation and comparative characteristic of detection of clone of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria on reticulocytes using the technique of flow cytometry]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Klin Lab Diagn 2014 Jul; 59(7):25-8, 40.
The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare clonal disease characterized by somatic mutation of gene PIG-A at the level of stem hematopoietic cell. This process results in disorder of synthesis of glycosil phosphatidyl innozitol (GPI) anchor fixing numerous molecules on membrane of blood cells which protect blood cells from impact of complement. The international society of clinical cytometry (2010) proposed the guidelines of detection of clone of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria among erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. The original technique is proposed to evaluate the clone of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in reticulocyte population of blood using method of flow cytofluorometry. The sampling of 160 samples of blood of patients with clinical symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and anemia was analyzed. Two modes of gatedrawing were applied--using monoclonal antibodies to CD71 (receptor to transferrin) and reagent BD ReticCount. The high correlation was established between size of reticulocytic clone of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria evaluated by CD71 and size of granulocytic and monocytic clone of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The developed panel (CD71/CD235a/CD59) can be applied for screening and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
- Biomechanical properties of red blood cells in health and disease towards microfluidics. [Journal Article, Review]
- Biomicrofluidics 2014 Sep; 8(5):051501.
Red blood cells (RBCs) possess a unique capacity for undergoing cellular deformation to navigate across various human microcirculation vessels, enabling them to pass through capillaries that are smaller than their diameter and to carry out their role as gas carriers between blood and tissues. Since there is growing evidence that red blood cell deformability is impaired in some pathological conditions, measurement of RBC deformability has been the focus of numerous studies over the past decades. Nevertheless, reports on healthy and pathological RBCs are currently limited and, in many cases, are not expressed in terms of well-defined cell membrane parameters such as elasticity and viscosity. Hence, it is often difficult to integrate these results into the basic understanding of RBC behaviour, as well as into clinical applications. The aim of this review is to summarize currently available reports on RBC deformability and to highlight its association with various human diseases such as hereditary disorders (e.g., spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, ovalocytosis, and stomatocytosis), metabolic disorders (e.g., diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity), adenosine triphosphate-induced membrane changes, oxidative stress, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Microfluidic techniques have been identified as the key to develop state-of-the-art dynamic experimental models for elucidating the significance of RBC membrane alterations in pathological conditions and the role that such alterations play in the microvasculature flow dynamics.
- A paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria progress with waldenström macroglobulinemia along with T cell monoclonal expansion. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014 Sep; 30(Suppl 1):227-31.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell clinical disease, which has been reported associated with T cell monoclonal expansion and plasma cell dyscrasias. There we reported a case with a 20-year clinical history of PNH. Lately diagnosis of Waldenström macroglobulinemia with the offered evidences of bone marrow examination, flow cytometry and immunofixation electrophoresis. T cell monoclonal expansion was established by polymerase chain reaction. Meanwhile the decreased expression of CD55 and CD59 on neutrophils and erythrocyte were obvious observed. Here we describe the diagnostic evaluation of this patient and provide a brief review of such clonal disorder.
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aplastic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: current evidence and recommendations. [Journal Article]
- Expert Rev Hematol 2014 Dec; 7(6):775-89.
Aplastic anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by pancytopenia and an empty bone marrow. Standard treatments for AA include immunosuppressive therapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). BMT is the preferred option for young AA patients with a sibling donor, whereas in older patients or in those to be grafted from an unrelated donor BMT is exploited as second-line treatment. Current results of BMT for AA demonstrate cure rates up to 80 and 70% in BMT from HLA-matched siblings and unrelated donor, respectively, with age and stem cell source largely affecting the outcome. BMT is also a potential treatment option for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, a rare hematological disorder characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, thrombophilia and bone marrow failure.