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Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia [keywords]
- Hematological and Genetic Predictors of Daytime Hemoglobin Saturation in Tanzanian Children with and without Sickle Cell Anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ISRN Hematol 2013.:472909.
Low hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) is common in Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) and associated with complications including stroke, although determinants remain unknown. We investigated potential hematological, genetic, and nutritional predictors of daytime SpO2 in Tanzanian children with SCA and compared them with non-SCA controls. Steady-state resting pulse oximetry, full blood count, transferrin saturation, and clinical chemistry were measured. Median daytime SpO2 was 97% (IQ range 94-99%) in SCA (N = 458), lower (P < 0.0001) than non-SCA (median 99%, IQ range 98-100%; N = 394). Within SCA, associations with SpO2 were observed for hematological variables, transferrin saturation, body-mass-index z-score, hemoglobin F (HbF%), genotypes, and hemolytic markers; mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) explained most variability (P < 0.001, Adj r (2) = 0.09). In non-SCA only age correlated with SpO2. α-thalassemia 3.7 deletion highly correlated with decreased MCH (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.60, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models, lower SpO2 correlated with higher MCH (β-coefficient -0.32, P < 0.001) or with decreased copies of α-thalassemia 3.7 deletion (β-coefficient 1.1, P < 0.001), and independently in both models with lower HbF% (β-coefficient 0.15, P < 0.001) and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase genotype (β-coefficient -1.12, P = 0.012). This study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that effects on red cell rheology are important in determining SpO2 in children with SCA. Potential mechanisms and implications are discussed.
- Autoimmune Cytopenias in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Dev Immunol 2013.:730131.
The clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be complicated at any time by autoimmune phenomena.The most common ones are hematologic disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune agranulocytosis (AG) are, indeed, more rarely seen. However, they are probably underestimated due to the possible misleading presence of cytopenias secondary to leukemic bone marrow involvement or to chemotherapy cytotoxicity. The source of autoantibodies is still uncertain, despite the most convincing data are in favor of the involvement of resting normal B-cells. In general, excluding the specific treatment of underlying CLL, the managementof these complications is not different from that of idiopathic autoimmune cytopenias or of those associated to other causes. Among different therapeutic approaches, monoclonal antibody rituximab, given alone or in combination, has shown to be very effective.
- Peritoneal EMH in a Dog with Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2013 May 20.
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the process by which normal blood cells are produced outside the bone marrow. In humans, EMH effusions are rare and are characterized by the presence of megakaryocytes, immature erythrocytes, immature leukocytes, or combinations of those cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe a case of peritoneal EMH effusion in a dog. A 5 yr old castrated male shorthaired dachshund presented with a 2 day history of pigmenturia and inappetence. A complete blood count revealed regenerative anemia with marked agglutination, spherocytosis, and an acute inflammatory leukogram characterized by a neutrophilia, regenerative left shift, and monocytosis. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of peritoneal effusion yielded a sample of high nucleated cellularity predominantly composed of mature and immature neutrophils and erythroid precursor cells. The patient was diagnosed with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia with concurrent EMH peritoneal effusion. The following case description and discussion explore the clinical findings associated with the unusual effusion and outline the possible pathogenesis by which the EMH effusion may have arisen in the dog.
- MRI Findings in a Dog with Kernicterus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2013 May 20.
A severe increase in total bilirubin coincided with a decline in neurologic status to comatose in a 9 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog being treated for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. MRI of the brain was performed to investigate potential causes for the neurologic signs. MRI revealed bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities within the caudate nuclei, globus pallidus, thalamus, deep cerebellar nuclei, and cortical gray matter on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, which coincided with areas of bilirubin deposition and neuronal necrosis (kernicterus) identified on necropsy examination. This is the second case report of an adult dog exhibiting kernicterus, and the first report to document MRI findings associated with that condition. Kernicterus is an uncommonly reported complication of hyperbilirubinemia in dogs, but is potentially underreported due to difficulties in recognizing subtle lesions and distinguishing kernicterus from other potential causes of neurologic abnormalities with readily available antemortem tests. MRI may be helpful in supporting the diagnosis of kernicterus.
- Current Approaches for the Treatment of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2013 May 21.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an infrequent group of diseases defined by autoantibody mediated red blood cell destruction. Correct diagnosis and classification of this condition are essential to provide appropriate treatment. AIHA is divided into warm and cold types according to the characteristics of the autoantibody involved and by the presence of an underlying or associated disorder into primary and secondary AIHA. Due to its low frequency, treatment for AIHA is largely based on small prospective trials, case series, and empirical observations. This review describes in detail the different treatment approaches for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Warm antibody type AIHA should be treated with steroids, to which most patients respond, although relapse can occur and maintenance doses are frequently required. Splenectomy is an effective second line treatment and can provide long-term remission without medication. Rituximab is a useful alternative for steroid refractory patients, those requiring high maintenance doses and unfavorable candidates for surgery. Promising therapeutic modifications with this monoclonal antibody are emerging including drug combinations, lower doses, and long-term use. Primary cold agglutinin disease has been recognized as having a lymphoproliferative monoclonal origin. It is unresponsive to both steroids and splenectomy. Rituximab is currently the best therapeutic alternative for this condition, and several treatment regimens are available with variable responses.
- Severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia with renal neoplasm. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Surg Int 2013 May 16.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia characterized by autoantibodies directed against red blood cells shortening their survival. When autoimmune hemolytic anemia is secondary to a paraneoplastic process, severe anemia can occur leading to significant morbidity and even mortality. Here we discuss the literature and present the case of a child with autoimmune hemolytic anemia from a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to a renal tumor.
- Drug-induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Successfully Treated with Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin. [Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2013; 52(10):1111-4.
A 61-year-old woman with recurrent non-small cell lung cancer presented with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, neurological abnormalities, renal failure and a fever that appeared during chemotherapy with gemcitabine and bevacizumab. She was diagnosed with drug-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). After the discontinuation of chemotherapy, the administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin and fresh-frozen plasma rapidly ameliorated the TTP. Hypertension preceded the onset of TTP and required the administration of quadruple therapy on admission. However, after three months, the hypertension was controllable without anti-hypertensive drugs. Twelve months later, the ninth course of vinorelbine was administered safely, preventing the patient's lung cancer from progressing.
- Aspergillosis after liver transplantation in the context of common variable immunodeficiency: case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transpl Infect Dis 2013 May 15.
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immune defect, resulting in hypogammaglobulinemia as well as deficits in cell-mediated immunity. Although it mainly manifests in immunodeficiency and related infection, CVID can also be associated with autoimmune phenomena such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, primary biliary cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). AIH is a less common but serious complication of CVID, which can result in early cirrhosis, ascites, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we discuss a recent case of transplantation for cirrhosis secondary to AIH in the context of CVID. Although the patient's surgery occurred without complication, he rapidly developed fulminant alveolar hemorrhage and seizures, and died secondary to disseminated neuroaspergillosis.
- Innate and adaptive immunity in immune thrombocytopenia. [Journal Article]
- Semin Hematol 2013 Jan.:S68-70.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by both accelerated clearance of autoantibody-sensitized platelets and suboptimal platelet production. A number of studies have provided evidence of disturbed innate and adaptive immune responses in patients with ITP. This brief review will highlight some of the more recent work in this field and highlight other findings that provide a potential link between ITP, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA).
- Fatal overwhelming postsplenectomy infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers within 1 year after delivery: case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Infect Chemother 2013 May 15.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has a high mortality. Although preventive strategies including vaccination have been established for children, less attention has been devoted to pregnant and postnatal women and to mothers caring for their infants. As a significant number of women have either undergone splenectomy or are in a hyposplenic state and have not received adequate pneumococcal vaccinations, they can potentially develop overwhelming postsplenectomy infections. A 34-year-old woman with an 8-month-old baby, who underwent splenectomy at the age of 10 for benign pancreatic tumor, presented with fever and petechial eruption. Despite extensive treatment, she died 17 h after admission. A 40-year-old woman with a 11-month-old baby, who underwent splenectomy at 2 years of age for hemolytic anemia, was admitted for septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Despite extensive treatment, she died 2 h after admission. Blood cultures from both women were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and neither of them had been vaccinated against the bacterium. IPD rapidly progressed and developed to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes in mothers caring for their infants, particularly those who had undergone splenectomy or were in a hyposplenic state. Thus, routine pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for pregnant women. In addition, we suggest a thorough medical interview and checkup for splenectomy or hyposplenism in prenatal women.