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Marchiafava Micheli syndrome [keywords]
- Hemoglobinuria misidentified as hematuria: review of discolored urine and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Med Insights Blood Disord 2013.:7-17.
Discolored urine is a common reason for office visits to a primary care physician and urology referral. Early differentiation of the type or cause of discolored urine is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prompt management. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disorder caused by acquired somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene on the X- chromosome of hemopoietic stem cells and leads to deficiency of surface membrane anchor proteins. The deficiency of these proteins leads to an increased risk of hemolysis of erythrocytes and structural damage of platelets, resulting in a clinical syndrome characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and venous thrombosis. Patients with this clinical syndrome present with paroxysms of hemolysis, causing hemoglobinuria manifesting as discolored urine. This can be easily confused with other common causes of discolored urine and result in extensive urologic work-up. Three commonly confused entities of discolored urine include hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Specific characteristics in a dipstick test or urinalysis can guide differentiation of these three causes of discolored urine. This article begins with a case summary of a woman presenting with cranberry-colored urine and a final delayed diagnosis of paryxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Her hemoglobinuria was misdiagnosed as hematuria, leading to extensive urologic work-up. The article also gives an overview of the approach to diagnosing and treating discolored urine.
- Pregnancy and delivery in a PNH patient treated with eculizumab. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rinsho Ketsueki 2014; 55(11):2288-2293.
We report a 37-year-old pregnant woman with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) treated with eculizumab. She had been diagnosed with PNH-aplastic anemia at age 19 years, and started to receive eculizumab at age 35 years. Thereafter, she had no hemolytic attacks. She became pregnant 2 years later, and treatment with eculizumab was continued. During her pregnancy, she showed no exacerbation of hemolysis. She delivered a girl by Caesarean section at 37 weeks and 3 days of gestation. Postpartum, anticoagulant therapy was started. Although mild hemolysis and a rise in FDP/Ddimer were seen, she had no symptoms of thrombosis. Ten days after delivery, she and her baby were discharged. Eculizumab was present in the first breast milk and cord blood but was below detectable levels. The cord blood showed blockage of hemolysis.
- Eculizumab effect on the hemostatic state in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood Cells Mol Dis 2014 Dec 5.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state associated with acute hemolysis. Eculizumab is used to reduce the intensity of intravascular hemolysis in PNH patients. The hemostatic status of three patients with PNH was assessed during eculizumab treatment by D-dimer assay and the global assays: thromboelastography (TEG), thrombin generation test (TGТ), and thrombodynamics (TD). In the state of hemolytic crisis before the therapy D-dimer concentration was increased in two patients accompanied by hypercoagulation changes in TEG parameter angle (α). TD parameter the clot growth velocity (V) revealed hypercoagulability while TGT parameter ETP was within the normal range in all patients. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity decreased during the 8months of eculizumab therapy. The physical health was improved, the frequency of hemolytic crisis decreased. Patients periodically exhibited hypercoagulable state: the mean values α=38±11° (with normal range 20-40°), ETP=1311±442nM·min (with normal range 800-1560nM·min), V=31±4μm/min (with normal range 20-29μm/min). During the eculizumab therapy two patients had the repeated clinical manifestation of acute hemolytic crisis, the parameters of the global tests were increased compared to the previous measurement. The global hemostasis tests TEG, TGT and TD revealed hypercoagulability in patients with PNH during eculizumab therapy.
- Acquired somatic mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) in preleukemic disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood Cells Mol Dis 2014 Nov 26.
Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase isoform 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes have been identified in glioblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little is known about the molecular alterations of IDH genes in preleukemic disorders with a propensity to transform to AML. We performed polymerase chain reaction-denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (PCR-DHPLC) followed by direct sequencing to detect IDH mutations in 237 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs; n=108), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n=22), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH; n=41), and aplastic anemia (AA; n=66). No IDH1 R132 and IDH2 R172 mutations were identified in the entire cohort, whereas IDH1 G105G allele was detected in 4/108 MPN (3.70%), 2/22 MDS (9.09%), and 2/41 PNH (4.88%) patients. Three IDH2 R140Q mutations were found in 2/108 MPN (1.85%) and 1/22 MDS (4.54%) patients, while one IDH2 G145G allele was found in 0.92% (1/108) of MPN patients. Overall, our data suggest that IDH mutations are rare in the preleukemic disorders and may not be the major initial step in AML leukemogenesis.
- Assessing complement blockade in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria receiving eculizumab. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood 2014 Dec 4.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, effectively controlled with eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds complement protein C5. The residual functional activity of complement protein 5 (C5) can be screened using a CH50 assay, which is sensitive to the reduction, absence and/or inactivity of any components of the classical and terminal complement pathway. Little data exist on complement blockade during treatment. From 2010 to 2012, clinical data, hemolysis biomarkers, complement assessment and free eculizumab circulating levels were systematically measured immediately prior to every single injection given to 22 patients with hemolytic PNH while receiving eculizumab therapy. During the study, six patients received at least one red blood cell transfusion. Lack of detectable CH50 activity (defined by CH50 ≤10% of normal values) was found in 184 samples (51%) and was significantly associated with lower lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) levels (p=0.002). Low levels of circulating free eculizumab (<50 µg/ml) correlated with detectable CH50 activity (CH50>10%) (p=0.004), elevated bilirubin levels (p<0.0001), and the need for transfusions (p=0.034). This study suggests that both CH50 activity and circulating free eculizumab levels may help physicians to manage PNH patients receiving eculizumab.
- Eculizumab treatment during pregnancy does not affect the complement system activity of the newborn. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Immunobiology 2014 Nov 13.
Eculizumab is a humanized IgG2/4 chimeric anti-complement C5 antibody used to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) or atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the complement activity in newborns from pregnant women who receive eculizumab is impaired. A novel eculizumab-C5 complex (E-C5) specific assay was developed and revealed that two newborns carried only 6-7% of the E-C5 detected in their eculizumab-treated PNH mothers. Serum from the pregnant women completely lacked terminal complement pathway activity, whereas the complement activity in the serum of the newborns was completely normal. Data from the pregnant women and their newborns were compared with that of healthy age-matched female controls and healthy newborns, as well as a non-treated pregnant woman with PNH and her newborn. These all showed normal complement activity without detectable E-C5 complexes. Furthermore, absence of eculizumab or E-C5 in the newborn could not be explained by lack of eculizumab binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), as eculizumab bound strongly to the receptor in vitro. In conclusion, despite binding to FcRn neither eculizumab nor E-C5 accumulates in fetal plasma, and eculizumab treatment during pregnancy does not impair the complement function in the newborn.
- Anticomplement C5 therapy with eculizumab for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. [REVIEW]
- Transl Res 2014 Oct 20.
The complement inhibitor eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against C5. It was developed to specifically target cleavage of C5 thus preventing release of C5a and activation of the terminal pathway. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are 2 diseases with distinctly different underlying molecular mechanisms. In PNH, progeny of hematopoietic stem cells that harbor somatic mutations lead to a population of peripheral blood cells that are deficient in complement regulators resulting in hemolysis and thrombosis. In aHUS, germline mutations in complement proteins or their regulators fail to protect the glomerular endothelium from complement activation resulting in thrombotic microangiopathy and renal failure. Critical to the development of either disease is activation of the terminal complement pathway. Understanding this step has led to the study of eculizumab as a treatment for these diseases. In clinical trials, eculizumab is proven to be effective and safe in PNH and aHUS.
- Multiparameter FLAER-based flow cytometry for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria enhances detection rates in patients with aplastic anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Hematol 2014 Dec 4.
Flow cytometry is the gold standard methodology for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In the last few years, proaerolysin conjugated with fluorescein (FLAER) has become an important component of antibody panel used for the detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone. This study aimed to compare PNH clone detection by flow cytometry in the pre-FLAER era versus the FLAER era. This was a retrospective analysis of 4 years and included 1004 individuals screened for PNH clone, either presenting as hemolytic anemia or as aplastic anemia. In the pre-FLAER time period, the RBCs and neutrophils were screened with antibodies against CD55 and CD59. With the introduction of FLAER, neutrophils were screened with FLAER/CD24/CD15 and monocytes with FLAER/CD14/CD33 combination. A comparative analysis was done for detection of PNH clone in aplastic anemia patients versus non-aplastic anemia patients, as well as between pre-FLAER and FLAER era. Out of a total of 1004 individuals, 59 (5.8 %) were detected to have PNH clone positivity. The frequency of PNH clone detected in aplastic anemia and non-aplastic anemia groups was 12.02 and 3.36 %, respectively. The detection rate of PNH clone increased from 4.5 % (32/711) in the pre-FLAER era to 9.2 % (27/293) with the introduction of FLAER. However, this increase could be attributed to increased detection of PNH clone in the aplastic anemia group, which showed a significant increase from 8.3 to 18.2 % after use of FLAER. In the non-aplastic group, PNH clone was detected with similar frequencies before and after use of FLAER (3.2 versus 3.8 %, respectively). Mean PNH clone size was lower in the aplastic anemia group when compared with the non-aplastic group. RBCs always showed a lower clone size than neutrophils. PNH clone on neutrophils and monocytes was however similar. Inclusion of FLAER increases the sensitivity of the test which is especially useful in picking up small PNH clones in patients of aplastic anemia.
- Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation (AA&MDSIF): Bone Marrow Failure Disease Scientific Symposium 2014. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Leuk Res 2014 Nov 16.
Bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) are characterized by a failure of the hematopoietic stem cells to produce adequate blood cells, resulting in either cytopenia (defect in one or more blood cell lineages) or pancytopenia (defect in all blood cell lineages). BMFS can be inherited or acquired. The pathogenesis of these diseases is very heterogeneous. Research efforts have been made all over the world to improve the basic knowledge of these diseases. The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AA&MDSIF) is an independent nonprofit organization whose mission is to help patients and family members cope with BMFS. Here, we summarize novel scientific discoveries in several BMFS that were presented at the 4th International Bone Marrow Failure Disease Scientific Symposium 2014 that AA&MDSIF sponsored on March 27-28, 2014, in Rockville, MD.
- Thrombotic risk factors in Chinese nonmalignant and noncirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis: an observational study with a systematic review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Jan; 27(1):77-83.
Until now, no data on the routine screening for thrombotic risk factors in Chinese nonmalignant and noncirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) have been reported.A total of 141 nonmalignant and noncirrhotic patients with PVT who underwent screening tests for thrombotic risk factors between September 2009 and August 2012 were included in this study.The JAK2 V617F mutation was found in 35 of the 141 patients tested. Neither the JAK2 exon 12 mutation nor the MPL W515 L/K mutation was found in any of the 50 patients tested. Overt myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) were diagnosed in 13 patients (polycythemia vera, n=1; essential thrombocythemia, n=9; idiopathic myelofibrosis, n=3). Latent MPNs were considered in 23 patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation but without any significant abnormalities, as determined through regular blood tests. Anticardiolipin IgG antibodies were positive in none of the 136 patients tested. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was not found in any of the 141 patients tested. Neither the factor V G1691A mutation nor the factor II G20210A mutation was found in any of the 72 patients tested. The C677T mutation in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was found in 29 of the 38 patients tested. Hyperhomocysteinemia was detected in eight of the 39 patients tested.MPNs are an important thrombotic risk factor in Chinese patients with PVT. However, the extreme rarity of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, anticardiolipin IgG antibodies, and factor V G1691A and factor II G20210A mutations has precluded any support for the implementation of routine screening for these thrombotic factors in such patients. Additional case-control studies should confirm the role of the MTHFR C677T mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis of PVT.